The two tallest mountains in the group are Daisen and Mount Hyōno, which are 1,729 m (5,673 ft) and 1,510 m (4,954 ft), respectively. Many other mountains in the ranger are also over 1,000 m (3,281 ft), while some of the smaller mountains are less than 500 m (1,640 ft).Granite is the most common stone found among the mountains, much of which has been exposed through erosion.
The Chūgoku Mountains are the source of several rivers in western Japan. All flow either north to the Japan Sea or south to the Inland Sea with the exception of the Gōnokawa River (206 kilometres (128 mi)), which runs along the mountain range in Hiroshima and Shimane prefectures.
The Chūgoku Mountains are a source of iron sand, and the region was home to some of the earliest production of ironware in Japan. The broad tablelands of the mountain region support cattle ranches, notably for the production of wagyu beef. The numerous rivers of the Chūgoku Mountains support an extensive network of rice production in western Japan.