Chabad messianism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Chabad messianism, or Lubavitch messianism,[1] is a spectrum of beliefs within the Hasidic movement of Chabad-Lubavitch regarding their leader Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson and his purported status as the Messiah.[2] While some believe that he died but will return as the Messiah,[3] others believe that he is merely "hidden". A very small minority believe that he has God-like powers,[4][5] or is the "creator"[6] while others negate the idea that he is the Messiah entirely. The prevalence of these views within the movement is disputed,[7][8][9][10][11] though very few will openly say that Schneerson cannot be the Messiah.[7]

The belief that Schneerson is the Messiah can be traced to the 1950s;[12] it picked up momentum during the decade preceding Schneerson's death in 1994,[citation needed] and has continued to develop since his death.[citation needed] His death in 1994 did not quell the messianist fervor, as believers found talmudic sources to explain the belief that Schneerson was the Messiah despite having passed on.[citation needed] Some argued that he had in fact not died at all and was still physically present, but in a concealed state.[citation needed] The response of the wider Haredi and Modern Orthodox leadership has been almost universally antagonistic to this belief, and the issue remains controversial within the wider Jewish community.[13][14][15]

History[edit]

The Chabad messianist flag. The Hebrew word is "Mashiach", meaning "Messiah".
The Messianist Flag in Jerusalem

Before Schneerson's death in 1994 a significant body of Chabad Hasidim believed that he would soon become the Messiah by ushering in the Messianic Age and constructing the Third Temple. A concept believed by many talmudic scholars regarding their own leaders in talmudic times.

A number of Talmudic texts, and subsequent writings of Halachic authorities, speak of the idea that in most generations there is at least one person who is worthy and has the potential of being the Messiah.[16]

This idea finds its earliest roots in an early 4th century discussion in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 98b): After schools of various prominent rabbis each cite proof-texts that the name of the Messiah is indeed that of their very own teacher, Rabbi Nachman says, "If he [the Messiah] is among the living, he is someone like me." The Talmud then cites the sage Rav: "If the Messiah is among the living, then he is someone like our holy Rabbi [i.e., Rabbi Judah, the editor of the Mishnah]. [And] if he is from among the dead, he is someone like Daniel."

Maimonides ruled the following as the definitive criteria for identifying the mashiach: If we see a Jewish leader who (a) toils in the study of Torah and is meticulous about the observance of the mitzvot, (b) influences the Jews to follow the ways of the Torah and (c) wages the "battles of God"—such a person is the "presumed mashiach". If the person succeeded in all these endeavors, and then rebuilds the Holy Temple in Jerusalem and facilitates the in-gathering of the Jews to the Land of Israel—then we are certain that he is the actual mashiach.

Anticipation for the coming of the Mashiach, and belief in the imminent arrival, has been on the hearts and minds of Jews through the past two millennia. The Chafetz Chaim, Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, wrote "our days are the days of Messiah’s coming. Hear my brothers and friends; these are the days of Messiah. It is clear that our days are the days of Messiah’s coming,"[17] and Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, wrote that "we are obligated to anticipate the arrival of the Messiah on any given day as a near certainty."

Chezkat Mashiach and Mashiach Vadai[edit]

According to Maimonides there are two forms of the Messiah. The presumed messiah, known as the "Chezkat Mashiach" and the actual messiah, known as the "Mashiach Vadai".[18]

Mashiach Shebador[edit]

A third form of the messiah is referred to in halachik writings as the Machiach Shebador, meaning the messiah of the generation. According to the Chatam Sofer: "In every generation there is one righteous man (tzaddik) who merits to be the Messiah... and when the time comes, God will reveal Himself to him and send him."[19] If God decided the time is right, he will begin the mission, making him the presumed messiah. If he fulfills that mission in its entirety he would be the actual messiah.[citation needed]

Early developments[edit]

Throughout Hasidic history, there have been numerous cases of Rebbe's that have been identified by their Hasidim as worthy of being the Messiah. These figures were not thought of having been the actual Messiah, since the criteria that must be fulfilled by the Messiah have been clearly stipulated by Maimonodes. Followers hoped that it would be their leader who would be the Messiah and spoke of him as the Messiah.[20]

Dr. Yehuda Eisenstein records in his book Otzer Yisrael, that followers of Chasidic Rebbes strongly hope that their leader will be the one God chooses to be the Messiah "the chasidim believe, that even though there are many righteous people in the generation, each of whom is exceptional in his way of divine service and righteousness, each of whom has godly powers of spirituality, nevertheless there is always one who is above all the rest, he is the one who is the tzadik of the generation. He is the one who is the messiah of the generation."[21]

As with other Chasidic groups, Chabad Chasidim had a history of hoping that their Rebbes would be the Messiah. In addition, the Chabad Rebbes often spoke with great passion about the coming of the redemption and the Messiah's imminent arrival.[22]

During Schneerson's life[edit]

When Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn passed away in 1950, and his son-in-law, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson soon became the seventh Rebbe. The Rebbe was a passionate believer in the coming of the mashiach. In a letter to Israeli President Yitzchak Ben Tzvi, the Rebbe Schneerson wrote: "From the time that I was a child attending Cheder, and even before, the vision of the future Redemption began to take form in my imagination -- the Redemption of the Jewish people from their final Exile, a redemption of such magnitude and grandeur through which the purpose of the suffering, the harsh decrees, and annihilation of Exile will be understood."[23] Rebbe Schneerson also encouraged people to focus on Messiah very much. Beginning with his very first farbrengen as Rebbe, he spoke of this generation's mission to complete the Dira Betachtonim, and urged everyone to do all within their power to help the world reach its ultimate state of perfection, when Godliness and goodness will be naturally apparent and prevalent, with the final redemption.[24]

Schneerson would finish almost every public talk of his with a prayer for the imminent arrival of the Messiah. As early as the 1970s, he sought to raise awareness of the Messianic age by encouraging people to learn and become knowledgeable in the laws of the Holy Temple, laws that will only apply when the Messiah actually comes. In this connection, he quoted from earlier rabbinic opinion that learning about the redemption would raise awareness of and could actually bring the Messiah sooner.[25]

As Schneersons passion about the need for Messiah became more well-known, criticism also built up. In 1981, a group of children from a chabad summer camp composed a song with the words "am yisrael [nation of Israel] have no fear, moshiach will be here this year, we want moshaich now, we don’t want to wait." Rabbi Schneerson seems to have received great satisfaction from the children's initiative, and greatly encouraged their song.[26]

In light of some criticism about the insistent tone of these words, on one occasion he explained "This has always been the hope and yearning of the Jewish people – that the Messiah should come now, immediately. Therefore it is inappropriate for someone to say that he does not want, or that he does not agree, or that he is not comfortable that people are imploring 'we want moshiach now.' Each Jew clearly prays and pleads three times a day in the amida, while standing before the Al-mighty (at that time a person is certainly speaking the truth, and saying what he means) 'et tzemach davud avdecha me’hera tatzmiach' [that we merit the final redemption and coming of the Messiah speedily], and then continues 'ki lishuatcha kivinu kol hayom', that he hopes for this the entire day!"[27]

Many times Rabbi Schneerson would weep publicly about the deep slumber and exile we are in, and how urgent it is that God redeem us, both for our sake as well as even for His own.[28]

Nevertheless, criticism of his passion about the coming of the Messiah and, his urging people to do all they could to bring about the redemption by adding in the observance of Torah and Mitzvhas, was something that was known to him. On one occasion he even remarked "I have merited that the complaint people have against me is that I am passionate about the Moshiach."[29]

Like Chassidim in previous generations who thought of their Rebbes as the tzadik hador, and wished that they'd be worthy to be the Messiah, the Chassidim of the seventh Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson felt the same of him, even though he never said so himself. In fact, on the 4th Cheshvan 5752, at a farbrengen (Chassidic gathering) on Shabbat Parshat No'ach, the Rebbe publicly admonished those who were singing a song talking of him as the mashiach. He threatened to leave the farbrengen, and only stayed so that it would not dissipate.[30]

