Chamber of Deputies (Brazil)
|Chamber of Deputies
Câmara dos Deputados do Brasil
|Open list proportional representation|
|October 3, 2010|
|October 5, 2014|
|National Congress Building
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Chamber of Deputies (Portuguese: Câmara dos Deputados do Brasil) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. As of 2006, the chamber comprises 513 deputies, who are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. The current president of the Chamber is deputy Henrique Eduardo Alves (PMDB-RN).
The Legislatures are counted from the first meeting of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate, on 6 May 1826, in the imperial era (the Chamber of Deputies met for preparatory sessions from 29 April 1826 onwards to elect its officers and conduct other preliminary business, but the Legislature was formally opened on 6 May). The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate were created by Brazil's first Constitution, the Constitution of the Empire of Brazil, adopted in 1824. The previous Constituent and Legislative Assembly of the Empire of Brazil, a unicameral National Assembly, that was convened in 1823 and that was dissolved by Emperor Pedro I before adopting a Constitution is not counted among the Legislatures. Thus, the numbering includes only the bicameral Legislatures that existed from 1826 to the present day, and includes only Legislatures elected after the adoption of the first Brazilian Constitution.
In the imperial era, the national Legislature was named General Assembly. It was made up of the Chamber of Deputies and of a Senate. Senators were elected for life and the Senate was a permanent institution, whereas the Chamber of Deputies, unless dissolved earlier, was elected every four years. When Brazil became a Republic and a Federal State, the model of a bicameral Legislature was retained in the Federal level, but the Parliament was renamed as National Congress. The National Congress is made up of the Chamber of Deputies and of a Federal Senate, and both Houses have fixed terms and cannot be dissolved earlier. Under Brazil's present Constitution, adopted in 1988, Senators are elected to eight-year terms, and Deputies are elected every four years.
Each Brazilian State and the Federal District are represented in the Senate by an equal number of three Senators each. However, the number of deputies elected to represent the people of each State and of the Federal District in the Chamber of Deputies is proportional to the size of the population of the respective State, or of the Federal District. However, no delegation from a State or from the Federal District in the Chamber of Deputies can be made up of less than eight or more than seventy seats. Thus, the least populous State elects eight Federal Deputies and the more populous state elects seventy Federal Deputies. Those minimum and maximum numbers of seats in a delegation favour the smaller States at the expense of the more populous States, and as a result of those restrictions the size of the delegations is not exactly proportional to the population of the several States: if it weren't for the maximum limit of seventy Deputies per State, the more populous States would have to elect way more than seventy Deputies, to compensate for the fact that the least populous state elects eight Deputies.
While the Senate is not renewed all at once (there are two classes of Senators, and every four years either a third or two thirds of the Senate seats are up for election), in the elections to the Chamber of Deputies, every four years, all seats are up for election at once.
The numbering of the Legislatures is continuous, including the Legislatures of the imperial General Assembly and of the republican National Congress. The inauguration of a new composition of Chamber of Deputies for a four-year term of office marks the start of a new Legislature.
- 1st Legislature (1826–1829)
- 2nd Legislature (1830–1833)
- 3rd Legislature (1834–1837)
- 4th Legislature (1838–1841)
- 5th Legislature (1842–1844)
- 6th Legislature (1845–1847)
- 7th Legislature (1848)
- 8th Legislature (1849–1852)
- 9th Legislature (1853–1856)
- 10th Legislature (1857–1860)
- 11th Legislature (1861–1863)
- 12th Legislature (1864–1866)
- 13th Legislature (1867–1868)
- 14th Legislature (1869–1872)
- 15th Legislature (1872–1875)
- 16th Legislature (1876–1877)
- 17th Legislature (1878–1881)
- 18th Legislature (1882–1884)
- 19th Legislature (1885)
- 20th Legislature (1886–1889), dissolved by the 15 November 1889 military coup that proclaimed Brazil a Republic
- 21st Legislature: had already been elected to succeed the 20th legislature, but was not installed due to the proclamation of the Republic. New elections were summoned by the provisional government of the Republic in 1890.
