Chain smoking

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"Chainsmoker" redirects here. For the EDM producers, see The Chainsmokers.

Chain smoking is the practice of lighting a new cigarette for personal consumption, and immediately smoking another after that one is finished, sometimes using the finished cigarette to light the next one. The term is most often used more loosely to describe people who smoke relatively constantly, though not actually "chaining". Chain smoking is primarily cigarette smoking, although it can be cigar and pipe smoking as well. It is a common form of addiction.[1]

Causes[edit]

The use of cocaine or amphetamine with cigarettes can result in chain smoking.[2] Many people chain smoke when drinking alcoholic beverages because alcohol potentiates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, leading to re-sensitization and hence inducing a craving.[3]

The extent to which chain smoking is driven by nicotine dependence has been studied. It does not seem that the amount of nicotine delivered is a significant factor as the puff volume correlates poorly with the frequency of cigarette consumption.[4]

Clinical use[edit]

Chain-smoking is given as an example of excessive addictive behaviour in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.[5] It may be used as a form of aversion therapy for smokers who are unused to such heavy smoking, inducing them to give up altogether.[6]

Ventilation[edit]

Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) professionals claim that an airflow of about 1000 cubic feet (28.32 cubic meters) per minute per smoker is required to maintain satisfactory air quality when the smokers are chain smoking.[7] However, research confirms that current HVAC systems, while important for general air quality, cannot control exposure to secondhand smoke.[8]

In culture[edit]

Notable chain smokers (current or former) include:

Fictional characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Charles Gerras (1976), The encyclopedia of common diseases, p. 17, ISBN 978-0-87857-113-0 
  2. ^ Gary L. Fisher, Nancy A. Roget (2008), Encyclopedia of Substance Abuse Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery, p. 194, ISBN 978-1-4129-5084-8 
  3. ^ Rose J, Brauer L, Behm F, Cramblett M. (2004), "Psychopharmacological interactions between nicotine and ethanol", Nicotine & Tobacco Research 6 (1): 133–44, doi:10.1080/14622200310001656957, PMID 14982697 
  4. ^ Kolonen S, Tuomisto J, Puustinen P, Airaksinen MM. (1992), "Effects of smoking abstinence and chain-smoking on puffing topography and diurnal nicotine exposure", Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 42 (2): 327–32, doi:10.1016/0091-3057(92)90535-N, PMID 1631188 
  5. ^ Helen Keane (May 2002), What's Wrong with Addiction?, p. 100, ISBN 978-0-522-84991-2 
  6. ^ James Cocores (1991-07-23), The Clinical management of nicotine dependence, ISBN 978-0-387-97464-4 
  7. ^ Brian Allan Rock (2006-01-13), Ventilation for environmental tobacco smoke, p. 48, ISBN 978-0-12-370886-1 
  8. ^ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2006), The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General, p. 92 
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  11. ^ DeFrank, Thomas M. (13 September 2010). "'Face the Nation' cigarette query rattles chain-smokin' GOP big John Boehner". New York Daily News. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  12. ^ Thompson, Wright (24 May 2012). "The last ride of Bear and Billy". ESPN.com. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  13. ^ Samuel, Henry (22 April 2009). "Whiff of Kafka to Coco Chanel smoking poster ban". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  14. ^ Lukas, Paul (29 April 2008). "The rule in sports: Smoke 'em if you got 'em". ESPN.com. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  15. ^ http://www.blabbermouth.net/news/king-diamond-undergoes-triple-bypass-heart-surgery
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  17. ^ Walker, Tim (18 November 2013). "Walt Disney’s chain-smoking habit that new film 'Saving Mr Banks' hides from view". The Independent. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
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  25. ^ "Steroid Frenzy Goes Into High Gear". Daily Kos. 30 March 2006. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  26. ^ Clavin, Tom; Danny Peary (2012). Gil Hodges: the Brooklyn bums, the miracle Mets, and the extraordinary life of a baseball legend. New York: New American Library, a division of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. ISBN 978-1-101-59305-9. 
  27. ^ Beschloss, Michael (4 December 2012). "In His Final Days, LBJ Agonized Over His Legacy". PBS News Hour. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
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  30. ^ Fife-Yeomans, Janet (20 December 2011). "Kim Jong-il – the high life of an evil dictator". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 December 2011. "When North Korea's Dear Leader, the chain-smoking Kim Jong-il, 69, died on Saturday" 
  31. ^ Maraniss, David (1999). "19". When Pride Still Mattered: A Life of Vince Lombardi. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-87290-2. 
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  33. ^ Greenwood, Alan (8 December 2013). "Johnny, we still know ye". The Telegraph (Nashua, NH). Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
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  35. ^ http://www.npr.org/2012/11/18/165223056/willie-nelson-road-rules-and-deep-thoughts
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  37. ^ Sandomir, Richard (7 November 2004). "'America's Game': The Real National Pastime". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
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  39. ^ Maxa, Kathleen (12 August 1979). "The Great Debate Over Puffing . . . Should Athletes Take Tobacco?". The Washington Star. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  40. ^ http://thelaughbutton.com/features/burning-bridges-interview-doug-stanhope/
  41. ^ http://blogs.riverfronttimes.com/dailyrft/2010/11/doug_stanhope_playing_the_firebird_on_saturday.php
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  45. ^ Okrent, Daniel (1985). Nine Innings: The Anatomy of a Baseball Game. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 107. ISBN 0-618-05669-6.