Chandigarh

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Chandigarh
Punjabi: ਚੰਡੀਗੜ੍ਹ
City and Union Territory
Open Hand Monument
Open Hand Monument
Chandigarh is located in India
Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Coordinates: 30°45′N 76°47′E / 30.75°N 76.78°E / 30.75; 76.78Coordinates: 30°45′N 76°47′E / 30.75°N 76.78°E / 30.75; 76.78
Country India
Union Territory/City Chandigarh
Seat of Government Chandigarh
Government
 • Administrator of UT Shivraj Patil
 • Mayor Harphool Chandra Kalyan
 • Commissioner Vivek Pratap Singh
Area
 • City and Union Territory 114 km2 (44 sq mi)
Area rank 33
Elevation 350 m (1,150 ft)
Population
 • City and Union Territory 1,054,686
 • Rank 29th
 • Density 9,300/km2 (24,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[1] 960,787
  [2]
Language
 • Official[3] Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 160xxx
Telephone code 91-172-XXX XXXX
ISO 3166 code IN-CH
Vehicle registration CH-01 to CH-04, PB-65, HR-70
HDI Increase
0.892
HDI Category very high
Literacy 81.9
Website chandigarh.nic.in
The city of Chandigarh comprises all of the union territory's area

Chandigarh (Punjabi: ਚੰਡੀਗੜ੍ਹ) is a city in Northern India that serves as the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana. The city of Chandigarh was the first planned city in India (by the Swiss Architect Le Corbusier) post-independence in 1947 and was known internationally for its architecture and urban design.[4] The city was primarily designed by Le Corbusier, but it also has projects designed by architects such as Pierre Jeanneret, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry. The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories by per capita income in the country.[5] The city was reported to be the cleanest in India in 2010, based on a national government study,[6] and the territory also headed the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index.[7] The metropolitan of Chandigarh-Mohali-Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city.[8]

History[edit]

After the Partition of India in 1947, the former British province of Punjab was also split between east Punjab in India and west Punjab in Pakistan. The Indian Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition.[9] The name Chandigarh translates as "The Fort of Chandi". The name is derived from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, near the city.[10]

Chandigarh hosts the largest of Le Corbusier's many Open Hand sculptures, standing 26 metres high. The Open Hand (La Main Ouverte) is a recurring motif in Le Corbusier's architecture, a sign for him of "peace and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive." It represents the give and take of ideas.[11] However, two of the six monuments planned in the Capitol Complex which has the High Court, the Assembly and the Secretariat, remain incomplete. These include Geometric Hill and Martyrs Memorial; drawings were made; their execution, however, was never fully accomplished after starting out in 1956.[12]

On 1 November 1966, the newly formed Indian state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of Punjab, in order to create Haryana as a majority Hindi-speaking people, while the western portion of Punjab retained a mostly Punjabi language-speaking majority and remained as the current federated state of Punjab. However, the city of Chandigarh was on the border, and was thus created into a union territory to serve as capital of both these states.[13] The Last Ruler OF the city was Brijinder Singh.

Geography and climate[edit]

Sukhna Lake

Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the sivalik range of the Himalayas in northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 44.5 sq mi or 114 km². and shares its borders with the states of Haryana and Punjab. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.74°N 76.79°E / 30.74; 76.79.[14] It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft).

Chandigarh
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
33
 
16
3
 
 
39
 
20
5
 
 
30
 
25
10
 
 
9
 
32
16
 
 
28
 
35
20
 
 
145
 
36
22
 
 
280
 
31
21
 
 
308
 
30
20
 
 
133
 
30
19
 
 
22
 
29
14
 
 
9
 
24
8
 
 
22
 
19
4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information Service

The surrounding districts are Mohali, Patiala and Roopnagar in Punjab, Panchkula and Ambala in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh is also minutes away from its north border.

Chandigarh has a humid subtropical climate characterised by a seasonal rhythm: very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (−1 °C to 46 °C). The average annual rainfall is 1110.7 mm. The city also receives occasional winter rains from the Western Disturbance originating over the Mediterranean Sea. Cold winds usually tend to come from the north near Shimla, capital of Himanchal Pradesh and from the state of Jammu and Kashmir, both of which receive their share of snowfall during wintertime.

