Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
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|Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China|
|Appointer||Vote within the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress|
|Term length||five years, renewable
|Inaugural holder||Liu Shaoqi|
|Formation||September 27, 1954|
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The Chairman/Chairwoman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (simplified Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会委员长; traditional Chinese: 全國人民代表大會常務委員會委員長; pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì Wěiyuánzhǎng) is the chairman and/or speaker of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, which is considered China's top legislative body. The current Chairman is Zhang Dejiang.
From 1998 to 2013, the position has been ranked second in China's political hierarchy since Li Peng was barred from seeking a third term as Premier in 1998. In the political order of precedence, the Chair ranks below the CPC General Secretary and President, but above the Premier. The ranking of this position is according to the occupant's qualifications, however, and is not necessarily reflective of its actual power, which varies depending on the officeholder.
The position holds reserve constitutional powers under the 1978 revision of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. As stipulated in Article 84 of the Constitution, should both the President and Vice-President become incapacitated, and the National People's Congress is unable to elect a timely replacement, the Chairman of the NPC will act as President.
From 1975 to 1983, the NPC chairman was China's head of state, as the post of President (Chairman) was left vacant.
Theoretically, during the Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989, the NPC Chair at the time, Wan Li, had the power to call an emergency session of the NPC to resolve the issue constitutionally. However, Wan's freedom of movement was restricted, and ultimately was powerless in the situation.
Chairpersons of the NPC Standing Committee
Multiple terms in office, consecutive or otherwise, are listed and counted in the first column counts individuals and the second column (term number).
|№||Chairman/Chairwoman||Term||Took office||Left office|
|1||September 15, 1954||April 28, 1959|
|2||April 28, 1959||January 4, 1965|
|3||January 4, 1965||January 17, 1975|
|4||January 17, 1975||July 6, 1976|
|July 6, 1976
|March 5, 1978|
|5||March 5, 1978||June 18, 1983|
|6||June 18, 1983||April 13, 1988|
|7||April 13, 1988||March 27, 1993|
|8||March 27, 1993||March 15, 1998|
|9||March 15, 1998||March 15, 2003|
|10||March 15, 2003||March 15, 2008|
|11||March 15, 2008||March 14, 2013|
|12||March 14, 2013||Incumbent|