According to research by Rachel Elior, the hope that the Rebbe would be the messiah built up during 1980s. While she asserts that the messianism of Chabad can be traced back even to the previous Lubavitcher Rebbe, she cites evidence that the 1980s saw an upsurge in messianism. The Rebbe constant urging and talking about purifying all parts of the world through Torah and Mitzvot and in order to bring Moshiach also fused talk. Nevertheless, this hope was initially kept to a hush. ."[31]

Rabbi Shalom Dov Wolpo brought up the issue in 1984 by publishing a booklet declaring Schneerson to be the Messiah. Schneerson responded by banning the publication and forbidding Wolpo from involvement with any Messiah related topics.[32]

But as the years went on, and recognition of the seventh Rebbe as being so toweringly unique, a Rebbe of truly unprecedented and universally recognized stature, spread ever further, this Messianic speculation spread to greater numbers and higher volume than in previous generations. The chasidim became vocal of their hope that Schneerson would be the one to be the Messiah. [33]

Rabbi Chaim Bergstein was quoted as saying "I'm not saying he is or isn't Mashiach, but there is no one as learned ...in this generation." Time magazine journalist Lisa Beyer reported that Rabbi Adin Even-Yisrael said he wished that Schneerson should be revealed as the Messiah. ."[34] Even Rabbi Yehuda Krinsky told the New York Times in 1988: "Our sages tell us that the Messiah is a man of flesh and blood who lives among us...If I were asked in this generation who was the most suitable, beyond any question, in my mind, it would be the Rebbe."[35]

Some habad hasidim took their message to the streets with billboards declaring that it was time for the Messiah to come and bring the redemption.[36]

After Schneerson's death[edit]

On March 2, 1991, while praying at the Ohel, the site where his father-in-law is buried, the Rebbe Schneerson suffered a massive stroke. That very evening, while the Rebbe Schneerson was being treated for his stroke and Chabad Chassidim around the world gathered for prayer, some of the messianists broke out in song and dance. It was during this period of illness and inability to communicate that the messianic movement reached its greatest fervor, and became more vocal of their hope that Rebbe Schneerson would soon be the mashiach. This also troubled many people who felt that it was being imposed upon the Rebbe Schneerson as something he had no control over.[37]

During the next two years, the messianists began publicizing their message on television and in newspaper advertisements. Some of Rebbe Schneerson's collected speeches from the previews two years of his life were collected into pamphlets and published under the title Besuras Hageula. These especially were distributed by the messianic chasidim in an effort to bolster the case that he would be the the Messiah despite his illness and that the coming of the Messiah is imminent. Such publications was used to bolster the hope that Rebbe Schneerson would be the machiach.

By late 1992 a movement to formally crown Schneerson as "King Messiah" gained prominence within the crown heights community and a major rally was organised where the Rebbe was to be crowned under the leadership of senior Chabad rabbi and youth movement director Rabbi Shmuel Butman.[38] Before the rally Butman informed the press that "This will be the coronation of the Rebbe as Melech haMashiach (King Messiah)."[39][40] The rally was held on January 30, 1993 after the evening prayers to which Rebbe Schneerson would join on a special balcony that was built for him to easily be wheeled, and was attended by 8,000 in New York and countless others via satellite link-ups around the world. However, Butman was pressured by one of the secretariat Yudel Krinsky, to backtrack during the event, announcing to the 8,000 assembled followers (plus many more around the world watching via satellite) that the event "is not to be interpreted as a coronation."[41]

On 3 Tammuz 1994, more than two years after he suffered a stroke that took away his ability to speak, the Rebbe died. His death left the Chabad community, much of the Jewish world, and even beyond, in mourning.[42] From all over the world, people streamed to New York to participate in the funeral. The New York Times placed six articles about the Rebbe in the paper that week. And the media devoted many hours of broadcast time to the Rebbe Schneerson’s death. The New York Times reported from the funeral that the death had left many Jews stunned:[43]

But to the everlasting pain of so many people this view was not shared by all. Some of the messianists were so caught up with their hope, that they interpreted each new erosion in the Rebbe's health, and ultimately his very death, as stages in the messianic process. They cited various midrashic statements to fuel their ecstasy as to the imminent revelation of the King Messiah, and some of them drank and toasted l’chaim and danced before and during the funeral an act that shocked many admirers of the Rebbe Schneerson across the Jewish world. And in the days after Rebbe Schneerson's death, many journalists and pundits wrote how they expected the end of the movement.[44]

For Chabad followers, the passing of the Rebbe was extremely painful. If for world Jewry Rebbe Schneerson was a leader, for his Chabad followers he was also like a father figure. He was laid to rest next to his father-in-law, at the Ohel, at the Montefiore cemetery in queens. As is the tradition in Chabad, dating back to the first Rebbe, Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the date of all the Rebbe's passing became known and referred to by their Hebrew date. In the case of Rebbe Schneerson, his death became known as "Gimmel Tammuz" the third of Tammuz.

In the week after the Rebbe's passing the Wisconsin Chronicle editorialized and wrote how many Jews now find it difficult to believe that Messiah will ever come:

But for many hopeful, often vocal, followers, the Rebbe Schneersons death did not rule out the hope that he could still be the Mashiach.

There are Talmudic and Halakhic sources that speak of the possibility that a righteous Jewish leader could be resurrected to become the Mashiach. These positions, although not well-known, figure quite prominently and early in authentic Judaic sources.

The Babylonian Talmud states: "If he [the Messiah] is among the dead, he is someone like Daniel."[45] In fact, the most well-known deceased figure identified as being able to be the Messiah is King David. Not that he is the Mashiach, but that he perhaps could be. As the Jerusalem Talmud states: "The Rabbis say, who is King Messiah? If he is from the living, David is his name, if he is from the deceased, David is still his name." According to Rabbi Moses Margolies, a commentator on the Jerusalem Talmud known as the Pnei Moshe, the Talmud rules that: "If he [the Messiah] is among the living, David will be his name, and if he is from among the dead, he is David himself".[46]

Expressions[edit]

There is a wide range of degrees of messianism within Chabad. The terms mishichist and anti-mishichst are loosely used, with many of the latter still taking the position that Schneerson is the Messiah, but that he died so the term is potentially misleading.[clarification needed]

Anthropologist Simon Dein has noted: "Lubavitchers held that the Rebbe was more powerful in the spiritual realm without the hindrance of a physical body. However some have now claimed that he never died again a concept not unfounded as we see the commentaries includin and as late as the Rebbe himself mention to verse such as the one relating to Jacobs burial. Several even state that the Rebbe is God meaning to say completely nullified to Gods existence. This is a significant finding. It is known in the history of Judaism to hold that the religious leader is "God"[liness] and to this extent the group is unique. A more famous quote of reference is "righteous ones are similar to their creator". At first glance it may seem there are certain Christian elements which were apparently apparently inform the messianic ideas of this group. The concept of a leader of the generation as he is called and Godliness is indeed a more often misunderstood concept".[47]

Primary groupings[edit]

In broad terms Chabad is divided into two camps, with a wide range of belief within each camp:

Messianist[edit]

One camp, loosely known as "meshichist", believe that the Rebbe's public words and actions in the early 1990s constituted an almost formal declaration of his messiahship, that he authorised the campaign to publicise this claim, and that this authorisation continues today. It was attitudes like this that made the Rebbe Rebbe in early 1950 when the Rebbe did not want to take on leadership. They believe that the Rebbe wants them to continue spreading the message that he is Messiah and Messiah is imminent amongst the other campaigns, and therefore the most important task of all Chabad hassidim ought to be to spread the word and persuade people to accept the Rebbe as the "Anointed King". This group believes in reciting the Yechi slogan. Beis Moshiach magazine is a major organ for views within this camp.[citation needed]

People within this group differ widely in their attitude to the Rebbe's death.[citation needed]

An eternal tzaddik[edit]

Some meshichists insist that despite appearances the Rebbe did not in fact die on 12 June 1994.[citation needed] They argue that just as, according to the Talmud, the patriarch Jacob did not die,[48] nor did the Rebbe.[citation needed] He therefore remains the messiah just as he was before 1994.[citation needed] These believers refuse to put the typical honorifics for the dead (e.g. zt"l or zecher tzaddik livrocho, "may the memory of the righteous be for a blessing") after Schneerson's name. They do not necessarily visit his grave, or mark his yahrtzeit with the traditional method. They rely upon Rabbi Schneerson's statement that the world has entered a new period in its history and that, contrary to what has happened in the past, the leader of the generation will not be hidden "even through burial", but that he would remain alive until the revelation of the Messiah.[49]

