Châteauneuf-du-Pape

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For the wine, see Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC.
Châteauneuf-du-Pape
Village of Chateauneuf-du-Pape.JPG
Châteauneuf-du-Pape is located in France
Châteauneuf-du-Pape
Châteauneuf-du-Pape
Coordinates: 44°03′25″N 4°49′55″E / 44.0569°N 4.8319°E / 44.0569; 4.8319Coordinates: 44°03′25″N 4°49′55″E / 44.0569°N 4.8319°E / 44.0569; 4.8319
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Vaucluse
Arrondissement Avignon
Canton Orange-Ouest
Intercommunality Pays de Rhône et Ouvèze
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) Claude Avril
Area
 • Land1 25.85 km2 (9.98 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Population2 2,146
 • Population2 density 83/km2 (220/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 84037 / 84230
Elevation 20–130 m (66–427 ft)
(avg. 117 m or 384 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Drawing from the Album Laincel that dates from the second half of the 17th century

Châteauneuf-du-Pape is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The village lies about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) to the east of the Rhône and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of the town of Avignon.

A ruined mediaeval castle sits at the top of the village and dominates the landscape to the south. It was built in the 14th century for Pope John XXII, the second of the popes who resided in Avignon. The commune is famous for the production of red wine and almost all the cultivable land is planted with vines.

Toponym[edit]

The first mention of the village is in a Latin document from 1094 that uses the name Castro Novo. The term castrum or castro in the 11th century was used to denote a fortified village, rather than a castle (castellum). The current French name of "Châteauneuf" (English: "New Castle") is derived from this early Latin name and not from the ruined 14th-century castle that towers above the village. Just over a century later in 1213 the village was referred to as Castronovum Calcernarium. Other early documents use Castronovo Caussornerio or Castrum Novum Casanerii. The official French name became Châteauneuf Calcernier. The word 'Calcernier' comes from the presence of important lime kilns in the village. Calcernarium is derived from the Latin calx for lime and cernere means sift or sieve. From the 16th century the village was often referred to as "Châteauneuf du Pape" or "Châteauneuf Calcernier dit de Pape", because of the connection with Pope John XXII, but it was not until 1893 that the official name was changed from "Châteauneuf Calcernier" to "Châteauneuf-du-Pape".[1][2]

History[edit]

Early settlement[edit]

The earliest settlement is believed to have been near the Chapel Saint-Théodoric, to the east of the centre of the present village. This Romanesque chapel was erected by the monks of the abbey of Saint-Théodoric in Avignon at the end of the 10th or the beginning of the 11th century and is the oldest building in the commune.[3] Although the village lay within the Comtat Venaissin, it was one of the fiefs of the bishop of Avignon and thus had a special status.[4][a]

In the second half of the 11th century a fortified village was built higher up the hill by the Viscount Rostaing Béranger in the fiefdom of his brother, the bishop of Avignon. The wall of the present church building formed part of the fortification and the arrowslits in the clock tower are still visible. Two towers and other vestiges of these early fortifications have survived.[5] The new village would have contained a suitable fortified residence for the bishop which is believed to have been located between the church and the site of the later castle. In the 14th century it would have accommodated Pope Clement V when he stayed in the village.[6]

In 1238 the bishop of Avignon obtained an important privilege from the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (r. 1195-1250). Salt that was shipped on the Rhône and landed at Châteauneuf was not subject to tax. As a result the trade in salt became a considerable source of revenue for the village.[7]

Avignon popes[edit]

Bertrand de Got, archbishop of Bordeaux, was elected pope in 1305, and took the name of Clement V. He transferred the papacy to Avignon in 1309.[8] The register of pontifical letters reveals that Clement V resided in Châteauneuf-du-Pape on several occasions, sometimes for long periods. In 1312 he stayed in the village from 6–22 November, in 1313 from 9 May until 1 July and again from 19 October until 4 December. The following year, 1314, he stayed from 24–30 March. He died in the castle of Roquemaure, on the other side of the Rhône, on 7 April 1314.[8]

