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The Clique du Château or Château Clique was a group of wealthy families in Lower Canada in the early 19th century. They were the Lower Canadian equivalent of the Family Compact in Upper Canada. They were also known on the electoral scene as the Parti bureaucrate (Bureaucratic Party, also known as the British Party or the Tory Party).
Like the Family Compact, the Château Clique gained most of its influence after the War of 1812. Most of the families in the Clique were British merchants, although some were French Canadian seigneurs who felt that their own interests were best served by an affiliation with this group. Some of the most prominent members were brewer John Molson and James McGill, founder of McGill University. Generally, they wanted the French Canadian majority of Lower Canada to assimilate to English culture. This included the abolition of the seigneurial system, replacing French civil law with British common law, and replacing the established Roman Catholic Church with the Anglican Church. Their efforts led to the Act of Union (1840), which ultimately failed to assimilate all French Canadians but succeeded in preventing their[who?] political and economic interests from prevailing over those of Britain. The Château Clique also had control over the Crown Lands and the Clergy Reserves, albeit much less than the Family Compact because of the already existing Seigniorial system implemented.
The Constitutional Act of 1791 had established three branches of government: the Legislative Assembly, an elected lower house; the Legislative Council, an appointed upper house; and the Executive Council, which acted as a kind of cabinet for the lieutenant governor. The governor was appointed by the British Crown, and he appointed members of the Clique as his advisers. The Clique was also able to establish itself in the Legislative Council, leaving the Legislative Assembly, made up of a majority of French-Canadian representatives, with little or no power.
Louis-Joseph Papineau, as a reformer in the Assembly, was one of the fiercest opponents of the Chateau Clique. His struggles against the Clique and the Lieutenant Governor, Lord Gosford, led to the Lower Canada Rebellion in 1837.
After the rebellion, Upper and Lower Canada were united as the Province of Canada, but the Château Clique did not disappear like the Family Compact. While the English-speaking population became the majority, the British-appointed governors still attempted to force the French Canadian population to assimilate. Canada East, as Lower Canada was called after the union, eventually gained some political independence with the union government of Robert Baldwin and Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine.
Owing to the political landscape of Toronto, the modern Family Compact could be said to view itself as a minority group when contrasted to the predominantly left-leaning majority in the City. As such, the modern Family Compact is sometimes referred to as "The C.C." - a tribute to the Château Clique of Quebec - wherein a small, English-speaking Anglo minority exhibited large influence and sway in political affairs, despite holding polar-opposite views to the majority of their peers.
- Jonathan Sewell, member and Speaker of the Legislative Council of Lower Canada
- Jacob Mountain, Archbishop of the Anglican Diocese of Quebec
- William McGillivray, fur trader
- Edward Bowen
- Charles James Stewart, Archbishop of the Anglican Diocese of Quebec
- Horatio Gates, banker
- Peter McGill