However there are many sources that seem to support the idea that a tzaddik's life does not end with his physical demise. In addition to the Talmud's statement about the patriarch Jacob, in the blessing of the new moon, Jews say, "David the King of Israel is alive and well". There is also the Tanya's explanation[50] of the Zoharic statement (III, 71b), "When a tzaddik departs he is to be found in all the worlds more than during his lifetime". The Baal HaTanya explains that the tzaddik's life is "not a physical life, but a spiritual life", and therefore physical death does not affect this state of living.[51]

A resurrected Messiah[edit]

Others in this camp accept that the Rebbe did indeed die in 1994, but still believe that he will return as the messiah. They point to various sources in Jewish tradition that allow for such a possibility, in particular the Talmud's suggestion (Sanhedrin 98b) that Daniel could be resurrected as the messiah.[52] They also emphasize the belief that the classic meaning of death does not apply to a truly righteous person.[3] In this view Schneerson never "died" spiritually despite his physical death, and is still alive in some way that ordinary humans cannot perceive. Thus they believe that while Schneerson is dead, he will later return to be revealed as Messiah.[53]

Folio 98 of tractate Sanhedrin has a strong focus on the Messiah and the Messianic era. Lubavitchers of this camp most commonly cite Sanhedrin 98b as a source of support for the idea of a Messiah that returns from the dead. Here Rav Nachman says, “If Moshiach will be from the living he is someone like me”, the word "if" seems to imply that Moshiach could also come from the dead. In the next sentence, Rav opines, “If Moshiach will be from the living, then he will be like Rabbeinu Hakadosh, if he will be from the dead he will be like Daniel”, again implying that a belief in a Moshiach that returns from the dead is not antithetical to Judaism.

Prevalence[edit]

A private sign in Crown Heights.

The greatest criticism of chabad messiansim was leveled by Professor David Berger. In a series or articles that were later published in his book The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference, Berger argued that there is no source in Jewish theology for the concept that a Messiah will come, begin his mission, only to die, and then be resurrected to complete his mission. As a result of this, Berger argued that Chabad Messianism, which he claimed was prevalent in majority of Chabad and it's largest institutions, was beyond the pale of Orthodoxy and perhaps even heretical. His positions sparked much controversy in the Jewish world during the late 1990s and early 2000s. In his book he documents his efforts to mobilize other rabbis and rabbinical organizations to delegitimize Chabad. He concludes by recording his great frustrations in not being able to achieve this.

However Schneerson's messianism is not advocated in any of Chabad's official literature.[54][55] According to a Chabad spokesman, Chabad-Lubavitch leaders have "repeatedly condemned [messianism] in the strongest possible terms."[56]

Journalist Sue Fishkoff notes that the idea that most Lubavitchers are messianist is "a claim that is patently absurd. Here everyone is treading on thin ice, for no one can know precisely how deep Chabad messianism goes. When Berger and other critics claim that it affects the majority of the Chabad movement, they have no greater statistical backing than do those who suggest it is on the decline."[10]

Prevalence of extremist messianism[edit]

The number of Elokist Chabad adherents is thought to be small. Berger notes that "very few chassidim actually pronounce the sentence, "The Rebbe is the Creator", though the number is not as negligible as one might imagine."[57] In an interview with the Jerusalem Post in 2001 Berger explained that in the view of some elokists:

Responses[edit]

Schneerson's response[edit]

In 1965, Rabbi Avraham Parizh printed letters that spoke of the Rebbe as the Messiah and started handing them out in Israel. When the Rebbe learned of the letter, he instructed his secretariat to immediately dispatch a telegram to Parizh in Israel: "We were shocked by the letter [you wrote and disseminated] and ask that you immediately cease distributing it. Gather and send to the secretariat all extant copies of the letter, every last one, and please confirm immediately that you have fulfilled this instruction."[59]

In 1984 Sholom Dov Wolpo published a booklet declaring Schneerson to be the Messiah. Over the course of Sukkot 5745 (1984) Schneerson several times denounced actions that drove people away from Chabad and its message. On Simchat Torah he returned to this theme, saying that those involved were starting a new war against Chabad, even including the eventual messiah, and that he should never have to speak about it again.[60] On Shabbat Bereshit, when Wolpo began singing a song that had long been popular in Lubavitch, which referred to Schneerson as the messiah, he abruptly stopped the singing and ordered that it never be sung again.[citation needed]

In 1985, a year later, Schneerson gave a long talk about moshiach in general and the leader of the generation being the moshiach. Stating "I will not be troubled if one will translate 'Moshiach' literally, i.e. the righteous Moshiach, since that is indeed the truth. The leader of the generation is in fact Moshiach of the generation."[61] This, coupled with Schneerson's frequent statement that ours is the "Last Generation of galut (exile) and it is the first generation of Geulah, the redemption" is one of the arguments put forward that the Rebbe is the messiah. The logic behind this is that if the leader of the generation is the messiah, and this is the last generation, then it follows that he is the "final" redeemer.

In 1991, Rabbi Aharon Dov Halprin, the editor of Chabad’s Israeli magazine (Kfar Chabad) prepared an article that explained why the Rebbe was worthy of being considered Messiah. When the Rebbe got word of this he responded sharply, "If you, God forbid, [plan to] do anything even remotely similar, it is preferable that you shut down the periodical completely"

On a number of occasions the Rebbe said that Rabbis should issue a psak din that Moshiach must come. In 1988 Rabbi Yitzchak Hendel issued a ruling stating, not that the Messiah must come, but that the Rebbe was to be the Messiah. When the Rebbe saw the ruling, he responded to Hendel and wrote “me’heichan dantuni? (- a Talmudic term connoting: on what basis have you ruled against me?) Is the the standard of all your rabbinic rulings!?”[62]

And in an urgent Yechidus with Rabbi Tuvia Peles, the Rebbe rebuked those who were making Messianic claims about him, saying "they are taking a knife to my heart. They are tearing off parts of me."

In the late 1980s and early 1990s Schneerson's talks became increasingly focused on the topic of Moshiach, that Moshiach was about to come, and what was needed to accomplish this. These talks would often take on a sense of urgency. On one occasion, during the Rebbe's talk at the International Conference of Shluchim, he stated "the work of the Shluchim has already finished, and the only task left is to welcome Moshiach".

In the early 1990s Hasidim became more vocal about Schneerson being the Moshiach, even submitting a petition to him asking that he reveal himself as the long-awaited messiah.

On one occasion in 1991, as the Rebbe was leaving the evening prayers when traditionally someone would start a song and the Rebbe would encourage it on his way out of the synagogue, some Chasidim began singing one of the Rebbe’s favorite lively songs, adding the words of Yechi -- "Long live our master, our teacher, our Rebbe, King Moshiach." The next morning, however, the Rebbe refused to go down to the synagogue until he was assured by Rabbi Groner that there would be no such songs sung again. Indeed, the song was never again sung in front of the Rebbe until some months after a stroke felled him and removed his ability to speak or write.

A few months later, a few people did muster the courage to start singing at an intermission in a Shabbos farbrengen a less overt song that implied that the Rebbe was the messiah. Within a few seconds the Rebbe heard it and immediately became very grave and said: “Really, I should get up and leave [the room]. Even if some people consider it is not respectful that I need to [be the one to leave], I don’t need to reckon with the views of a small number when [what they are saying] is the opposite of reality. However, first of all, it will unfortunately not help anyway. Secondly, it will disrupt the shevet achim gam yachad [brethren to dwell together in unity], for if I were to leave, others will leave, too."[63]

In 1992, a journalist from Israel said to the Rebbe, “We appreciate you very much, we want to see you in Israel; you said soon you will be in Israel, so when will you come?” The Rebbe responded: “I also want to be in Israel.” The journalist insisted, “So when, when will you come?” The Rebbe responded, “That depends on the Moshiach, not on me.” The journalist persisted, “You are the Moshiach!” to which the Rebbe responded, “I am not.”[64]

After Schneerson's stroke in 1992, which left him partially paralyzed, it became customary for chassidim to recite the Yechi chant after prayers and at general prayer gatherings for his recovery. Whenever he was present he encouraged this.