The following pope, Jacques Dèze, was elected in 1316, and took the name of John XXII. He had served as the bishop of Avignon between 1310 and 1313 and as bishop had been the seigneur of Châteauneuf-du-Pape. He had arranged for his nephew, Jacques de Via, to succeed him as bishop but on the death of Jacques de Via in 1317, John XXII did not appoint a successor and thus during his papacy the village depended directly on the pope. John XXII initiated a large number of building projects. These included the extension of the Palais des Papes in Avignon as well as defensive castles at Barbentane, Bédarrides, Noves and Sorgues. In 1317, work began on the construction of the castle in Châteauneuf-du-Pape. John XXII would derive little benefit from the new castle as it was only completed in 1333, one year before his death. The ruins of the castle are now a prominent feature of the village.[9]

The next Avignon pope, Benedict XII, (1334-1342), is not recorded as having ever stayed in the castle, but in 1335 he granted the village the right to have a ship mill on the Rhône, a market every Tuesday and two fairs during the year. He appointed a new bishop of Avignon in 1336.[10] None of the following three popes stayed in Châteauneuf-du-Pape but after the schism of the Catholic Church in 1378, the Avignon antipope Clement VII frequently sought the security of the castle and from 1385 to 1387 had important improvements carried out to the building.[11]

In the 14th century, the presence of the papacy in Avignon and the construction of the castle brought considerable prosperity to the village. The economy was based on agriculture, but the villagers also possessed lime kilns and the local merchants supplied roof tiles for the Palais des Papes in Avignon and floor tiles for the castle in Barbentane.[12] The village outgrew the ramparts constructed in the middle of the 11th century and houses were built outside the walls. In 1381 the village obtained permission to impose a local tax to fund the construction of a new system of fortifications around the village. The defensive towers have all disappeared other than Portalet tower in the Rue des Papes but parts of the walls remain.[13]

Pope John XXII's castle[edit]

Surviving south wall of the donjon

In 1317, one year after his election, Pope John XXII ordered the construction of a castle at the top of the hill above the village.[14][15] Most of the stone was imported from a quarry in Courthézon while floor tiles came from Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie.[16] The mortar and the roof tiles were manufactured in the village. To provide water, between August 1318 and July 1319, a large deep well was dug in the courtyard to the northeast of the donjon.[17] According to the papal accounts, much of the work was completed by 1322, but in 1332 there is an entry for the purchase of timber from Liguria for four towers.[17][18] The castle not only had a defensive role, but was also designed to serve as a summer residence. There was a garden on the west side and a park to the north covering 10 ha enclosed by high walls in which vines, olive trees and fruit trees were cultivated.[17]

With the departure of the popes the castle became part of the fief of the bishop and, after 1475, the archbishop of Avignon, but it was much too big and expensive for them to maintain.[19][b] The captain in charge of the village's defence lived in the castle but there was no permanent garrison and most of the buildings were allowed to deteriorate. In the 16th century during the Wars of Religion, the Huguenots occupied Châteauneuf for several months. In March 1563, they pillaged the village and set fire to the church and parts of the castle including the apartments of the pope. The extent of damage is not known.[21]

During the 17th century, and perhaps earlier, the ruined buildings of the castle was used as a source of stone for the construction of houses in the village. The community also used the stone to repair the ramparts (18 to 20 cartloads in 1717) and to repair the church (in 1781).[22] At the time of the Revolution the castle had not been inhabited for a number of years. The buildings and the adjoining park land were put up for sale and bought in July 1797 by Jean-Baptiste Establet, a farmer in the village. The following year, it was resold in 33 equal parts. By 1848 most of the castle had been destroyed by the purchasers.[23] The mayor forbid the destruction of the donjon and in May 1892 the castle was listed as one of the French Historical Monuments.[23][24] During the Second World War, the donjon was used as an observation post by German troops. In August 1944, just before their departure, they attempted to demolish the building with dynamite but by chance, only the northern half of the tower was destroyed, leaving the southern half as it appears today.[25]

There are no surviving plans dating from the 14th century. The earliest depiction of the castle is an anonymous drawing from the Album Laincel in the collection of the Musée Calvet in Avignon that dates from the second half of the 17th century. By this time the castle had not been properly maintained for three centuries and the drawing is probably an interpretation by the artist of the surviving structure. Another source of information is a plan of the village from the 1813 cadastre. which records the position of some of the buildings but not their original function.[26] The appearance of the donjon before the destruction in 1944 is known from old photographs.[27][28]

