Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan
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The 1970 Assembly framed the 1973 Constitution which was passed on 12 April and promulgated on 14 August 1973. Justice (Rtd) Khan Sahib HABIBULLAH Khan Marwat was elected as a First ever and Second Chairman Senate of Pakistan. Justice (Rtd) Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat (1901-1978)was a Meenakhel by origin, educated at Islamia College Peshawar, Edwardes College Peshawar, ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY. Was Justice of West Pakistan High Court, first & second Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan. (KHAN SAHIB) Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat also remained as an acting President of Pakistan, when the President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry went abroad. Pakistan's Interior Minister and also Chief Minister of West Pakistan (One Unit).Was elected to the first ever Legislative Council of NWFP (1932) first as a member and later Deputy Speaker. He was also the Chief of his tribe (Marwat). The 1973 Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of Government with a bicameral legislature, comprising the National Assembly and the Senate. The membership of the Senate, which was originally 45, was raised to 63 in 1977 and to 87 in 1985. The government of Gen. Pervez Musharraf raised the membership of the Senate from 87 to 100 through the Legal Framework Order (LFO), 2002, enforced on 21 August 2002.
After Independence, the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, elected in December 1945 in undivided India, was assigned the task of framing the Constitution of Pakistan. This Assembly passed the Objectives Resolution on 12 March 1949, laying down principles which later became substantive part of the Constitution of Pakistan. However, before it could accomplish the task of framing the constitution, it was dissolved in October 1954. Thereafter, the Governor General, convened the Second Constituent Assembly in May 1955, which framed and passed the first Constitution of Pakistan on 29 February 1956. That Constitution was promulgated on 23 March 1956, which provided for a parliamentary form of Government with a unicameral legislature. However, from 14 August 1947 to 1 March 1956 the Government of India Act, 1935, was retained as the Constitution of Pakistan.
On 7 October 1958, Martial Law was promulgated and the Constitution abrogated. The Military Government appointed a Constitution Commission in February, 1960 which framed the 1962 Constitution. That Constitution provided for a Presidential form of Government with a unicameral legislature. The 1962 Constitution was abrogated on 25 March 1969. The Civil Government, which came to power in December 1971 pursuant to 1970 elections, gave the nation an interim Constitution in the year 1972.
The 1970 Assembly framed the 1973 Constitution which was passed on 12 April and promulgated on 14 August 1973. The 1973 Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of Government with a bicameral legislature, comprising the National Assembly and the Senate.
The membership of the Senate, which was originally 45, was raised to 63 in 1977 and to 87 in 1985. The government of Gen. Pervez Musharraf raised the membership of the Senate from 87 to 100 through the Legal Framework Order (LFO), 2002, enforced on 21 August 2002.
Purpose and role
The main purpose for the creation of the Senate of Pakistan was to give equal representation to all the federating units since the membership of the National Assembly was based on the population of each province. Equal provincial membership in the Senate, thus, balances the provincial inequality in the National Assembly and dispels doubts and apprehension, if any, regarding deprivation and exploitation.
The role of the Senate is to promote national cohesion and harmony and to alleviate fears of the smaller provinces regarding domination by any one province because of its majority, in the National Assembly.
The Senate is a body that represents the provinces and territories of the country and promotes a feeling of equality, peace and good understanding between them, which is so essential for the growth and prosperity of a nation. Thus, the Senate in Pakistan, over the years, has emerged as an essential organ and a stabilizing factor of the federation.
Relationship between Constituents of the Parliament
a) President and Parliament: Under Article 50 of the Constitution, the Majlis-i-Shoora (Parliament) of Pakistan consists of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the National Assembly and the Senate.
The President is elected by members of both Houses of the Parliament and the Provincial Assemblies. The President may be removed from office or impeached through a resolution, passed by not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the Parliament in a joint sitting of the two Houses, convened for the purpose.
The Constitution empowers the President to dissolve the National Assembly in his discretion if a situation has arisen in which the Government of the Federation cannot be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and an appeal to the electorate is necessary. However, the Senate is not subject to dissolution.
In case the office of the President becomes vacant for any reason, the Chairman, or if he is unable to perform the functions of the office of the President, the Speaker, acts as President till such time that a President is elected. Same is the case when the President by reason of absence from Pakistan or any other cause is unable to perform his functions.
b) Relations between the Houses: Unless both the Houses pass a Bill and it receives President's assent it cannot become a law except in the case of a money bill which is the sole prerogative of the National Assembly. Under the Legal Framework Order, 2002, the role of a Mediation Committee, comprising eight members from each House, has been introduced for the first time to evolve consensus on Bills, in case there is a disagreement between the two Houses.
c) Cabinet: The Constitution provides that there shall be a Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister which is collectively responsible to the National Assembly. The Prime Minister is chosen from the National Assembly.
The Federal Ministers and Ministers of State are appointed from amongst the members of Parliament. However, the number of Federal Ministers and Ministers of State who are members of Senate, shall not at any time, exceed one fourth of the numbers of Federal Ministers.
List of Chairman of the Senate
|Name||Entered office||Left office||Date of Birth and Death||Political party|
|1||Mr Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat||6 August 1973||5 August 1975||19 October 1901 - 5 December 1978||Pakistan Peoples Party|
|6 August 1975||4 July 1977|
|2||Mr Ghulam Ishaq Khan||21 March 1985||20 March 1988||January 20, 1915 – October 27, 2006||Independent|
|21 March 1988||12 December 1988|
|3||Mr Wasim Sajjad||24 December 1988||20 March 1991||30 March 1941 - present||Islami Jamhoori Ittehad|
|21 March 1991||20 March 1994|
|21 March 1994||20 March 1997|
|21 March 1997||12 October 1999|
|4||Mr Mohammad Mian Soomro||23 March 2003||22 March 2006||August 19, 1950 - present||Pakistan Muslim League (Q)|
|23 March 2006||11 March 2009|
|5||Mr Farooq Naek||12 March 2009||11 March 2012||Pakistan Peoples Party|
|6||Nayyar Hussain Bukhari||12 March 2012||Present||Pakistan Peoples Party|