In the fall 1992, on Rosh Hashanah, Schneerson was brought to a window constructed on the upper level of the synagogue at 770 Eastern Parkway overlooking the main sanctuary. Chassidim sang the full version of Yechi, and he made encouraging motions with his left hand (his right side had been paralyzed by the stroke). On certain occasions; the Rebbe made increasingly big signs of encouragement such as on Rosh Chodesh Kislev 1992 (5753); when the Rebbe moved his hand back and forth with extreme energy.

Rabbinic ruling[edit]

Ruling signed by 100 rabbis declaring the Lubavitcher Rebbe to be Moshiach

Between the years 1998-2004, a Rabbinic ruling that the Rebbe is Moshiach was issued and signed by 100 Rabbis.[65] The Chief Rabbinate of Israel rejected this ruling.[citation needed]

Haredi response[edit]

The response of haredi gedolim to messianism both before and after the death of Schneerson has been mostly negative, though they differ on the appropriate response and remedy.

Satmar Rebbe[edit]

According to anthropologist Robert Eisenberg who studied the relationships between the various Hasidic groups in New York Satmar Hassidim hold extremely hostile views towards the Lubavitchers in general viewing them as "damaged goods" and "idolaters" on account of their beliefs concerning Schneerson.[66] He notes that following Schneerson's death, the Rebbe of Satmar was said to have commented "Now we have to wait for the real Messiah."[66]

Aharon Kotler[edit]

Rabbi Aharon Kotler (1892–1962), founder of the Lakewood Yeshiva in New Jersey, was severely critical of Lubavich, in part because of the extreme emphasis on messianism evident even at that time.[67]

Yaakov Kaminetsky[edit]

Rabbi Yaakov Kaminetsky expressed concern in the early 1980s that what he regarded as Lubavitch's nascent personality-centric thinking could morph into something more objectionable. He advised Bezalel Landau not to publish a few chapters in a book he had written on the Vilna Gaon[68] that dealt with his opposition to Hasidism as such material could split families, pitting husband against wife. He noted that he should keep them in reserve in case "someone was to do an ugly thing" a reference that Kaminetsky's son says[69] refers to the Chabad movement.[70]

A certain Jew in Toronto came to Rabbi Kamenetsky and told him, "Rabbi, I have decided to stop the work at my business on the Sabbath and try to be Shomer Shabbat in my house as well. The reason for my decision was because Chabad people revealed to me that soon their Rebbe will be revealed as the Messiah. I said to myself, 'How will I appear when the Messiah comes, and I am desecrating the Sabbath?'" Rabbi Kamenetsky responded, "Don't believe them. The messiah, to our disappointment, is still not omed lavoh. . . Even though we hope every day that the Messiah will come, it is incorrect to believe what they told you, that the messiah will come in the very near future. It is on us to believe that even though the Messiah delays, we still have hope that he will come." After the man left, those present asked Rabbi Kamenetsky, "Why did our teacher withhold this Jew from keeping Shabbos? Now, after our teacher has nullified the words of the Chabad people, he will for sure continue to desecrate Shabbos?" Rabbi Kamenetsky responded, "This understanding of the Chabad people is an imaginary understanding, that its benefit will be outweighed by its detriment. In the near future, when this Jew sees that the assurance has not been fulfilled and the Messiah has not come, he will begin to desecrate the Sabbath again. More than this, until now he believed with simplicity and certainty in the coming of the messiah, and if he is to be disappointed, he will lose one of the important foundations in Judaism — the belief in the coming of the Messiah."[71]

Pinchas Hirschsprung[edit]

Rabbi Pinchas Hirschsprung, Chief rabbi of Montreal, who shared a very close relationship with the Lubavitcher Rebbe and served as Rosh Yeshiva at the Chabad yeshiva Tomchei Tmimim Montreal, wrote a lengthy letter about Chabad Messianisim to Baruch Frishman, executive director of Association of Advanced Rabbinical and Talmudic Schools (AARTS), in response to efforts by some Haredi rabbis to decertify Oholei Torah/Oholai Menachem (a major Lubavitch yeshiva in which the messianist belief is proclaimed) from this organization (see below). In the letter Hirschsprung wrote that there was no shadow of a question in halacha about (the permissibility of) the singing and proclaiming of the Lubavitcher Rebbe as the messiah, that it was based on clear passages in the Talmud, Zohar, and Kabalists whom the Jewish people all rely upon for contemporary halacha. He also pointed to the fact that the Rebbe himself used such references on his father in law Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, and that he himself was someone to rely on. He also praised the efforts of the Lubavitcher Rebbe and his followers in the task of bringing Jews closer to Judaism, saying "who knows this work better than them".[72]

Elazar Shach[edit]

See also: Elazar Shach: Opposition to the Lubavitcher Rebbe

Rabbi Elazar Shach, the Rosh Yeshiva of the Ponevezh yeshiva and a leader of Lithuanian Judaism, objected to the call for "forcing" the Messiah's appearance, which he claimed the Lubavitcher Rebbe was advocating.[73]

Shach was the first major Jewish leader to openly criticise Schneerson and Chabad over Messianist fervor. Schach repeatedly and bitterly attacked Schneerson and his followers on a number of issues, among them messianism, describing Schneerson himself as "insane" an "infidel" and a "false messiah".[74]

When certain elements in Chabad actually identified Schneerson as the possible Messiah, Elazar Shach advocated a complete boycott of Chabad, its institutions and projects by its constituents.[73][75]

Pointing to an assertion by Schneerson in a passage dealing primarily with his predecessor that a rebbe is ‘the Essence and Being [of God] placed into a body,’ Schach spoke of nothing less than Avodah Zara [idol worship]. His followers refused to eat meat slaughtered by Lubavich shochetim or to recognize Chabad Hasidim as adherents of authentic Judaism.[67]

Elya Svei[edit]

Rabbi Elya Svei launched an effort to decertify Oholei Torah (a major Lubavitch yeshiva in which the messianist belief is proclaimed)[citation needed] from the Association of Advanced Rabbinical and Talmudic Schools (AARTS).[76]

Chaim Shaul Karelitz[edit]

Rabbi Chaim Shaul Karelitz, former Chief Rabbi (גאב"ד) of the She'erit Yisrael Kashrut organization of Bnei Brak, wrote, "All know of the battle of gedolei Yisroel, past and present, against the well known movement, which in our generation deviated from the Torah way, and has undermined the principles of religion and faith, and even produced a false Messiah".[77]

Menashe Klein[edit]

The Ungvarer Rov, Rabbi Menashe Klein writes in his 17th volume of Mishnah Halachos that people who go about declaring that the Lubavitcher Rebbe is still alive bring his reputation into disrepute, and are therefore “apikorsim.”[78] However its important to note that before the passing of the Rebbe, Menashe Klein shared a very close relationship with the Lubavitcher Rebbe, and in 1988 when Rabbi Klein visited the Rebbe to console him on the passing of his wife, Rabbi Klein strongly requested that the Rebbe should lead the world to the Messianic era, to which the Rebbe replied that he should rule this in his book of responsa in Jewish law!(Mishnah Halachos), to which Rabbi Klein responded alright I will, but make it quick! and the Rebbe further requested to publicize this as a teaching for public.[79]

Yaakov Weinberg[edit]

Rabbi Yaakov Weinberg, a rosh yeshiva of Yeshivas Ner Yisroel, is said to have told an enquiring student that he should pray alone rather than in a Chabad synagogue because 'they pray to a different deity'.[80]

Aharon Feldman[edit]