The main entrance to the castle was on the south side and consisted of two successive gatehouses. The first was on the path up from the church and the second was to the east of the donjon. The vulnerable north side of the castle would have been protected by a deep ditch. The northern entrance was protected by a tower and was probably accessed by a drawbridge. There is very little information on the buildings to the north and east of the donjon, although the castle is known to have included a chapel dedicated to Saint Catherine.[26] The donjon had a ground floor with a low barrel vaulted ceiling and two upper levels with rib vaulted ceilings. The large roof terrace was surrounded by a machicolated battlement. A stone staircase connecting the floors was built into the thickness of the western wall.[29] The entrance on the east side was protected by an unusually tall bretèche. A similar bretèche survives above the entrance to the Tour Philippe-le-Bel in Villeneuve-lès-Avignon.[30]

Parish church[edit]

South side of the church with the main entrance and the bell tower

The parish church is now called "Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption" but over the centuries it has been "Notre-Dame" (1321), "Saint-Théodoric" (1504), "Bienheureuse-Vierge-Marie et Saint-Théodoric" (1601), "Bienheureuse-Vierge-Marie-del'Assomption" (1626) and "Saint-Théodoric" (1707).[31]

The church probably dates from the end of the 11th century when the village was first fortified. It certainly existed in 1155 when a papal bull issued by Adrian IV confirmed that bishop of Avignon possessed "Châteauneuf Calcernier with its churches". Almost nothing survives of the original Romanesque church. It was rectangular in plan with the entrance at the western end. The square tower at the southeast corner which now serves as the bell tower was not part of the early church but formed part of the fortifications of the village. It later housed the municipal archives and in the 16th century supported a clock. The round tower at the northeast corner of the church was also part of the village fortifications but later served as a bell tower. In 1321 Pope John XXII paid for the construction of a side chapel, dedicated to Saint Martin, on the south side of the nave abutting the square tower.[32][33] A second chapel, dedicated to Saint Anne, was constructed in the 16th century near the Saint Martin chapel.[34]

At the end of the 18th century the church was in a bad state of repair and had become too small for the village. Beginning in 1783 the church was extended towards the west and the entrance moved to the south wall. New windows were also created in the south wall of the nave.[35]

In 1835 the square tower was converted into the existing bell tower. In the 19th century, before the arrival of phylloxera, the village was very prosperous. Between 1853 and 1859 it paid for a major enlargement of the church in which side aisles were created either side of the nave. The chapels of Saint-Anne and Saint-Martin were demolished to create the southern aisle. To build the northern aisle, the commune bought land and a house on the other side of the Rue Ancienne Ville and displaced the street to the north.[36]

In 1981 the church was restored and the plaster on the interior walls was removed.[36]

Château de Lhers[edit]

Drawing of the Chateau de Lhers by Étienne Martellange, 1616

The ruined castle of Lhers[c] sits on a limestone outcrop, 3.2 km (2.0 mi) west of the village of Châteauneuf-du-Pape on the left bank of the Rhône.[d] Up to the 18th century there was a village of Lhers associated with this castle. It is mentioned (as Leris) for the first time in a document dated 913 in which Louis the Blind, Count of Provence, gave the castle, one (or two) churches, a port on the Rhône and the land of the parish, to Fouquier,[e] the bishop of Avignon. In 916, Bishop Fouquier gave the churches, the port and the parish to the churches of Notre-Dame and Saint-Étienne in Avignon. Neither the castle nor the income from the tolls collected from boats using the Rhône are mentioned in this document.[38]

The plan of the castle is approximately square (25 m x 23 m), with a round tower at the southeast corner and a square tower at the northwest corner. The north side of the outcrop drops away vertically so there was no need for a defensive wall. A deep well is in the northeast corner. A drawing by the Jesuit architect Étienne Martellange shows the appearance of the castle in 1616.[39] The architecture of the square tower suggests that it was built after the end of the 12th century. Only the ground floor survives. The round tower is later and was probably built at the end of the 14th or beginning of the 15th century. The surviving ruins therefore do not date from the 10th century when the castle is first mentioned in written records. The limestone blocks of the earlier castle were no doubt reused to construct the actual castle.[40]

View of the Château de Lhers with Mont Ventoux on the left and the Château des Papes in the distance to the right

