Llano de Chajnantor Observatory

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Llano de Chajnantor Observatory
Llano de Chajnantor from Cerro Toco. APEX (left) and CBI (far center) can be seen
Llano de Chajnantor from Cerro Toco
Organization multiple international
Location Antofagasta Region, Chile
Coordinates
Altitude over 4,800 metres (15,700 ft)
Weather One of the driest sites in the world for radio astronomy
Established 1999 (1999)
Telescopes
ALMA submillimeter
APEX submillimeter
ASTE submillimeter
NANTEN2 millimeter-submillimeter
ACT microwave
QUIET microwave
HTT(PolarBear) microwave
miniTAO optical/infrared

Llano de Chajnantor Observatory is the name for a group of astronomical observatories located at an altitude of over 4,800 m (15,700 ft) in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. The site is in the Antofagasta Region approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The exceptionally arid climate of the area is inhospitable to humans, but creates an excellent location for submillimetre astronomy. This is because water vapour absorbs and attenuates submillimetre radiation. Llano de Chajnantor is home to the largest and most expensive astronomical telescope project in the world, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). Llano de Chajnantor and the surrounding area has been designated as the Chajnantor Science Reserve (Spanish: Reserva Científica de Chajnantor) by the government of Chile.[1]

Site description[edit]

The Llano de Chajnantor is located on the western side of the Puna de Atacama, which is another name for the southern part of the Altiplano. The main ridge of the Andes is over 200 kilometres (120 mi) to the east, well into Argentina. The Salar de Atacama basin borders the Puna de Atacama to the west, which in turn is bordered by the Cordillera Domeyko. The western side of the Puna de Atacama is dotted with the volcanoes of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Volcanic Belt. The Llano de Chajnantor site itself is bounded by volcanic peaks of the Purico Complex, which have been active in the Holocene but have not erupted in historic times.[2] Cerro Chajnantor is to the north, Cerro El Chascón to the east, and smaller peaks to the south and west. The Pampa la Bola lies to the northeast, north of Cerro El Chascón and east of Cerro Chajnantor. Llano de Chajnantor has an average elevation of 5,000 m (16,000 ft), while Pampa la Bola averages 4,800 m (15,700 ft). The thin atmosphere makes work difficult for humans, so much of the activity for ALMA will be conducted at a base camp in the Salar de Atacama basin at approximately 2,900 m (9,500 ft) in elevation.

360-degree panorama of the Chajnantor plateau

Rainfall at the ALMA site averages 100 mm (3.9 in) annually.[3] The dry climate of Llano de Chajnantor is due to three factors: the rain shadows created by the Andes and the Chilean Coastal Range, the inversion created by the Humboldt Current off the coast of Chile, and dry air descending between the Hadley cell and the Ferrel cell, which forms the South Pacific High.[4] While the site is generally viewed as being in the Atacama Desert, in terms of ecoregions it is in the Central Andean dry puna. Llano de Chajnantor is at the same latitude as deserts in southern Africa and central Australia.

Telescopes[edit]

Telescopes on Llano de Chajnantor[edit]

The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), a new-technology 12-m telescope in operation since 2005 on Llano de Chajnantor

Telescopes on Pampa la Bola[edit]

Telescopes on adjacent peaks[edit]

APEX Under the Moon. Starry night on the Chajnantor Plateau in the Chilean Andes[10]

Former telescopes[edit]