Rabbi Aharon Feldman, dean of the Ner Israel Rabbinical College penned a public response to a question from Gil Student asking how orthodox Jews should relate to chabad messianists in 2003. He expresses wonderment at the fact that the "great halachic authorities" have not published rulings on this subject and reluctantly agrees to issue a ruling himself. He makes a clear distinction between what he terms the "Mishichists" and the "Elokists". He rules that it is forbidden to associate with Elokists (Yiddish: אלוקיסט) under any circumstances due to their heresy and they cannot be counted for a Minyan. He rules it is also forbidden to support the mishichists in any way that lends credence to their messianic beliefs though they are not strictly heretics. He argues that although there is a Talmudic source (Sanhedrin 98b) that the Jewish messiah may come from the dead, nevertheless that source indicates that this messianic candidate must be similar to [the biblical] Daniel; Rabbi Feldman rules that anyone that can believe that the last Lubavitcher Rebbe was similar to [the biblical] Daniel has entirely compromised judgment and should not be given any leadership position.[81] "...it is clear that [messianists] are ignorant of Torah, thus, it is impossible to rely on their decisions in Torah matters... One who believes that amongst all those who have ever lived, the late leader of the Chabad movement is the best candidate to be our redeemer shows that he lacks any understanding of Torah values. The rulings of such a man cannot be relied upon in any matter of Torah, and a fortiori he cannot serve as a leader or Rabbi."[81]

In a letter addressed to Professor David Berger, Feldman points out that included in the Rambam's qualifications for the Messiah is that he "forces all of Israel to go in the way of [Torah and Mitzvos] ... and fights the wars of Hashem ...", and Feldman states that Schneerson has not fulfilled these credentials.[82]

Shlomo Eliyahu Miller[edit]

Rabbi Shlomo Miller, a Rosh Kolel (dean) of the Kolel Avreichim Institute for Advanced Talmud Study in Toronto and head of its Beis Din (Rabbinical court), said in an interview, "The belief that Moshiach is in the embodiment of a deceased person is definitely assur (forbidden) and our mosdos must convey this issur to students as part of their education... However, I would not say the Mashichistim are pasul but rather they're very mistaken in an important part of Yiddishkeit. Perhaps, I won't accept such a person as a Rav (you can't be a Rav if you're deluded), or to work as a shochet, but I won't say their shechitah is prohibited... "[83]

That being said Rabbi Miller failed to gain the agreement of other Rabbis in the Toronto community to expel the Lubavitchers who hold such beliefs from the Canadian Vaad Harabonim, and he also failed in his attempt to forbid the Bartenura brand of wine which is under the Kashrut of a Mashichist Rabbi.

Moshe Heinemann[edit]

Rabbi Moshe Heinemann, Rav of the Agudath Israel of Baltimore and the Star-K kashrus organization, said in an interview, "It's a distortion to say the Rebbe is Mashiach and anything which is not the truth, we can not agree to, even though Chabad in general does many good things."[83]

Dr. Avraham Pollack, president of the Star-K kashrus organization, was asked if the star-k would approve of a chabad messianist shochet. Dr. Pollack answered that, "we look for ‘Yerai Shomayim’ shochtim and chabad has many of them that are ‘Erlich’, however if one of the shochtim claim openly ‘Yechi Adoneinu Moreinu V’Rabbeinu Melech HaMoshiach’ that is definitely a red flag and will most likely not be hired by us."[84]

Yehuda Henkin[edit]

Rabbi Yehuda Henkin, an American posek, in a response to Gil Student ruled that messianists are merely foolish and need not be shunned but he was more stringent regarding the Elokists:[85] "However anyone who has even a spark of confusion about the boundaries between his Rebbe and God...is an apostate. His shechita cannot be consumed, he cannot be counted for a Minyan and his testimony [in a Beit Din] and his rabbinic judgement is unsound."[85]

Zev Leff[edit]

Rabbi Zev Leff was asked if the Lubavitcher Rebbe is Moshiach. Rabbi Leff answered, "The Lubavitcher Rebbe is no longer alive. The Rambam says very clearly that if someone claims to be Moshiach and he dies before he builds the Temple and brings all Jews back to Eretz Yisrael, then it is clear that he was not Moshiach. So according to the Rambam the Lubavitcher Rebbe cannot be Moshiach... Also, even if people will claim to have found sources that seem to say that Moshiach can be somebody who died and will come back from the dead to become Moshiach, those sources are not obviously what the sources means because for 2,000 years one of our objections to Christianity across the board was that the concept of a dead Moshiach who comes back to be Messiah is not a Jewish concept."[86]

Leff was also asked the following: "May one eat in a restaurant whose proprietor feels that the Lubavitcher Rebbe is the moshiach, if it is under a widely accepted hashgacha? Furthermore, is it permitted for a person to daven in a shul where the majority of the congregants feel that the Rebbe zt"l is moshiach, and perhaps participate in the recitation of Yechi?" He answered, "The restaurant really depends on who the supervision is and if it is a reliable supervision. Even if the proprietor is not Jewish, certainly if he is Jewish and has wrong ideas about Yiddishkeit, you can eat in that restaurant. On the other hand, to daven in a shul where the majority have crooked ideas about Yiddishkeit and recite things that have no place as part of the davening, better not to daven in a shul like that."[87]

Chaim Dov Keller[edit]

One of the first commentators to document the development of Elokist thought was Rabbi Chaim Dov Keller. In a 1997 article he asks of the Lubavitch movement: "Will it be set back on a true course to reach out and bring Jews closer to HaShem and His mitzvos, or evolve into a huge messianic cult whose purpose is to propagate the divinity and worship of the Rebbe?"[88]

Avraham Ravitz[edit]

Rabbi Avraham Ravitz, head of Israel's Degel HaTorah party, is quoted as saying, "If it were not labeled Jewish, you would say it is a cult. The Rebbe has great influence, and his movement has many followers. But it is a strain on Judaism and a strain on Israel."[89] Regarding the arrival of the messiah: "When he comes, he comes. It's crazy to force the Messiah to come by selling him like Coca-Cola, with jingles and stickers and billboards."[90] "They don't want to bring the Messiah, they want to bring their rebbe as the Messiah. Chabad has become a cult."[91]

Religious Zionist response[edit]

Shlomo Aviner[edit]

Rabbi Shlomo Aviner, the Rosh yeshiva of the Ateret Cohanim yeshiva in the Muslim Quarter of Jerusalem and the rabbi of Bet El, was asked "Is the last Lubavitcher Rebbe the Moshiach (Messiah) as many Chabad Chasidim claim", and Rabbi Aviner leaves open the possibility that the Rebbe will be resurrected and then become the Moshiach, concluding however that in the meantime, one cannot say he is the Moshiach. "It is clear that he will arise during the resurrection of the dead, and it is even possible that he will arise before others and perform salvations, as our Rabbis wrote. In the meantime, however, a proclamation regarding the Redemption before the Redemption does not make him Moshiach."[92]

Modern Orthodox response[edit]

Rabbinical Council of America[edit]

In 1996 the largest Orthodox rabbinic grouping in the United States, the Rabbinical Council of America approved the following resolution. The resolution read: "In the light of disturbing developments which have recently arisen in the Jewish Community, the Rabbinical Council of America in convention assembled declares that there is not and has never been a place in Judaism for the belief that the Messiah will begin his mission only to experience death, burial and resurrection before completing it."[93] Berger felt that the RCA resolution was a very significant turning point for his cause, as he recounts in his book that after the resolution was approved, "the thunder-bolt struck."

Ahron Soloveichik[edit]

Rabbi Aaron Soloveichik

In 28 June 1996, The Jewish Press published a paid advertisement signed by Rabbi Ahron Soloveichik. follows.

"Before the passing of the Rebbe, I included myself among those who believe that the Rebbe was worthy of being Moshiach. And I strongly believe that had we, particularly the Orthodox community, been united, we would have merited to see the complete Redemption. Insofar as the belief held by many in Lubavitch - based in part on similar statements made by the Rebbe himself concerning his predecessor, the Previous Rebbe, including prominent rabbanim and roshei yeshiva - that the Rebbe can still be Moshiach in light of the Gemara in Sanhedrin, the Zohar, Abarbanel, Kisvei Arizal, S’dei Chemed, and other sources, it cannot be dismissed as a belief that is outside the pale of Orthodoxy. Any cynical attempt at utilizing a legitimate disagreement of interpretation concerning this matter in order to besmirch and to damage the Lubavitch movement that was, and continues to be, at the forefront of those who are battling the missionaries, assimilation, and indifference, can only contribute to the regrettable discord that already plagues the Jewish community, and particularly the Torah community."

