|(Lake Champlain Monster, Champtanystropheus americansus)|
|Sub grouping||Lake Monster / Sea Serpent|
|Country||United States Canada|
Champ, or Champie, or Big Rem, is the name given to a reputed lake monster living in Lake Champlain, a natural freshwater lake in North America, partially situated across the U.S.-Canada border in the Canadian province of Quebec and partially situated across the Vermont-New York border. While there is no scientific evidence for the cryptid's existence, there have been over 300 reported sightings. The legend of the monster is considered a draw for tourism in the Burlington, Vermont and Plattsburgh, New York areas.
Like the Loch Ness Monster, while most regard Champ as legend, others have speculated it is possible such a creature does live deep in the lake, possibly a relative of the plesiosaur, an extinct group of aquatic reptiles.
Cultural importance to New York and Vermont 
The Champ legend has become a revenue-generating attraction. For example, the village of Port Henry, New York, has erected a giant model of Champ and holds "Champ Day" on the first Saturday of every August. As the mascot of Vermont's lone Minor League Baseball affiliate, the Vermont Lake Monsters, Champ became more prominent after the team was renamed from the Vermont Expos to the Vermont Lake Monsters. Champ has been the primary attraction of the New York - Penn League affiliate since their inception. Several nearby establishments, including a car wash, use "Champ" as a logo.
History of the legend 
An account of a creature in Lake Champlain was ostensibly given in 1609 by French explorer Samuel de Champlain, the founder of Québec and the lake's namesake, who is supposed to have spotted the creature as he was fighting the Iroquois on the bank of the lake. However, in actuality no such sighting was recorded, and it has since been traced back to a 1970 article.
The first reported sighting actually came in 1883 when Sheriff Nathan H. Mooney claimed that he had seen a “…gigantic water serpent about 50 yards away” from where he was on the shore. He claimed that he was so close that he could see “round white spots inside its mouth” and that “the creature appeared to be about 25 to 30 feet in length”. Mooney’s sighting led to many eyewitnesses coming forward with their own accounts of Champ sightings. Mooney’s story predated the public Loch Ness controversy by 50 years.
Champ became so popular that P. T. Barnum, in the late 19th century, put a reward of $50,000 up for a carcass of Champ. Barnum wanted the carcass of Champ so that he could include it in his epic World’s Fair Show (Krystek 3).
Some believe that Champ may be a plesiosaur similar to “Nessie”, claiming the two lakes have much in common. Like Loch Ness, Lake Champlain is over 400 feet (120 m) deep, and both lakes were formed from retreating glaciers. Believers also claim both lakes support fish populations large enough to feed a supposed sea or lake monster (Krystek 1). This legend would require either a single animal, or a sizable breeding population.
Mansi photograph 
In 1977, amateur photographer Sandra Mansi released a photograph that appeared to show a plesiosaur-like body and neck sticking out of the lake. Mansi later showed the photo, which is similar to the famous "Surgeon's photo" of the Loch Ness Monster, to Joseph W. Zarzynski.
The entire bay of the lake where the photograph reportedly was taken is no deeper than 14 feet (4.3 m). According to Joe Nickell, there are few explanations for how a giant creature could swim, let alone hide, in such shallow water. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the object in the photograph could possibly be a rising tree trunk or log. Rotting trees often gather gas in the process of decay, and sometimes rise to the water's surface at considerable speed.
Recent reports 
Champ reportedly can be seen in a video taken by fishermen Dick Affolter and his stepson Pete Bodette in the summer of 2005. Close examination of the images may be interpreted either as a head and neck of a plesiosaur-like animal and even an open mouth in one frame and a closed mouth in another; or as a fish or eel. Although two retired FBI forensic image analysts, who reviewed the tape, said it appears authentic and unmanipulated, one of them added that "there's no place in there that I can actually see an animal or any other object on the surface".
One piece of evidence, though not a "sighting" per se, is the recording of echolocation from within the lake by the Fauna Communications Research Institute in 2003, working as part of a Discovery Channel program. The group has concluded that the sounds they have recorded are similar to that of a Beluga Whale or perhaps an Orca, but not of a known animal, and no dolphin or whale species have been previously known to live in the lake. Mammals are the only animals capable of echolocation and nothing in freshwater is known to echolocate except for freshwater dolphin's, porpoises and beluga whales (which occasionally swim up rivers temporarily in Alaska to feed and once inhabited the region when it was connected to the sea). The echolocation itself was recorded in three different areas of lake Champlain including a recently discovered man-made Channel buried in the deepest part of the lake, in which a species of large mammals can live undetected. Analysis conducted by the scientists who recorded the sound suggests the creature has an extremely advanced brain (unlike those which a plesiosaur and basilosaurus are thought to have possessed due to their small cranial capacity), however they could have evolved this unique ability in order to navigate the murky waters in the lake after being possibly trapped there like a species of sea horse found in the lake after it was completely cut off from the sea about 10,000 years ago due to continental changes which transformed the Champlain Sea into the now Lake Champlain). 
Possible explanations 
There are several hypotheses about Champ's possible identity. Several popular hypotheses among skeptics are these:
1. Misidentifications of common animals: Some skeptics propose that Champ sightings are merely misidentifications of common animals that live in Lake Champlain, such as otters, beavers, diving birds, and large fish (such as Eels and Lake Sturgeon).
2. Misidentifications of inanimate objects: Others believe that Champ sightings could easily be explained by numerous nonliving phenomena, such as logs, waves, or rotting vegetation.