  • The Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) was a radio telescope interferometer designed to measure the intensity and polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. It operated with thirteen 0.9 m (3.0 ft) antennas between 1999 and 2006, and until 2008 with 1.4 m (4.6 ft) antennas. The CBI facility is now used by the QUIET experiment.[16]
  • The Millimeter-wave Interferometer (MINT) was a heterogenous four-element array that operated on the slopes of Cerro Toco in late 2001. The prototype instrument contained two 0.3 m (12 in) and two 0.45 m (18 in) Cassegrain reflectors. It was designed to measure the cosmic microwave background radiation.[17]
  • The Mobile Anisotropy Telescope (MAT, or MAT/TOCO) was a 0.8 m (2.6 ft) telescope that was designed to measure the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. It originally was the gondola of the QMAP balloon-borne experiment. It operated on the slopes of Cerro Toco in late 1997 and again in late 1998.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Topographical Map of CONICYT Science Preserve". National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Retrieved 2012-01-26. 
  2. ^ "Purrico Complex". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1505-094. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
  3. ^ "The best observing sites on Earth". Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Retrieved 2012-01-26. 
  4. ^ Garreaud, René D.; Molina, Alejandra; Farias, Marcelo (2010). "Andean uplift, ocean cooling and Atacama hyperaridity: A climate modeling perspective". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 292: 39. Bibcode:2010E&PSL.292...39G. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.01.017. 
  5. ^ Wootten, A.; Thompson, A.R. (2009). "The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array". Proceedings of the IEEE 97 (8): 1463. arXiv:0904.3739. Bibcode:2009IEEEP..97.1463W. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2009.2020572. 
  6. ^ Güsten, R.; Nyman, L. Å.; Schilke, P.; Menten, K.; Cesarsky, C.; Booth, R. (2006). "The Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) – a new submillimeter facility for southern skies –". Astronomy and Astrophysics 454 (2): L13. Bibcode:2006A&A...454L..13G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20065420. 
  7. ^ Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R. et al. (2011). "FIRST SEASON QUIET OBSERVATIONS: MEASUREMENTS OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRA AT 43 GHz IN THE MULTIPOLE RANGE 25 ⩽ $\ell$ ⩽ 475". The Astrophysical Journal 741 (2): 111. arXiv:1012.3191. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741..111Q. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/111. 
  8. ^ Kohno, K. (2005). "The Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment". The Cool Universe: Observing Cosmic Dawn 344: 242. Bibcode:2005ASPC..344..242K. 
  9. ^ Kawamura, A.; Mizuno, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Onishi, T.; Mizuno, A.; Fukui, Y. (2005). "NANTEN2: A Submillimeter Telescope for Large Scale Surveys at Atacama". Astrochemistry: Recent Successes and Current Challenges 235: 275P. Bibcode:2005IAUS..235P.275K. 
  10. ^ "APEX Under the Moon". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  11. ^ Fowler, J. W.; Niemack, M. D.; Dicker, S. R.; Aboobaker, A. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battistelli, E. S.; Devlin, M. J.; Fisher, R. P. et al. (2007). "Optical design of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the Millimeter Bolometric Array Camera". Applied Optics 46 (17): 3444–54. arXiv:astro-ph/0701020. Bibcode:2007ApOpt..46.3444F. doi:10.1364/AO.46.003444. PMID 17514303. 
  12. ^ Minezaki, Takeo; Kato, Daisuke; Sako, Shigeyuki; Konishi, Masahiro; Koshida, Shintaro; Mitani, Natsuko; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Handa, Toshihiro (2010). "<title>The University of Tokyo Atacama 1.0-m Telescope</title>". In Stepp, Larry M; Gilmozzi, Roberto; Hall, Helen J. The University of Tokyo Atacama 1.0-m Telescope. Proceedings of SPIE 7733. p. 773356. doi:10.1117/12.856694. 
  13. ^ Radford, S. J. E.; Giovanelli, R.; Sebring, T. A.; Zmuidzinas, J. (2009). "Ccat". Submillimeter Astrophysics and Technology: a Symposium Honoring Thomas G. Phillips ASP Conference Series 417: 113. Bibcode:2009ASPC..417..113R. 
  14. ^ Keating, B.; Moyerman, S.; Boettger, D.; Edwards, J.; Fuller, G.; Matsuda, F.; Miller, N.; Paar, H.; Rebeiz, G. et al. (2011). Ultra High Energy Cosmology with POLARBEAR 1110. p. 2101. arXiv:1110.2101. Bibcode:2011arXiv1110.2101K. 
  15. ^ "First Light in Chile!". University of California Berkeley Department of Physics. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  16. ^ Taylor, Angela C.; Jones, Michael E.; Allison, James R.; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Bond, J. Richard; Bronfman, Leonardo; Bustos, Ricardo; Davis, Richard J. et al. (2011). "The Cosmic Background Imager 2". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 418 (4): 2720. arXiv:1108.3950. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.418.2720T. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19661.x. 
  17. ^ Fowler, J. W.; Doriese, W. B.; Marriage, T. A.; Tran, H. T.; Aboobaker, A. M.; Dumont, C.; Halpern, M.; Kermish, Z. D.; Loh, Y.‐S.; Page, L. A.; Staggs, S. T.; Wesley, D. H. (2005). "Cosmic Microwave Background Observations with a Compact Heterogeneous 150 GHz Interferometer in Chile". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 156: 1. arXiv:astro-ph/0403137. Bibcode:2005ApJS..156....1F. doi:10.1086/426393. 
  18. ^ Miller, A.; Beach, J.; Bradley, S.; Caldwell, R.; Chapman, H.; Devlin, M. J.; Dorwart, W. B.; Herbig, T. et al. (2002). "The QMAP and MAT/TOCO Experiments for Measuring Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 140 (2): 115. arXiv:astro-ph/0108030. Bibcode:2002ApJS..140..115M. doi:10.1086/339686. 

External links[edit]