- 21st Legislature (1890–1891), discharged the role of Constituent Congress (1890–1891). The act that summoned the elections for the Constituent Congress and that empowered it to draft a Constitution already established that the Congress would be made up of two Houses, an elected Senate with equal representation for the Brazilian States, and a Chamber of Deputies, each State having a number of Deputies proportional to the size of its population. During the drafting of the Constitution, the Congress was to meet in joint session. The Congress was required to adopt a Constitution that conformed to the republican form of government, and that preserved the recently declared Federal model of the State.
- 22nd Legislature (1891–1893)
- 23rd Legislature (1894–1896)
- 24th Legislature (1897–1899)
- 25th Legislature (1900–1902)
- 26th Legislature (1903–1905)
- 27th Legislature (1906–1908)
- 28th Legislature (1909–1911)
- 29th Legislature (1912–1914)
- 30th Legislature (1915–1917)
- 31st Legislature (1918–1920)
- 32nd Legislature (1921–1923)
- 33rd Legislature (1924–1926)
- 34th Legislature (1927–1929)
- 35th Legislature (1930): dissolved by the provisional government after the 1930 Revolution.
- 36th Legislature (1933–1935), discharged the role of Constituent Assembly (1933–1934)
- 37th Legislature (1935–1937), dissolved by the Estado Novo coup d'état.
Legislatures elected under the Republic of 46
- 38th Legislature (1946–1950), discharged the role of National Constituent Assembly (1946).
- 39th Legislature (1951–1954)
- 40th Legislature (1955–1958)
- 41st Legislature (1959–1962)
- 42nd Legislature (1963–1967), already under the Military Regime instituted by the 1964 military coup, the legislature discharged the role of Constituent Congress (1966–1967), under a decree of the military government (AI-4, Fourth Institutional Act), that commissioned the drafting of a new Constitution. The Constitution was voted under duress.
Legislatures elected under the Military Regime
- 43rd Legislature (1967–1970)
- 44th Legislature (1971–1975)
- 45th Legislature (1975–1979)
- 46th Legislature (1979–1983)
- 47th Legislature (1983–1987). The Chamber of Deputies was elected under the process of gradual return to democracy. During that legislature, the last military President handed over power to the first civilian Administration, still elected indirectly, by means of an Electoral College. The 1985 Electoral College, however, was placed under no duress, and elected the Opposition candidates for President and Vice-President. After the inauguration of the civilian Administration, the 47th Legislature passed a Constitutional Amendment, empowering the next Legislature, that would convene in February 1987 after the 1986 legislative elections, to discharge the role of National Constituent Assembly, empowered to adopt a new Constitution to replace the one inheirited from the Military Regime.
Legislatures elected after the restoration of civilian government ("New Republic")
- 48th Legislature (1987–1991), discharged the role of National Constituent Assembly (1987–1988).
- 49th Legislature (1991–1995)
- 50th Legislature (1995–1999)
- 51st Legislature (1999–2003)
- 52nd Legislature (2003–2007)
- 53rd Legislature (2007–2011)
- 54th Legislature (2011–2015)
The number of seats per state is distributed according to the number of inhabitants per state, according to the official measurement taken by IBGE by Census. However, this proportionality is limited to a minimum of eight members and a maximum of seventy members per state.
The Brazilian population is represented by one deputy for each 362,013 inhabitants on average, but the minimum that each state has is 8 seats in Congress. Therefore states with 3,258,117 inhabitants onwards have 9 to 70 deputies. Following this scenario for example the city of São Paulo with its 11,253,503 inhabitants are represented by 31 deputies of the total members of the state and the rest of the state with its 28,670,588 inhabitants are represented by 39 MPs(Member of Parliament).