The Rhône was liable to violent floods and the river would change position or bifurcate, creating and destroying islands. The number and the position of the islands varied over the centuries which led to a series of boundaries disputes between the communities of Lhers and Châteauneuf.[31] In the Cassini map of France, dating from the last third of the 18th century, the castle is shown sitting on an island.[41] At the time of the Revolution, the fief of Lhers included land joined to the right bank near Roquemaure, an island near the left bank separated by a small branch of the river, another island in the middle of the Rhône on which sat the castle, several gravel banks and a farm on land that was contiguous with Châteauneuf. The land of the fief was initially considered to be part of the commune of Roquemaure, but in 1820 the castle and the land was transferred to the commune of Châteauneuf-du-Pape.[31] In 1992 the castle was listed as one of the French Historical Monuments. It is privately owned.[42]

Almost nothing survives of the two churches mentioned in the early documents. The church of Sainte-Marie was destroyed during the Revolution. The ruins were visible until the canalization of the Rhône in the 1970s. The other church, dedicated to the Saints Cosmas and Damian, was probably the earlier of the two. It is mentioned in a papal bull issued in 1138 by Pope Adrian IV that confirmed that the bishop of Avignon possessed the fief of Lhers. The church is mentioned again in another document from 1560.[43]

Wine[edit]

Grapevine with the rounded pebbles which are a feature of many of the vineyards in the commune

Although viticulture must have existed in the village well before the arrival of the popes, nothing is known about it. The accounts of the Apostolic Camera show regular purchases of small quantities of wine from the village.[44][45] At the time, wine was difficult to transport and difficult to conserve so most was drunk locally when less than a year old.[46] Wine production expanded in the 18th century with the rapid development of the wine trade. From the correspondence of the Tulle family who owned a vineyard in the commune, we learn that the 40 hectolitres of wine produced was exported to England, Italy, Germany and all over France. In 1923, the local wine producers led by the lawyer Pierre Le Roy de Boiseaumarié began a campaign to establish legal protection for the wine from the commune.[47] The delimited area and the method of wine production were awarded legal recognition in 1933. Small changes to the initial regulations were made in 1936 and 1966.[48]

The wine classified as Châteauneuf-du-Pape Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) is produced from grapes grown in the commune of Châteauneuf-du-Pape as well as in portions of the four adjoining communes in the Vaucluse department. The vineyards cover an area of approximately 3,200 ha. Of this total 1,659 ha (52%) lies within the commune of Châteauneuf, 335 ha (10.5%) within Bédarrides, 674 ha (21.1%) within Courthézon, 391 ha within (12.3%) Orange and remaining 129 ha (4%) within Sorgues.[48] Unlike its northern Rhône neighbours Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC permits thirteen different varieties of grape in red wine but the blend must be predominantly Grenache. There are 320 producers with a total annual production of around 100,000 hectolitres (13 million bottles) of which 95 percent is red. The remainder is white: the production of rosé is not permitted.[47]

Climate[edit]

Châteauneuf-du-Pape has a humid subtropical climate Cfa in the Köppen climate classification, with moderate rainfall year-round. July and August are the hottest months with average daily maximum temperatures of around 30 °C (86 °F). The driest month is July when the average monthly rainfall is 37 millimeters, just a little too wet for the climate to be classified as Mediterranean (Köppen Csa).[49] The village is often subject to a strong wind, the mistral, that blows from the north.

Climate data for Orange-Caritat (9 km north of the village of Châteauneuf-du-Pape, 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.9
(49.8)
11.5
(52.7)
15.5
(59.9)
18.5
(65.3)
23.0
(73.4)
27.1
(80.8)
30.6
(87.1)
30.1
(86.2)
25.1
(77.2)
19.9
(67.8)
13.6
(56.5)
10.0
(50)
19.5
(67.1)
Average low °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
2.5
(36.5)
5.3
(41.5)
7.9
(46.2)
11.9
(53.4)
15.4
(59.7)
18.1
(64.6)
17.7
(63.9)
14.2
(57.6)
10.7
(51.3)
5.7
(42.3)
2.7
(36.9)
9.5
(49.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 52.7
(2.075)
39.1
(1.539)
43.2
(1.701)
65.8
(2.591)
65.4
(2.575)
37.9
(1.492)
36.6
(1.441)
39.0
(1.535)
97.3
(3.831)
92.7
(3.65)
75.4
(2.969)
55.8
(2.197)
700.9
(27.594)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 132.0 137.1 192.5 230.4 264.6 298.9 345.3 310.7 237.6 187.1 135.2 123.8 2,595.2
Source: infoclimat.fr[50]

Twin towns[edit]