Many messianists believe that Soloveichik defended their position and bring him as a source to back up their arguments. The letter was a reversal of Soloveichik's previous position on the matter. In 1994, Soloveichik had told The Forward that Schneerson "can't be the Messiah — he is not living — a Messiah has to be living. A living Messiah, not a dead Messiah." He had also expressed shock at the idea that anyone could suggest that the Messiah could be from among the dead noting that "that could be possible in the Christian faith, but not Judaism" adding that this was "repugnant to everything Judaism represents.".[94]

Berger provides a letter from Soloveitchik to a friend in 2000, that resolves the contradiction between his two positions. Soloveichik writes:

Rabbi Dr Jacob Immanuel Schochet in response to David Berger wrote "For the record, I inquired with the immediate family of R. Aaron Soloveichik as to his position in this matter. They informed me that he regarded the attribution of messiahship to the deceased Rebbe as a shtut (folly) but definitely not heretical".[96]

Norman Lamm[edit]

Other Modern Orthodox leaders have also responded to Chabad Messianism. The trend of messianism itself was criticized strongly by Rabbi Norman Lamm, chancellor and former president of Yeshiva University. Lamm argues that Schneerson’s statements could be misinterpreted to create a "distortion" leading to "moral nihilism." Lamm further argued that such open efforts to declare Schneerson the messiah would not have been tolerated before his death: "When he was alive, no one would have dared to discuss this."[97] On another occasion Lamm argued “I do not believe that the Rebbe thought himself to be moshiach. But I do think he considered himself a possible candidate." Lamm decried the movement’s over-emphasis on messianism and belief that the Rebbe is the messiah but simply concealed from view. "To continue this myth of his being moshiach is utter ridiculousness. It is easy for the messianically-oriented to distort the Rebbe’s teachings and say "that the Rebbe is part of the God-head. That is completely heretical and quite dangerous. I wonder if this distortion could and should have been avoided by responsible leadership of a movement that has not lost its vitality."[98]

Tzvi Hersh Weinreb[edit]

The Executive Vice President of the Orthodox Union, Rabbi Tzvi Hersh Weinreb commented on the fragmentation of the Chabad movement since the Rebbe's death in a July 2007 comment piece for the Jerusalem Post:[99] He bemoaned the fact that "...the Rebbe's great piety, scholarship, and love of Israel should be sullied by such an unacceptable heresy is a grievous tragedy."[99]

Chaim Brovender[edit]

Rabbi Chaim Brovender, president of ATID (Academy for Torah Initiatives and Directions in Jewish Education), said in an article in the Jerusalem Post:[100]

Gil Student[edit]

Rabbi Gil Student an orthodox writer and publisher has written and self-published a book examining and rebutting the theological claims made by Chabad messianists.[101]

In 2002, Student published a book called Can The Rebbe Be Moshiach? Proofs from Gemara, Midrash, and Rambam that the Rebbe zt"l cannot be Moshiach.[102] A synopsis of the book goes as follows:

Israeli Chief Rabbinate[edit]

2000 pronouncment[edit]

In January 2000, the Chief Rabbinate of Israel released the following announcement:

At the meeting of the Council of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel held on 10 Shevat 5760 [17 January 2000], a discussion was held regarding the newspaper advertisement signed by many rabbi shlita requiring that one obey the words of a prophet including the assertion that he is the King Messiah. By agreement of the Chief Rabbis of Israel and the members of the Council of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel, the following decision was adopted unanimously:

2007 conversion case[edit]

In December 2007 the case of a Chabad-educated man attempting to convert to Judaism came before a senior conversion Beit Din to authorize his conversion.[104] During an interview before the panel of 3 rabbis the man espoused messianist views. The panel escalated the case to a group of four of Israel's most senior rabbis, two of whom were Modern Orthodox and two of whom were Haredi for arbitration. The Haredi rabbis were inclined to approve the conversion, while the Modern Orthodox pair were not, ruling that an exponent of messianist beliefs cannot be converted to Orthodox Judaism. Rabbi Shlomo Amar, Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel agreed that he could be converted.[104]

While Binyamin Ish-Shalom, an educator at the centre that prepared the man for conversion, argued that the beliefs were legitimate, a State Conversion Authority quoted the two opposing rabbis as arguing that Chabad messianism was "beyond the pale of normative Judaism":[105]

Responding to the case Shmuley Boteach criticised the rulings, arguing that messianism was not heretical.[106]

Rabbi Seth Farber, head of conversion advocacy group Itim, commented that

Progressive response[edit]

Philosopher Rabbi David Hartman expressed his concern about the developing messianism early on, while Schneerson was still alive, saying that "the outpouring of Messianic fervor is always a very disturbing development."[108]

Senior Reform Rabbi and humanitarian activist Arthur Lelyveld was also scathing about the messianist trends within the Chabad movement describing the organisation as having a "cult like" atmosphere.[109]

1998 letter[edit]

The actions of a Chabad rabbi who was active in the community of expatriate Russian Jews in Milwaukee, by the name of Alexander Milchstein led to the publication of a response by about 30 Chabad rabbis.[110]

Milchstein had been hired by Yaakov Elman, as a Russian-speaking rabbi to assist him with the influx of Russian-language immigrants, after Milchstein's views became public, his views were denounced by the local orthodox rabbinate in the November 20, 1998 edition of the Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle.[110]

In response to the furore, a group of some 30 Chabad affiliated rabbis calling themselves the "Central Committee of Chabad-Lubavitch Rabbis in US and Canada"[111] sent a letter to the local newspaper addressed "To the Jewish Community of Milwaukee, Wisconsin",[110] arguing that Chabad should not be preoccupied with the idea that Schneerson is the Messiah, (but as Berger points out falling short of arguing that Schneerson cannot be the Messiah):

Anthropology: Comparisons with early Christianity[edit]

Some scholars of religion have made comparison with the development of early Christianity:[6] Anthropologist Joel Marcus writes:

Such comparisons are something which makes many Orthodox Jews uncomfortable. Scholar Mark Winer has noted that "The Lubavitcher movement's suggestions that their late Rebbe Menachem Mendel Schneerson is the Messiah, reflect Christian millenarianism."[114]

Anthropologist Simon Dein has noted: "Lubavitchers held that the Rebbe was more powerful in the spiritual realm without the hindrance of a physical body. However some have now claimed that he never died. Several even state that the Rebbe is God. This is a significant finding. It is unknown in the history of Judaism to hold that the religious leader is God and to this extent the group is unique. There are certain Christian elements which apparently inform the messianic ideas of this group."[115]

Some have gone so far as to describe Chabad messianism as halachic Christianity. Judaism scholar Jacob Neusner writes:

Breakaway movement[edit]

In protest at Chabad messianism, Rabbi Shaul Shimon Deutsch started a split-off group known as Chabad-Liozna. Deutsch has a synagogue and a few followers in the Boro Park district of Brooklyn.[117][118] His actions have made him an unpopular figure within the mainstream Chabad community.[119]

Support[edit]

A few non-Chabad Jewish figures have expressed their concurrence with the belief that Schneerson is indeed the Messiah. Ya'akov Yosef, (son of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef), Aaron Leifer, the late Rabbi of Nadvorna-Safed, Eliyahu Shmuel Schmerler, rosh yeshiva of Sanz and member of the Mif'al Hashas, Ahron Rosenfeld of the Pinsk-Karlin Hasidic dynasty and Yaakov Menachem Rabinowitz of the Biala Hasidic dynasty, all signed a 1998 halachic decree ruling that Schneerson is the Messiah.[120]

The "Yechi" statement[edit]

"Yechi Adoneinu Moreinu v'Rabbeinu Melech haMoshiach l'olam vo'ed!" (יחי אדוננו מורנו ורבינו מלך המשיח לעולם ועד) is a phrase used by messianist Chabad Hasidism to pray and proclaim that Schneerson is the messiah. It means "Long Live our Master, our Teacher, and our Rabbi, King Messiah, for ever and ever." The phrase can be seen printed in various settings, notably on pamphlets, posters and small prayer cards. It is chanted by many people at the end of daily communal prayers in Lubavitch congregations, including the main Lubavitch synagogue in Crown Heights, "770". Yechi has a complex and controversial history dating back to the mid-1980s and is often viewed as a litmus test to differentiate the messianists from the anti-messianists or non-messianists.