There is a distorted representation of the Brazilian states in congress, having benches representing on average more than the proportion of the population that owns and others representing less as São Paulo and Pará latter that lacks four MPs proportional to its population, but is below ceiling and had the referendum as of 11 December 2011, that plebiscite only in that state, on the approval or not of the division of the state into three, namely: The very Pará, Carajás and Tapajós.
That proporttionality makes Roraima is represented by a representative for every 51,000 inhabitants and, at the other extreme, São Paulo, is represented by one representative for every 585,000 inhabitants. This difference is reflected in the representation of the states in the Brazilian Congress with benches states as Roraima with 681% (% of MPs /% of the population (Census 2010)) of the population represented by their deputies in the Congress and proportionality of São Paulo with 63% of the population represented by their deputies in the Congress of proportionality where the percentage representing the chamber divided by the percentage of the population. The population of the state of São Paulo by proportionality in Congress due to the maximum limits of 70 MPs give up having 40 more seats in congress of 110 members who represent the population proportion, saving 61,000 dollars per month for each member.
|Federal State||Number of Members||% Of total Members||Population (on the census also called Censo 2010)||% Of the population (Censo 2010)||Representativeness (Inhabitants / Mr)||Representatives of national average||% Representative Distortion||% Of the population represented by MPs||Deputies required ignoring the limits|
|São Paulo||70||13,6%||39 924 091||21,5%||570 344||110||-7,90%||63%||40|
|Minas Gerais||53||10,3%||19 159 260||10,3%||361 495||53||0,00%||100%||0|
|Rio de Janeiro||46||9%||15 180 636||8,2%||330 014||42||0,80%||110%||-4|
|Bahia||39||7,6%||13 633 969||7,3%||349 589||38||0,30%||104%||-1|
|Rio Grande do Sul||31||6%||10 576 758||5,7%||341 186||29||0,30%||106%||-2|
|Paraná||30||5,8%||10 226 737||5,5%||340 891||28||0,30%||106%||-2|
|Pernambuco||25||4,9%||8 541 250||4,6%||341 650||24||0,30%||106%||-1|
|Ceará||22||4,3%||8 450 527||4,4%||371 822||23||-0,10%||94%||1|
|Maranhão||18||3,5%||6 424 340||3,5%||356 908||18||0,00%||101%||0|
|Goiás||17||3,3%||5 849 105||3,1%||344 065||16||0,20%||105%||-1|
|Pará||17||3,3%||7 443 904||4%||437 877||21||-0,70%||83%||4|
|Santa Catarina||16||3,1%||6 178 603||3,3%||386 163||17||-0,20%||94%||1|
|Paraíba||12||2,3%||3 753 633||2%||312 803||10||0,30%||116%||-2|
|Espírito Santo||10||1,9%||3 392 775||1,8%||339 278||9||0,10%||107%||-1|
|Piauí||10||1,9%||3 086 448||1,7%||308 645||9||0,20%||117%||-1|
|Alagoas||9||1,7%||3 093 994||1,7%||343 777||9||0,00%||105%||0|
|Acre||8||1,6%||707 125||0,4%||88 391||2||1,20%||410%||-6|
|Amazonas||8||1,6%||3 350 773||1,8%||418 847||9||-0,20%||86%||1|
|Amapá||8||1,6%||648 553||0,3%||81 069||2||1,30%||447%||-6|
|Distrito Federal||8||1,6%||2 469 489||1,3%||308 686||7||0,30%||117%||-1|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||8||1,6%||2 404 256||1,3%||300 532||7||0,30%||120%||-1|
|Mato Grosso||8||1,6%||2 954 625||1,6%||369 328||8||0,00%||98%||0|
|Rio Grande do Norte||8||1,6%||3 121 451||1,7%||390 181||9||-0,10%||93%||1|
|Rondônia||8||1,6%||1 535 625||0,8%||191 953||4||0,80%||189%||-4|
|Roraima||8||1,6%||425 398||0,2%||53 175||1||1,40%||681%||-7|
|Sergipe||8||1,6%||2 036 227||1,1%||254 528||6||0,50%||142%||-2|
|Tocantins||8||1,6%||1 373 551||0,7%||171 694||4||0,90%||211%||-4|
|Total||513||100%||185 712 713||100%||362 013 (representative national average)||514 (Population / representative national average)||0,30% accumulated (% of total Members -% of the population)||156% average (Number of Members / Representatives of national average)||1|
The House of Representatives is composed of the Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil by College Leaders in the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil and the Commissions, which can be permanent, temporary or special inquiry.
Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil
The current composition of the Board of the Chamber of Deputies is the following:
President: Henrique Eduardo Alves (PMDB-RN)
1 St Vice President:André Vargas (PT-PR)
2 Nd Vice President:Fábio Faria (PSD-RN)
1st Secretary:Márcio Bittar (PSDB-AC)
2nd Secretary:Simon Sessim (PP-RJ)
3td Secretary:Maurice Quintella Lessa (PR-AL)
4th Secretary:Biffi (PT-MS)
1° Alternate Registrar:Gonzaga Patriota (PSB-PE)
2° Alternate Registrar:Wolney Queiroz (PDT-PE)
3º Alternate Registrar:Vitor Penido (DEM-MG)
4° Alternate Registrar:Takayama (PSC-PR)
On March 6 of 2012, was defined division of committees between parties. The President's House, Marco Maia, believes that the proportionality between the parties / blocs must take into account the data of the last election. Thus, PT and PMDB, with the highest benches, were three committees (the PT made the choice first). DEM and PSDB, the two largest opposition, were two commissions each. On the other hand, PSD, most harmed by this decision, filed a lawsuit in the Supreme Court (STF) trying to reverse this decision.
- Federal institutions of Brazil
- 54th Chamber of Deputies of Brazil
- 53rd Chamber of Deputies of Brazil
- National Congress of Brazil
- Federal Senate of Brazil
- Chamber of Deputies Home Page: O Império do Brasil
- Chamber of Deputies Home Page: First Republic
- Chamber of Deputies Home Page: The Second Republic
- Chamber of Deputies Home Page: The Fourth Republic
- IBGE Censo 2010
- MP - definition of MP by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia
- pt:Plebiscito sobre a divisão do estado do Pará
- Gasto com deputados caminha para R$ 1 bilhão | Congresso em Foco
- Finch, Nathalia (March 6, 2012), G1, "defines the distribution of the standing committees" Missing or empty
- Santos, Deborah (February 27, 2012), G1, "going to have the Supreme Command of committees in the House" Missing or empty
- , G1, March 7, 2012, "elect chairpersons for House committees" Missing or empty
- Comissão de Agricultura, Pecuária, Abastecimento e Desenvolvimento Rural - CAPADR — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Integração Nacional, Desenvolvimento Regional e da Amazônia - CINDRA — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Ciência e Tecnologia, Comunicação e Informática - CCTCI — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Constituição e Justiça e de Cidadania - CCJC — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Defesa do Consumidor - CDC — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Indústria e Comércio - CDEIC — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Desenvolvimento Urbano - CDU — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Direitos Humanos e Minorias - CDHM — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Educação - CE — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Finanças e Tributação - CFT — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Fiscalização Financeira e Controle - CFFC — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Legislação Participativa - CLP — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentável - CMADS — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Minas e Energia - CME — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Relações Exteriores e de Defesa Nacional - CREDN — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Segurança Pública e Combate ao Crime Organizado - CSPCCO — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Seguridade Social e Família - CSSF — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Trabalho, de Administração e Serviço Público - CTASP — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Turismo e Desporto - CTD — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Viação e Transportes - CVT — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Official website of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil
- Photo 360° of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (Portuguese)
- List of all the presidents of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies (Portuguese)