3. Hoaxes: Another skeptical hypothesis is that several Champ sightings could possibly be explained as deliberate hoaxes, presumably for money, or fame.
Exotic species of large animals 
Believers in Champ often cite various examples of large and exotic creatures that are possible candidates for Champ. These include:
1. Plesiosaurs: Similar to "Nessie" of Loch Ness in Scotland, many people theorize that Champ is a surviving Plesiosaur. Plesiosaurs were a group of extinct Sauropterygian reptiles that lived during the Mesozoic Era and died out around 65.5 million years ago, along with Pterosaurs and non-avian dinosaurs. There are, however, a few problems with this hypothesis. One of them is that plesiosaurs might have been cold-blooded, so it would be extremely difficult for them to survive in the waters of Lake Champlain, which can get very cold during the Winter. Another flaw with this hypothesis is that new studies have shown that the neck anatomy of plesiosaurs probably prevented them from raising their heads and necks up out of the water like a Swan, as is often depicted in several sightings and photographs of Champ, including the famous Sandra Mansi Photograph. However, proponents of this hypothesis such as the British cryptozoologist Dr. Karl P.N. Shuker, defend this hypothesis by hypothesizing that a surviving plesiosaur might possibly have evolved an ability to tolerate colder temperatures, as well as a different neck structure.
2. Basilosaurus: Perhaps the most prominent supporter of this hypothesis is cryptozoologist Roy P. Mackal, who is of the opinion that most lake monster sightings around the world can be explained as sightings of surviving Zeuglodons. Zeuglodons, or Basilosaurs, were large, serpentine ancient whales that lived during the Eocene Epoch. The shape of their bodies appears to fit most descriptions of Champ, especially the ones which describe it as looking like a gigantic sea serpent.
3. Giant Eel: This is also one of the most popular explanations for reports of lake monsters. A Giant Eel would appear to fit well with several of the eyewitness descriptions of Champ. A hypothetical thick-bodied eel was proposed by Roy Mackal in his 1976 book The Monsters of Loch Ness, in order to account for sightings of Nessie, and it is possible that Champ might also be an unknown species of gigantic, thick-bodied eel.
4. Pinniped: Several researchers, including Bernard Heuvelmans and Darren Naish, have theorized that an unknown species of giant pelagic, long-necked Pinniped might be responsible for sightings of sea monsters in the world's oceans. Some researchers have also extended this hypothesis to include reports of lake monster sightings as well, including Champ. A potential problem for this hypothesis is that pinnipeds tend to be very noisy and social animals, therefore making it hard to believe that they could remain hidden in the lake for so long without anybody having ever noticed them. However, this problem could potentially be solved via evolution, since this hypothetical pinniped could behave very differently from actual, known species of pinnipeds.
5. Tanystropheus: This hypothesis was proposed by Champ researcher Dennis Hall, who claims to have seen Champ 20 times. According to Hall, in 1976, his father caught a strange-looking reptile, on the shore of Lake Champlain. He then took it to scientists, who concluded that it was unlike any known species of living reptile. Unfortunately, however, this specimen was later lost. Hall then saw a picture of a Tanystropheus, and concluded that it was the most likely candidate, for Champ. However, there are numerous problems, with this hypothesis, as well. This is because Tanystropheus was a very specialized species of aquatic reptile, from the Triassic Period. This, therefore, makes it very unlikely, that it could have survived all the way to the present-day, and still inhabits Lake Champlain.
See also 
- McKinstry, Lohr (28 September 2008). "Lake Champlain expedition searches for Champy". The Press-Republican (Plattsburgh). Retrieved 5 October 2009.
- "Canada's Lake Creature: Champ". Welcome to Ogopogo Country. Centre culturel Marie-Anne-Gaboury. 2001. Retrieved 25 October 2009.[dead link]
- "Champ, the Famed Monster of Lake Champlain". Lake Champlain Land Trust. Retrieved 25 October 2009.[dead link]
- Champ, the Lake Champlain "Monster"
- Joe, Nickell (July/August 2003). "Legend of the Lake Champlain Monster". Skeptical Inquirer. CSI. Retrieved 2010-04-03.
- "Champ History - From Ancient Times". Lake Champlain Region. Lake Champlain Visitors Center. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
- "The Legend of Champ". The Adirondack Coast. Adirondack Coast Visitors & Convention Bureau. Archived from the original on 30 July 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2009. Archive copy at the Wayback Machine
- "Sea Monsters in Vermont". Kids Pages. Vermont Secretary of State. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- "Cape Ann Serpent on Lake Champlain". Plattsburgh Republican. 1819-04-24.
- "The Search for Champ". Lake Placid/Essex County Visitor’s Bureau. Retrieved 2010-04-03.
- Chorvinsky, Mark. ""Champ" of Lake Champlain". Strangemag.com. NESSIE and Other Lake Monsters. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- Phillips, Adam (21 March 2006). "Is Lake Champlain Home to a Sea Serpent?". Voice of America. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- Radford, Benjamin (April 2004). "Lake Champlain Monster". Fortean Times.
- "Legend of the Lake Champlain Monster". The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- "Is There a Monster in Lake Champlain?". GMA. ABC News. 22 February 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- "Lake Champlain Research". Fauna Communications Research Institute. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- Eberhart, George M. (2002). Mysterious Creatures: A Guide To Cryptozoology: Volume 1. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Champ, the Lake Champlain "Monster"
- Champ sightings board[dead link]
- The Untold Story of Champ: A Social History of America's Loch Ness Monster (SUNY Press, 2012)