Yechi began as the phrase "Yechi Adoneinu Moreinu Verabbeinu," ("Long Live our master, teacher and Rebbe!") to which the response was a shout of "Yechi" ("May he live!"). It appears to be based on the statement made by Bathsheba, the wife of King David "Yehi adoni hamelech David le'olam," ("May my lord King David live forever!") (Kings I 1:31). When used by Lubavitcher Hassidim, it was originally recited in the presence of Schneerson after twelve special verses known as "the Twelve Pesukim" whose recitation the Rebbe encouraged in his teachings.

A child honored with reciting the last verse of the Twelve Pesukim would call out the phrase, to which everyone would respond. This was repeated three times. After three calls, everyone would chant the word Yechi together in a 2-3-2-3 pattern. This was followed by singing "We Want Moshiach Now".

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ also: Habad messianism, Lubavitcher messianism, mishichism, meshichism.
  2. ^ Another 'Second Coming'? The Jewish Community at Odds Over a New Form of Lubavitch Messianism, George Wilkes (2002). Reviews in Religion & Theology 9 (4), 285–289.
  3. ^ a b Example of Chabad exegesis on the death of a great man
  4. ^ "Moshiach is here now: just open your eyes and you can see him" Simon Dein, Anthropology & Medicine, Volume 9, Number 1/April 1, 2002
  5. ^ "Lubavitcher Rebbe as a God" Haaretz, Saul Sadka, 02.14.07
  6. ^ a b Habad’s dead Messiah: A review of The Rebbe, the Messiah and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference, by David Berger, Judaism magazine - Winter, 2002, Arnold Jacob Wolf
  7. ^ a b Messianic Excess, David Berger, The Jewish Week, June 25, 2004
  8. ^ Lawsuit Over Chabad Building Puts Rebbe’s Living Legacy on Trial, Nathaniel Popper, The Forward, March 16, 2007
  9. ^ Beis Moshiach 424, 25 Tammuz, 5763, p. 10
  10. ^ a b The Rebbe's Army: Inside the World of Chabad-Lubavitch by Sue Fishkoff, p. 274.
  11. ^ http://www.thejewishweek.com/news/newscontent.php3?artid=7839
  12. ^ The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present, M. Avrum Ehrlich, ch.9 notes, KTAV Publishing, ISBN 0-88125-836-9
  13. ^ Nathaniel Popper (16 March 2007). "Lawsuit Over Chabad Building Puts Rebbe’s Living Legacy on Trial". The Forward. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. 
  14. ^ "After Rebbe’s Death, Lubavitchers Continue to Spread His Word", Matthew Hirshberg, The Columbia Journalist, February 21, 2006
  15. ^ Toward the Millennium: Messianic Expectations from the Bible to Waco, Peter Schäfer, Mark R. Cohen
  16. ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/moshiach/article_cdo/aid/101679/jewish/The-Personality-of-Mashiach.htm
  17. ^ Likutei Michtavim page 4
  18. ^ Rambam. Hilchot Melachim, Laws of Kings. 4.
  19. ^ Responsa Chatam Sofer VI:98
  20. ^ Yitzchak keller, Moshiach Bedor, 1991.
  21. ^ Otzer Israel, volume 5 page 10
  22. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/111005773/Rav-Aharon-Lichtenstein-s-Hesped-for-the-Lubavitcher-Rebbe-English
  23. ^ http://tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/177352/lubavitcher-rebbe
  24. ^ Adin Steinsaltz My Rebbe page 173
  25. ^ Adin Steinsaltz My Rebbe page 178
  26. ^ Joseph Telushkin Rebbe page 431
  27. ^ Likutei Sichot vol. 20 pp. 458-459
  28. ^ Adin Steinsaltz My Rebbe page 174
  29. ^ Joseph Telushkin Rebbe page 431
  30. ^ Sichos Kodesh, Parshas Noach 5752
  31. ^ "The Lubavitch Messianic Resurgence: The Historical and Mystical Background 1939–1996", Rachel Elior in Toward the Millennium: Messianic Expectations from the Bible to Waco ed. Peter Schäfer and Mark Cohen, 383–408. (Leiden: Brill, 1998)
  32. ^ The Revelation of Melech HaMashiach (King Messiah), "Yechi HaMelech", Sholom Ber Wolpo, "The Committee for Fulfilling the Rebbe's Directives"
  33. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/111005773/Rav-Aharon-Lichtenstein-s-Hesped-for-the-Lubavitcher-Rebbe-English
  34. ^ "Expecting the Messiah — An Ultra-Orthodox sect says the Redeemer is due to arrive any day now — and he might be an American" Time Magazine, Lisa Beyer, March 23, 1992]
  35. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1988/09/05/nyregion/hasidic-group-expands-amid-debate-on-future.html
  36. ^ "Billboards hold a big message: the messiah is here", Michael Crook and David Hancock, Miami Herald, April 15, 1992
  37. ^ Adin Steinsaltz My Rebbe page 173
  38. ^ "Letter from Crown Heights", Malcolm Gladwell February 2, 1993 The Washington Post
  39. ^ Mashiach Madness reaches frenzy as Lubavitch 'anoint' the Rebbe, Debra Nussbaum Cohen, Jewish Telegraphic Agency January 28, 1993
  40. ^ Rabbi to be anointed Messiah, Press Telegram, January 30, 1993
  41. ^ "Rabbi's appearance fails to reveal messiah", Deseret News, February 1, 1993
  42. ^ Death of Lubavitcher Leader, Rabbi Schneerson, Stuns Followers , Laurie Goodstein, Washington Post, June 13, 1994
  43. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1994/06/13/nyregion/rabbi-schneerson-led-a-small-hasidic-sect-to-world-prominence.html?src=pm&pagewanted=2
  44. ^ "What Really Happens When Prophecy Fails: The Case of Lubavitch." Dein, Simon. Sociology of Religion, 9/22/2001.
  45. ^ Sanhedrin 98b
  46. ^ Brachot 2:4
  47. ^ "Mosiach is here now: just open your eyes and you can see him" Simon Dein, Anthropology & Medicine, Volume 9, Number 1/April 1, 2002
  48. ^ Taanit 5b
  49. ^ Dvar Malchut, Parashat Shoftim, 5751; Sefer Hisvaadiyus 1991 vol. 4 Page 204
  50. ^ Igeret Hakodesh #27b
  51. ^ Stephen M. Tolany. "On False Messianism". 
  52. ^ http://www.halakhah.com/sanhedrin/sanhedrin_98.html#PARTb
  53. ^ Rabbi Levi Yitzchak Ginsberg, formerly of Kfar Chabad Yeshiva, in his book Mashiach Akhshav, volume IV, 1996[page needed]
  54. ^ Jonathan Mark (November 14, 2007). "Chabad Gathering: No Jew Left Behind". The Jewish Week. Archived from the original on March 9, 2008. 
  55. ^ Mark, Jonathan. "Chabad's Global Warming". The Jewish Week (December 2005).  . An online version of this article can be found at "Speeches said at and Articles about the International Conference of Chabad Lubavitch Emissaries, Address by Professor Alan Dershowitz, Harvard University". Archived from the original on May 7, 2007. 
  56. ^ http://www.thejewishweek.com/news/newscontent.php3?artid=9558[dead link]
  57. ^ "The Fragility of Religious Doctrine: Accounting for Orthodox Acquiescence in the Belief of a Second Coming" Modern Judaism, Volume 22, Number 2, May 2002, pp. 103-114
  58. ^ "Jewish Sect Finds Their Messiah", Daniel C. Peterson and William J. Hamblin, Meridian magazine, 2004
  59. ^ Echad Hoyo Avrohom Page 160
  60. ^ Sefer Hisva'aduyos 5745, Vol. 1, p. 465
  61. ^ Eve of Simchas Torah 5746, October 27, 1985
  62. ^ Cheshbono shel Olom page 56.
  63. ^ Sichos Kodesh, Parshas Noach 5752
  64. ^ http://azure.org.il/include/print.php?id=549
  65. ^ "Halachic Ruling". Psak Din. Retrieved March 22, 2014. 
  66. ^ a b Robert Eisenberg, Boychiks in the Hood: Travels in the Hasidic Underground (HarperCollins, 1995), pp. 14–15, 232.