Average temperature[edit]

  • Spring: The climate remains the most enjoyable part of the year during the spring season (from February-end to early-April). Temperatures vary between (max) 13 °C to 20 °C and (min) 5 °C to 12 °C.
  • Autumn: In autumn (from September-end to mid November.), the temperature may rise to a maximum of 30 °C. Temperatures usually remain between 10° to 22° in autumn. The minimum temperature is around 6 °C.
  • Summer: The temperature in summer (from Mid-April to June-end) may rise to a maximum of 40 °C. Temperatures generally remain between 30 °C to 39 °C (94 – 101F).
  • Monsoon: During monsoon (from early-July to mid-September), Chandigarh receives moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the month of August or September). Usually, the rain bearing monsoon winds blow from south-west/south-east. Mostly, the city receives heavy rain from south (which is mainly a persistent rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from North-west or North-east. Maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigrah during monsoon season is 195.5 mm in a single day.
  • Winter: Winters (November-end to February-end) are mild but it can sometimes get quite chilly in Chandigarh. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) 5 °C to 14 °C and (min) -1 °C to 5 °C. Rain usually comes from the west during winters and it is usually a persistent rain for 2–3 days with sometimes hail-storms.The city witnessed bone-numbing chill as the maximum temperature on Monday, 7 January 2013 plunged to a 30-year low to settle at 6.1 degrees Celsius.
Climate data for Chandigarh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16.4
(61.5)
19.1
(66.4)
24.5
(76.1)
30.5
(86.9)
35.4
(95.7)
36.6
(97.9)
30.0
(86)
30.8
(87.4)
29.1
(84.4)
28.8
(83.8)
23.3
(73.9)
18.1
(64.6)
26.88
(80.38)
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
4.3
(39.7)
9.4
(48.9)
14.9
(58.8)
20.2
(68.4)
22.4
(72.3)
21.0
(69.8)
20.3
(68.5)
17.8
(64)
13.0
(55.4)
6.5
(43.7)
2.7
(36.9)
12.88
(55.18)
Rainfall mm (inches) 46.6
(1.835)
33.9
(1.335)
29.3
(1.154)
11.3
(0.445)
24.2
(0.953)
112.6
(4.433)
276.3
(10.878)
282.8
(11.134)
179.0
(7.047)
41.6
(1.638)
6.7
(0.264)
18.9
(0.744)
1,063.2
(41.86)
Avg. rainy days 3.8 3.9 2.6 2.4 2.5 7.1 12.9 13.3 6.1 1.9 1.3 1.9 59.7
Source: World Meteorological Organisation[15]

Environment[edit]

Shanti Kunj Gardens

Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense banyan and eucalyptus plantations. Ashoka, cassia, mulberry and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem. The city has forests surrounding that sustain many animal and plant species. Deers, sambars, barking deer, parrots, woodpeckers and peacocks inhabit the protected forests. Sukhna Lake hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season.

A parrot sanctuary in the city is home to a variety of bird species. It has popular gardens, e.g. Zakir Hussain Rose Garden, Rock Garden, Terrace Garden, Bougainvillea Garden, Shanti Kunj and many others.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census, Chandigarh had a population of 960,787 with metro population of 1,025,682,[2] making for a density of about 9258 (7900 in 2001) [17] persons per square kilometre.[citation needed] Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. The sex ratio is 829 females for every 1,000 males[2] –which is the lowest in the country,[citation needed] up from 777 in 2001. Chandigarh has an average literacy rate of 86.77%, higher than the national average; with male literacy of 90.81% and female literacy of 81.88%.[2] 10.8% of the population is under 6 years of age.[2]

Places to Visit[edit]

Chandigarh has various visitor attractions including theme gardens within the city. Some notable sites are:[18]

  • Sukhna Lake
  • Rock garden
  • Leisure valley
  • Open hand monument
  • Capitol complex
  • Cactus Garden
  • National Gallery of Portraits
  • Garden of Fragrance
  • Le Corbusier Centre
  • The Government Museum and Art Gallery
  • International Doll Museum
  • Butterfly Park

Economy[edit]

Legislative Assembly by Le Corbusier

The RBI ranked Chandigarh as the twelfth largest deposit centre and tenth largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012.

The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here. A significant percentage of Chandigarh’s population therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a “Pensioner's Paradise”. Ordnance Cable Factory of the Ordnance Factories Board has been set up by the Government of India. There are about 15 medium to large industries including two in the Public sector. In addition Chandigarh has over 2500 units registered under small-scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Yet, with a per capita income of Indian Rupee symbol.svg 99,262, Chandigarh is the richest city in India.[19] Chandigarh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.2 billion in current prices.

Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional headquarters at Sector 31, Chandigarh.

Chandigarh IT Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the information technology world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity to Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms and multinational corporations like Quark, Infosys, Dell, IBM, TechMahindra, have set up base in the city and its suburbs. According to a 2014 survey, Chandigarh is ranked 1st in the top 50 cities identified globally as "emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations".[20]

Education[edit]

There are numerous education institutions in Chandigarh. These range from privately and publicly operated schools to colleges and the Panjab University. These institutions are a large draw for students from around the world.[21]

Transport[edit]

Chandigarh Airport from inside

Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita in India.[22] Wide, well maintained roads and parking spaces all over the city ease local transport.

The Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU) operates public transport buses from its Inter State Bus Terminals (ISBT) in Sectors 17 and 43 of the city.[23] CTU also operates frequent bus services to the neighbouring states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and to Delhi. Chandigarh is well connected by road by NH 22 (Ambala — Kalka — Shimla — Kinnaur) and NH 21 (Chandigarh — Leh).

Chandigarh railway station lies in the Northern Railway zone of the Indian Railway network and provide connectivity to major Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Jaipur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Indore, Trivandrum and Amritsar. It also links other cities like Ambala, Kollam, Panipat and Kalka.

Chandigarh Airport has scheduled commercial flights to major cities of India including New Delhi, Mumbai, Indore, Jaipur and Srinagar. A new international terminal is under construction.

The Chandigarh Metro Rail is expected to start working by 2018 along with the proposed Kolkata Metro and Indore Metro.

Entertainment[edit]

Chandigarh is home to numerous inter state sporting teams like Kings XI Punjab in The Indian Premier League (IPL). The city has currently 3 single screen cinema halls namely Batra, Neelam and Kiran while it also has various malls and multiplexes like PVR Elante mall, PVR Centra mall, Wave Emporium mall, DT mall, Fun republic and the recently opened Elante mall which is the largest mall in North India.[24] It also has two gardens of international repute- Rock garden in sector 1 and Zakir Hussain Rose garden in sector 16. The latter has the distinction of being the largest of its kind in Asia.If we talk about internet connectivity it is most important to know ISP companies in chandigarh. internet plays an important role in entertaining us. Available internet providers are ; Airtel Broadband, CONNECT broadband , Tata photon & 3G wireless internet, BSNL broadband, Reliance DSL or USB modem stick, Airtel 4G wifi. Same ISP are serving in Mohali & Panchkula (common boundary cities of chandigarh).

Notable people born in Chandigarh[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/prov_results_paper2_indiavol2.html". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  3. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)". Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  4. ^ Business Portal of India
  5. ^ "Front Page News : Monday, July 26, 2010". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  6. ^ "India's cleanest: Where does your city stand?: Rediff.com News". News.rediff.com. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  7. ^ Meghalaya Human Development Report 2008 (p. 23)
  8. ^ "Tricity residents to get Emaar MGF’s Central Plaza soon". The Financial Express. Jan 6, 2014. 
  9. ^ Chandigarh History – History Of Chandigarh India – Origin & History of Chandigarh
  10. ^ The Official Government Website
  11. ^ Frommer's India (2010) Pippa de Bruyn, John Wiley & Sons, p613 ISBN 9780470556108
  12. ^ "Capitol Complex, as Le Corbusier wanted it, remains incomplete". Indian Express. 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2013-07-02. 
  13. ^ "1st November 1966 - Haryana Day - History - Haryana Online - North India". Haryana Online. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  14. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Chandigarh
  15. ^ World Weather Information Service-Chandigarh, World Meteorological Organisation. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  16. ^ "Census population" (PDF). Census of India. http://sampark.chd.nic.in. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  17. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/
  18. ^ "Places to See". chandigarhtourism.gov.in. Chandigarh Tourism. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  19. ^ Chandigarh's the richest of 'em all
  20. ^ The Hindu Business Line
  21. ^ "City Beautiful". The Indian Backpacker. December 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  22. ^ Top Ten Towns with Highest Nos. of Car Ownership in India
  23. ^ Chandigarh Transport Undertaking ISBT
  24. ^ "Elante Mall Review - Chandigarh". textilefabricgarment.com. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Evenson, Norma. Chandigarh. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1966.
  • Sarbjit Bahga, Surinder Bahga (2014) Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret: The Indian Architecture, CreateSpace, ISBN 978-1495906251
  • Joshi, Kiran. Documenting Chandigarh: The Indian Architecture of Pierre Jeanneret, Edwin Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew. Ahmedabad: Mapin Publishing in association with Chandigarh College of Architecture, 1999. ISBN 1-890206-13-X
  • Kalia, Ravi. Chandigarh: The Making of an Indian City. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew. Chandigarh and Planning Development in India, London: Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, No.4948, 1 April 1955, Vol. CIII, pages 315–333. I. The Plan, by E. Maxwell Fry, II. Housing, by Jane B. Drew.
  • Nangia, Ashish. Re-locating Modernism: Chandigarh, Le Corbusier and the Global Postcolonial. PhD Dissertation, University of Washington, 2008.
  • Perera, Nihal. "Contesting Visions: Hybridity, Liminality and Authorship of the Chandigarh Plan" Planning Perspectives 19 (2004): 175–199
  • Prakash, Vikramaditya. Chandigarh’s Le Corbusier: The Struggle for Modernity in Postcolonial India. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002.
  • Sarin, Madhu. Urban Planning in the Third World: The Chandigarh Experience. London: Mansell Publishing, 1982.

External links[edit]