Chalon-sur-Saône

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Chalon-sur-Saône
Cathédrale Saint-Vincent de Chalons-sur-Saône.jpg
Coat of arms of Chalon-sur-Saône
Coat of arms
Chalon-sur-Saône is located in France
Chalon-sur-Saône
Chalon-sur-Saône
Coordinates: 46°46′50″N 4°51′10″E / 46.7806°N 4.8528°E / 46.7806; 4.8528Coordinates: 46°46′50″N 4°51′10″E / 46.7806°N 4.8528°E / 46.7806; 4.8528
Country France
Region Burgundy
Department Saône-et-Loire
Arrondissement Chalon-sur-Saône
Intercommunality Le grand Chalon
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014) Christophe Sirugue
Area
 • Land1 15.22 km2 (5.88 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Population2 48,376
 • Population2 density 3,200/km2 (8,200/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 71076 / 71100
Elevation 172–190 m (564–623 ft)
(avg. 185 m or 607 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Chalon-sur-Saône (French pronunciation: ​[ʃa.lɔ̃.syʁ.son]) is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Burgundy in eastern France.

It is a sub-prefecture of the department. It is the largest city in the department; however, the department capital is the smaller city of Mâcon.

Geography[edit]

Chalon-sur-Saône lies in the south of the Burgundy region of France. It is located on the Saône river, and was once a busy port, acting as a distribution point for local wines which were sent up and down the Saône river and the Canal du Centre, opened in 1792.

Tribute to Nicéphore Niépce

History[edit]

Though the site was a capital of the Aedui and objects of La Tène culture have been retrieved from the bed of the river here, the first mention of Cavillonum is found in Caesar's Gallic Wars (VII, chs. 42 and 90). The Roman city already served as a river port and hub of road communications, of the Via Agrippa and side routes.[1] In 354 AD the Roman Emperor, Constantius II stationed the Roman 7th Army in Chalon (then called Cabyllona) for an invasion against the brother kings, Gundomad and Vadomar of the Alamanni. However, not having had received supplies, the Roman troops revolted, and were pacified by the grand chamberlain Eusebius with money. In Late Antiquity the city had dwindled so much that a wall round it encircled fifteen hectares.[2]

Saint Marcellus of Chalons (Saint Marcel) is said to have been martyred here in 179 AD; his cult was encouraged by Guntram, king of Burgundy from 561 to 592,[3] who died at Chalons. The bishopric of Chalon-sur-Saône, a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lyon, was established here in the same century, and a Church Council was held here from 644-655.[4] The see was merged into the diocese of Autun shortly after the French Revolution.

Chalon in the 19th century is best known as the birthplace of photography. Its most famous resident, Nicéphore Niépce also has a lycée (secondary school) named after him. There is a museum which contains some early photography relics, located on the Quai des Messageries in the town, containing more than two million photographs and many old artefacts such as cameras and other equipment for old and modern photography. Also on display are Niépce's 1807 Pyréolophore which is probably the world's first internal combustion engine, plus his 1818 implementation of a draisienne for which he coined the word vélocipède.[5]

Another famous resident is Dominique Vivant Denon (1747–1825) who was involved in the creation of the Louvre museum, converting the former royal palace into a museum after the French Revolution.

Main sights[edit]

  • St. Vincent's Cathedral on the Place Saint-Vincent, which has some elements dating from the eighth century and a neo-gothic nineteenth century façade.
  • This city square also has a number of cafés and a busy market on Fridays and Sundays.

Transport[edit]

The Gare de Chalon-sur-Saône railway station offers connections with Paris, Dijon, Lyon and several regional destinations. The public transportation company STAC offers a bus network ZOOM, with a free bus in the center completed with a bike sharing scheme Réflex.

Education[edit]

An institute of research of the engineering school Arts et Métiers ParisTech settled in Chalon in 1997. This institute offers Graduate and Doctoral programs in the domain of virtual reality and image engineering.

Events[edit]

Chalon-sur-Saône hosts, every year in July, an international street artists festival, called Chalon dans la Rue ("Chalon in the street"). Over four days, artists from across Europe and beyond come to the streets of Chalon to perform, mostly for free, in music, theatre, acrobatics, comedy, etc. A program is made available by the town, so people know of the main groups performing, and several newspapers report what performances are must-see and where and when to find them. Plus, there are always things to discover simply by wandering down the streets.

Notable people[edit]

Notable people associated with the city include:

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Chalon-sur-Saône is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • INSEE
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. 
  • Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (German)
  1. ^ Pierre Lévêque. ed.Histoire de Chalon-sur-Saône :19.
  2. ^ Gérard Coulon, Les Gallo-Romains : vivre, travailler, croire, se distraire - 54 av. J.-C.-486 ap. J.-C., Paris : Errance, 2006. Collection Hespérides, ISBN 2-87772-331-3, p. 21.
  3. ^ Jacques Le Goff, Time, Work, and Culture in the Middle Ages :160 note 5.
  4. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter Damian
  5. ^ Niepce Museum, Other Inventions
  6. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 2013-07-11. 
  7. ^ Like Chalon, which has a large Saint-Gobain factory, St. Helens is a prominent centre of glass manufacturing.

External links[edit]