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Chakwaina (alternatively Cha'kwaina or Tcakwaina) is a kachina which appears in Hopi, Zuni, and Keresan ceremonies, but does not appear in Tewa ceremonies.[1] Although imagery of the kachina is varied, it is usually depicted as an ogre, with ferocious teeth and a black goatee and a black mask with yellow eyes.[1][2] Its spread throughout Pueblo culture is often associated with the Asa clan.[1]

It is often claimed that Chakwaina is a ceremonial representation of Estevanico, a Moroccan-born slave who led the first Spanish party to the Hopi.[2][3] Early anthropologist, Frederick J. Dockstader asserted that legendary sources linked Chakwaina to contact with Estevanico. However, the linkage is not absolutely clear and the kachina may predate contact.[4] In addition, although usually black, there are white or albino Chakwaina representations.[5]


  1. ^ a b c Koenig, Seymore H. (2005). Acculturation in the Navajo Eden: New Mexico, 1550-1750. New York: YBK Publishers. 
  2. ^ a b McDonald, Dedra S. (1998). "Intimacy and Empire: Indian-African Interaction in Spanish Colonial New Mexico, 1500-1800". American Indian Quarterly 22 (1/2): 134–156. 
  3. ^ Washburn, Wilcomb E. (1996). The Cambridge history of the native peoples of the Americas, Part 1. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 371. 
  4. ^ Robert Goodwin, Crossing the Continent, 1527-1540, Introduction, New York: Harper Collins, 2008
  5. ^ Bromburg, Eric (1986). The Hopi approach to the art of Kachina doll carving. Schiffer Publishing.