Tug and barge on the Champlain Canal during the 1980s
|Location||Rensselaer / Saratoga / Washington counties, New York, US; extends from Waterford through Fort Edward to Whitehall|
|Architect||Wright, Benjamin; Jarvis, John B.|
|Architectural style||Transportation Canal|
|NRHP Reference #||
|Added to NRHP||September 01, 1976|
The Champlain Canal is a 60-mile (97 km) canal that connects the south end of Lake Champlain to the Hudson River in New York. It was simultaneously constructed with the Erie Canal and is now part of the New York State Canal System and the Lakes to Locks Passage.
The canal was proposed in 1812 and construction authorized in 1817. By 1818, 12 miles (19 km) were completed, and in 1819 the canal was opened from Fort Edward to Lake Champlain. The canal was officially opened on September 10, 1823. It was an immediate financial success, and carried substantial commercial traffic until the 1970s.
Today, the enlarged barge canal provides a convenient route from the Atlantic Ocean and Hudson River to Lake Champlain for recreational boaters. The canal begins about 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the locks at the Troy Federal Dam, at the point where the Erie Canal splits from the Hudson River. The Champlain Canal follows the Hudson River north for approximately 35 miles (56 km), with six locks providing navigation around dams on the Hudson River, until it reaches lock C-7 in Fort Edward, New York. At this point, the canal follows a constructed channel for approximately 25 miles (40 km), with five additional locks, bringing the canal to the southern end of Lake Champlain at Whitehall, New York.
The elevation on the Hudson River portion increases from 15 feet (4.6 m) above sea level at the southern end, on the northern end of the locks at the Troy Federal Dam, to about 130 feet (40 m) above sea level at lock C-7, where the canal leaves the Hudson River. The elevation of the constructed portion reaches a peak of 140 feet (43 m) above sea level between locks C-9 and C-11, then declines to the level of Lake Champlain, between 94 and 100 feet (29 and 30 m) above sea level, at Whitehall. By traveling the length of Lake Champlain, boaters can access the Chambly Canal, which connects Lake Champlain to the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- Whitford, Nobel E. (1906). "6". History of the Canal System of the State of New York. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
- "Champlain Canal Locks". Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Information and Boater's Guide to the New York State Canal System
- History of the Canal System of the State of New York — Champlain Canal
- New York State Canals — Map of the Champlain Canal
- Champlain Canal Net— History and Photographs
- Historic Glens Falls Feeder Canal
- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. NY-6121, "Champlain & Hudson Canal"
- Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. NY-14, "Champlain Canal, Waterford Locks"
- HAER No. NY-184, "Saunders Street Bridge, spanning Champlain Canal" (replaced)
- HAER No. NY-235, "Champlain Canal, Wall"
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