Châteauneuf-du-Pape is twinned with:[51]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The bishop of Avignon also had the fiefs of Gigognan and Bédarrides.[4]
  2. ^ In 1475 Pope Sixtus IV upgraded the bishopric into an archbishopric.[20]
  3. ^ The name of the castle has been written in different ways. Latin documents use Leris and Lertio whereas French documents use L'airs, Lair, L'ers, l'Hers and Lher.[37]
  4. ^ The coordinates of the Château de Lhers are 44°3′14.9″N 4°47′29.9″E / 44.054139°N 4.791639°E / 44.054139; 4.791639.
  5. ^ The name of the bishop (Fulcherius in Latin) is also written as Foulques.[37]

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 15, 21-23.
  2. ^ "Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Châteauneuf-du-Pape". École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS). Retrieved 24 June 2014. .
  3. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 17, 285-286.
  4. ^ a b Portes 1993, p. 21.
  5. ^ Portes 1993, p. 251.
  6. ^ Portes 1993, p. 253.
  7. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 26-27.
  8. ^ a b Portes 1993, p. 27.
  9. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 28-29.
  10. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 29-30.
  11. ^ Portes 1993, p. 30.
  12. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 31-34.
  13. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 265-269.
  14. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 253-254.
  15. ^ Schäfer 1911, pp. 274, 276.
  16. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 34, 254.
  17. ^ a b c Portes 1993, p. 254.
  18. ^ Schäfer 1911, p. 311.
  19. ^ Portes 1993, p. 259.
  20. ^ Portes 1993, p. 42.
  21. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 42-43, 259.
  22. ^ Portes 1993, p. 363.
  23. ^ a b Portes 1993, p. 263.
  24. ^ "Monument historique: Château". Ministère de la culture. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  25. ^ Portes 1993, p. 265.
  26. ^ a b Portes 1993, p. 255.
  27. ^ Portes 1993, p. 260.
  28. ^ Le Boyer, Noël (photographer). "2633 Châteauneuf du Pape". Ministère de la culture et de la communication.  The image has been flipped horizontally.
  29. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 255-256.
  30. ^ Maigret 2002, p. 13.
  31. ^ a b c Portes 1993, p. 277.
  32. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 277-279.
  33. ^ Schäfer 1911, pp. 739, 810, 813.
  34. ^ Portes 1993, p. 279.
  35. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 279-281.
  36. ^ a b Portes 1993, pp. 281-283.
  37. ^ a b Portes 1993, p. 269.
  38. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 269-271.
  39. ^ Portes 1993, p. 271.
  40. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 269-277.
  41. ^ "Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Châteauneuf-du-Pape". École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS). Retrieved 24 June 2014. .
  42. ^ "Château de l'Hers ou de l'Airs (ruines)". Ministère de la culture. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  43. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 271-272.
  44. ^ Portes 1993, p. 235.
  45. ^ Schäfer 1914, pp. 711,766, 796.
  46. ^ Portes 1993, pp. 235-236.
  47. ^ a b "Cahier des charges de l’appellation d’origine contrôlée " CHÂTEAUNEUF-DU-PAPE " homologué par le décret n°2011-1567 du 16 novembre 2011, JORF du 19 novembre 2011". République Française: Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalementaire et de la fôret. 2011. pp. 362–372 (pages unnumbered). Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  48. ^ a b Portes 1993, p. 243.
  49. ^ Peel, M.C.; Finlayson, B.L.; McMahon, T.A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. 
  50. ^ "Normales et records pour la période 1981-2010 à Orange-Caritat". infoclimat. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  51. ^ "Jumelages" (in French). Marie de Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
Sources
Further reading
  • Gagnière, Sylvain; Granier, J. (1972-1973). "Les carrelages du Château de Jean XXII à Châteauneuf-du-Pape". Mémoire de l'Académie de Vaucluse (in French) 7: 29–62. 
  • Perrot, R.; Garnier, J. (1972). "Recherches historiques et archéologiques sur le château de Lhers, commune de Châteauneuf-du-Pape (Vaucluse)". Mémoire de l'Académie de Vaucluse (in French) 6: 43–122. 
  • Rendu, Victor (1857). "Vignobles de Chateauneuf du Pape". Ampélographie Française comprenant la statistique: la description des meilleurs cépages, l'analyse chimique du sol et les procédés de culture et de vinification des principaux vignobles de la France (in French). Paris: V. Masson. pp. 101–111. 

External links[edit]