Chan Chan

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For other uses, see Chan Chan (disambiguation).
Chan Chan
Chan chan view, capital of Kingdom Chimu
Chan chan wall Chan chan wall
Adobe detail at Chan Chan Chan Chan
Chan Chan panel
Pelican in chan chan Chan Chan Chanchan carvings
From top: Chan chan view, capital of Kingdom Chimu, Chan chan walls, Adobe detail at Chan Chan, Panel of warriors detail of wall , Pelican in chan chan, Chan Chan Model, a wall in Chan Chan
Map showing location in Peru
Map showing location in Peru
Shown within Peru
Location La Libertad Region, Peru
Coordinates 8°6′38″S 79°4′30″W / 8.11056°S 79.07500°W / -8.11056; -79.07500Coordinates: 8°6′38″S 79°4′30″W / 8.11056°S 79.07500°W / -8.11056; -79.07500
History
Founded AD 850
Cultures Chimor
Official name: Chan Chan Archaeological Zone
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii
Designated 1986 (10th session)
Reference No. 366
Region Latin America and the Caribbean
Endangered 1986–present

The largest Pre-Columbian city in South America, Chan Chan is an archaeological site in the Peruvian region of La Libertad, five km west of Trujillo.[1] Chan Chan covers 20 km² and had a dense urban center of 6 km².[2] Chan Chan was constructed by the Chimor (the kingdom of the Chimú), a late intermediate period civilization which grew out of the remnants of the Moche civilization. The adobe city of Chan Chan, the largest in the world, was built around AD 850 and lasted until its conquest by the Inca Empire in AD 1470. It was the imperial capital where 30,000 people lived.

Chan Chan was added as a UNESCO World Heritage Site on November 28 of 1986.[3] The city is severely threatened by storms from El Niño, which cause heavy rains and flooding on the Peruvian coast. It is in a fertile, well-watered section of the coastal plain.[4] The city's ruins are threatened by earthquakes and looters. Visitors to Chan Chan can enter the Tschudi Complex, a later citadel. There are other Chimú and Moche ruins in the area around Trujillo. This site was discovered by conquistador Francisco Pizarro.

Architecture[edit]

Museum of Chan Chan

The city has ten walled citadels which housed ceremonial rooms, burial chambers, temples, reservoirs and residences. It is triangular, surrounded by 50–60 foot walls. There are no enclosures opening north. The tallest walls shelter against south-westerly winds from the coast. North-facing walls have the greatest sun exposure, serving to block wind and absorb sunlight where fog is frequent. The numerous walls throughout the city create a labyrinth of passages.

The walls are adobe brick covered with a smooth surface into which intricate designs are carved. There are two styles of carving design: one a realistic representation of subjects such as birds, fish, and small mammals, the other a more graphic, stylized representation of the same subjects. The carvings at Chan Chan depict crabs, turtles, and nets for catching sea monsters. Chan Chan, unlike most coastal ruins in Peru, is very close to the Pacific Ocean. In 1998, The "Master Plan for Conservation and Management of the Chan Chan Archeological Complex" is drawn up by the Freedom National Culture Institute of Peru with contributions from the World Heritage Foundation - WHR, ICCROM and GCI. The plan is approved by the Peruvian Government.

Chan Chan, capital of kingdom Chimu

Irrigation[edit]

Ruins of the citadel of Chan Chan in Trujillo, Peru.
Water reserve in Chan Chan.

To increase the farmland surrounding the city, a vast network of canals diverting water from the Moche river was created.[5] It was only with these canals that the city's population could increase. Before the canals, the city relied on wells dug up to 15 meters deep.[6] Many canals to the north were destroyed by a catastrophic flood c. 1100 AD, which was likely the key motivation for the Chimú to refocus their economy to one rooted in foreign resources rather than in subsistence farming.[6] Chan Chan has water reserves called huachaques.

Threats[edit]

The ancient structures of Chan Chan are threatened by erosion due to changes in weather patterns — heavy rains, flooding, and strong winds.[7][8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Smithonian Staff (March 2010), 10 Must-See Endangered Cultural Treasures, Smithsonian 39 (12): 35  - Chan Chan, Peru, End of an Empire by Bruce Hathaway
  2. ^ Moore, J. D. (2005). Cultural Landscapes in the Ancient Andes. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
  3. ^ "Chan Chan la ciudadela de barro que resiste al paso del tiempo". Retrieved November 25, 2012. 
  4. ^ Otto Holstein (1927). Chan-Chan: Capital of the Great Chimu. Geographical Review 17 (1, January 1927): 36–61. doi:10.2307/208132 (subscription required)
  5. ^ http://www.greentracks.com/Chan_Chan.htm
  6. ^ a b The Inca World: The development of pre-Columbian Peru, A.D. 1000-1534 by Laura Laurencich Minelli, Cecilia Bákula, Mireille Vautier – Google Books
  7. ^ Endangered Site: Chan Chan, Peru
  8. ^ Climate Change: Sites in Peril

Further reading[edit]

  • Kubler, George. (1962). The Art and Architecture of Ancient America, Ringwood: Penguin Books Australia Ltd., pp. 247–274.

External links[edit]