  67. ^ a b The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference by David Berger, 2001, published by the Littman Library of Jewish Civilization of Portland. Page 7.
  68. ^ Ha-Gaon he-Hassid mi-Vilna, Betzalel Landau.
  69. ^ "He was referring to messianic fantasies simmering in a hasidic circle — in Israel, the adherents of that group had fomented a political feud along hasidic-misnagdic lines — and my father felt that the eventual publication of these chapters would help the general hasidic public shake off the messianics should their fantasy get out of hand. As it turned out, my father's concerns were well founded: a large segment of that hasidic cult did declare its leader to be the Messiah."
  70. ^ The making of a Godol, Nosson Kamenetsky, pp. xxvii–xxviii.
  71. ^ B'Mechitzasam Shel Gedolei Hador, Vol. 2. Jerusalem. by Shlomo Lorincz. Pg. 588
  72. ^ The letter was dated the 13 of Iyyar 5757 (1997), and was printed in the Algemeiner Journal Friday, May 30, 1997
  73. ^ a b Faith and Fate: The Story of the Jewish People in the 20th century, Berel Wein, 2001 by Shaar Press. pg. 340
  74. ^ Christianity After Auschwitz: Evangelicals Encounter Judaism in the New Millennium by Paul R. Carlson, Xlibris, 2000, p59
  75. ^ The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present, M. Avrum Ehrlich, Chapter 10, notes, KTAV Publishing, ISBN 0-88125-836-9
  76. ^ The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference by David Berger, 2001, published by the Littman Library of Jewish Civilization of Portland. Page 85.
  77. ^ http://chareidi.shemayisrael.com/archives5761/behaaloscha/abbrav.htm
  78. ^ Mishneh Halochos vol 17 ch 255
  79. ^ Torat Menachem 5748 Vol 2. P. 579
  80. ^ The Rebbe, The Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference, David Berger, The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2001. pg 105.
  81. ^ a b Public Responsa from Rabbi Aharon Feldman on the matter of Chabad messianism (in Hebrew), 23 Sivan 5763 See also Rabbi Feldman's letter to David Berger: http://www.stevens.edu/golem/llevine/feldman_berger_sm_2.jpg
  82. ^ http://www.stevens.edu/golem/llevine/feldman_berger_sm_2.jpg
  83. ^ a b Mishpacha magazine April 2008
  84. ^ Vos Iz Neias - (Yiddish:What’s News?) » New York - Star K Kosher Supervision: Claiming The Rebbi Is Moshiach, Is Not In Our Kosher Hired ‘Shochtim’
  85. ^ a b Henkin, J. H. (23 Tamuz 5763). "Responsum to Gil Student" (in Hebrew).  Check date values in: |date= (help), published in Bnei Banim Vol IV.
  86. ^ http://www.rabbileff.net/shiurim/ask/index.htm #413 See also #229, 236, 448, 541, 726, 880, and 1174
  87. ^ http://www.rabbileff.net/shiurim/ask/index.htm #373
  88. ^ God Centered or Rebbe/Messiah — Centered, Chaim Dov Keller, The Jewish Observer June 1997.
  89. ^ http://www.michaelspecter.com/times/1992/1992_03_15_mag_oracle.html
  90. ^ http://www.culteducation.com/reference/lubavitch/lubavitch18.html
  91. ^ http://www.culteducation.com/reference/lubavitch/lubavitch6.html
  92. ^ http://www.ateret.org.il/new/rmf/pdf/Rebbe.pdf
  93. ^ Christianity After Auschwitz: Evangelicals Encounter Judaism in the New Millennium, Paul R. Carlson, Xlibris, 2000, p69.
  94. ^ "Rabbis Blast Lubavitcher Messianism, Warn Resurrection Talk Echoes Christian Themes", Lucette Lagnado, The Forward, December 2, 1994
  95. ^ HaRebbi Melech HaMoshiach, David Berger, Urim Publications, 2005. p.75, note 7. (The book is an expanded edition and translation into Hebrew of: The Rebbe, The Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference)
  96. ^ http://www.chabadtalk.com/forum/attachment.php3?s=2ebda757c70c43b0a446c55ac559fac5&attachmentid=2&d=1009095431
  97. ^ "Conference Weighs Rabbi's Legacy" The Forward, Steven I. Weiss, November 11, 2005
  98. ^ "Lubavitcher Rebbe Meets The Academy" The Jewish Week, Debra Nussbaum Cohen
  99. ^ a b c Orthodox Opinions: The Rebbe's legacy, Tzvi Hersh Weinreb, Jerusalem Post Online, June 18, 2007
  100. ^ http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1218710363890&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull
  101. ^ Can the Rebbe Be Moshiach?: Proofs from Gemara, Midrash, and Rambam That the Rebbe Cannot Be Gil Student, Universal-Publishers, 2002
  102. ^ a b Details about this book can be seen at http://moshiachtalk.tripod.com/
  103. ^ Hatzofeh, 11 Shevat 5760 (18 Jan. 200), 5. The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference by David Berger, 2001, published by the Littman Library of Jewish Civilization of Portland. Page 128–129.
  104. ^ a b Avishai ben Hayiim (December 26, 2007). "Rabbinical Conversion Court refuses to convert Chabad messianist". Maariv (in Hebrew). [dead link]
  105. ^ a b Gentile Lubavitcher refused conversion, Matthew Wagner, January 2, 2008
  106. ^ a b Was the decision correct?, Jewish Chronicle, January 18, 2008
  107. ^ ‘Who Is A Messiah?’ New Twist On Conversions, The Jewish Week, Debra Nussbaum Cohen, September 1, 2008
  108. ^ Expecting the messiah, Lisa Beyer, Time magazine, March 23, 1992
  109. ^ Jewish Arguments and Counterarguments: Essays and Addresses, Steven Bayme, KTAV Publishing, 2002. p260
  110. ^ a b c Rabbis reach out to next generation of FSU Jews, Andrea Waxman, Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle, 2002
  111. ^ Note: No other record of any activity can be found for this group beyond this letter.
  112. ^ Chabad kol koreh
  113. ^ Messianism and Christianity, Joel Marcus, Boston University School of Theology Studies, 2001 - Cambridge Univ. Press.
  114. ^ "Be Ready When the Great Day Comes", Mark L. Winer; European Judaism, Vol. 37, 2004
  115. ^ "Mosiach is here now: just open your eyes and you can see him" Simon Dein, Anthropology & Medicine, Volume 9, Number 1/April 01, 2002
  116. ^ "A messianism that some call heresy" Jacob Neusner, October 19, 2001, Bard College
  117. ^ Jolkovsky, Binyamin L., "The "Messiah Wars" heat up: Online gets out-of-line", Jewish World Review, February 19, 1998
  118. ^ "Dissidents Name 'Rebbe'," The Forward, December 6, 1996
  119. ^ Heinon, Herb, "Bigger than Death," Jerusalem Post, August 15, 1997
  120. ^ http://www.ksol.org/image.asp?f=psak_large.pdf&d=11

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • The Jewish Messiahs: From the Galilee to Crown Heights, Harris Lenowitz, University of Utah, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 2001).
  • Salvation or Destruction? The Meaning and Consequences of Lubavitch Messianism, Kraut, B., Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, Volume 20, Number 4, Summer 2002, pp. 96–108.
  • Jewish Messianism Lubavitch-Style — an interim report, William Shaffir, Jewish Journal of Sociology 35 (1993) 115–128.
  • The Messiah Problem: Berger, the Angel and the Scandal of Reckless Indiscrimination, Rabbi Chaim Rapoport (Ilford, 2002)
  • The Rebbe The Messiah and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference, David Berger (The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2008 )

External links[edit]

Criticism[edit]