Chama Cha Mapinduzi

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Revolutionary Party
Chama Cha Mapinduzi  (Swahili)
Abbreviation CCM
Chairman Jakaya Kikwete
Secretary-General Abdulrahman Kinana
Spokesperson Nape Nnauye
Founder Julius Nyerere
Aboud Jumbe
Founded 5 February 1977 (1977-02-05)
Merger of TANU and ASP
Headquarters Dodoma, Tanzania
Newspaper Uhuru
Youth wing Umoja wa Vijana wa CCM
Women's wing Umoja wa Wanawake Tanzania
Parents' wing Wazazi
Membership  (2013) 6.4 million[1]
Ideology Ujamaa (past)
Democratic socialism
Political position Centre-left
International affiliation Socialist International,
Progressive Alliance
African affiliation Former Liberation Movements of SA
Colours          
Bunge
263 / 357
Zanzibar HoR
48 / 81
EALA
7 / 9
SADC PF
4 / 5
Pan-African Parliament
4 / 5
Election symbol
A hoe and a hammer
Party flag
Ccmtanzania.png
Website
www.ccm.or.tz
Politics of Tanzania
Political parties
Elections

The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM; English: Party of the Revolution) is the dominant ruling party in Tanzania and the longest reigning ruling party in Africa.[2][3] It was formed in 1977 following the merger of Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) which were the sole operating parties in Tanzania mainland and the semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar respectively.

Since the restoration of multi-party system, CCM has continued to retain its popularity and the voter's confidence, having won all the past four general elections in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Jakaya Kikwete, its presidential candidate in 2005 won by a landslide receiving more than 80% of the popular vote. In the last election, it won 186 of the 239 constituencies, achieving an outright majority in the National Assembly.[4] The next election will be the most challenging the party has ever faced.

History[edit]

The party was created February 5, 1977, under the leadership of Julius Nyerere as the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), the then ruling party in Tanganyika, and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), the then ruling party in Zanzibar.

TANU/CCM has dominated the politics of Tanzania since the independence of Tanganyika in 1962. Due to the merger with the ASP, from 1977 it has been also the ruling party in Zanzibar, though there its grip on power has been more contested by the Civic United Front (CUF).

From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. Every five years, its national chairman was automatically elected to a five-year term as president; he was confirmed in office via a referendum. At the same time, voters were presented with two CCM candidates for the National Assembly or Bunge. This changed on July 1, 1992, when amendments to the Constitution and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly.

Ideology[edit]

Originally a champion of African socialism, upholder of the system of collectivized agriculture known as Ujamaa and firmly oriented to the left, the CCM espouses today a more neoliberal approach. It conceives of economic modernization and free market policies as ways to raise the living standards of the citizens of Tanzania, one of the poorest countries in the world. CCM hopes to continue to privatize and modernize in order to ensure:

  1. Increased productivity which would boost the country's revenue
  2. Increased employment and improved management
  3. Acquisition of new and modern technology
  4. Increased and expanded local and international markets for our products, and;
  5. Improved and strengthened private sector serving as the engine of the national economy while the government sharpens its focus on provision of social services, infrastructure, security and governance of the state.

Similarly, the CCM's major foreign policy focus is economic diplomacy within the international system, and peaceful coexistence with neighbors.

Electoral performance[edit]

CCM has won all presidential elections at both union level and in Zanzibar at autonomous level under the multi-party system: 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. It also dominates the legislature.

In the elections for Zanzibar's presidency and House of Representatives, held on 30 October 2005, incumbent president and CCM candidate Amani Abeid Karume won with 53.18% of the vote, while the party won 30 seats out of 50.

In the national elections for Tanzania's presidency and National Assembly, held on 14 December 2005, Foreign Minister and CCM candidate Jakaya Kikwete won with 80.28% of the vote. Out of the 232 seats filled through direct election, the CCM won 206.

On 31 October 2010, Jakaya Kikwete was reelected president with 62.8% of the vote, while CCM obtains 186 out of the 239 direct seats.

CCM was admitted into the Socialist International as a full member at the SI's spring congress on 4-5 February 2013.[5]

Leadership[edit]

The party has a strong political base in rural Tanzania.
A mural of the party's candidates in the southern Tanzanian town of Lindi.
Jakaya Kikwete, the party's incumbent Chairman, won the 2005 election by a landslide (80.28%) on a 72 per cent voter turnout.
National Chairman
Name Tenure
Julius Nyerere 1977–1985
Ali Hassan Mwinyi 1986–1995
Benjamin Mkapa 1996–2005
Jakaya Kikwete 2006–present
National Vice Chairman (Mainland)
Name Tenure
John Malecela
Pius Msekwa 2007–2012
Philip Mangula 2012–present
National Vice Chairman (Zanzibar)
Name Tenure
Salmin Amour
Amani Abeid Karume ? – 2012
Ali Mohamed Shein 2012–present
Secretaries General
Name Tenure
Pius Msekwa 1977–1982
Rashidi Kawawa 1982–1990
Horace Kolimba 1990–1995
Lawrence Gama 1995–1997
Philip Mangula 1997–2007
Yusuf Makamba 2007–2011
Wilson Mukama 2011–2012
Abdulrahman Kinana 2012–present

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kikwete deplores divisive politics". Daily News (Tanzania). 4 February 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  2. ^ O'Gorman, Melanie (26 April 2012). "Why the CCM won't lose: the roots of single-party dominance in Tanzania". Journal of Contemporary African Studies (Taylor & Francis) 30 (2): 313–333. doi:10.1080/02589001.2012.669566. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  3. ^ Manson, Katrina (30 September 2013). "Three issues loom over Tanzania’s political scene". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  4. ^ Dagne, Ted (31 August 2011). "Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  5. ^ "Decisions of the Council". Socialist International. February 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 

External links[edit]