|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2012)|
|Nickname(s): The City Beautiful|
|Established||1 Nov 1966|
|Seat of Government||Chandigarh|
|• Administrator of UT||Shivraj Patil|
|• Mayor||Harphool Chandra Kalyan|
|• Commissioner||Vivek Pratap Singh|
|• City||114 km2 (44 sq mi)|
|Elevation||350 m (1,150 ft)|
|• Density||9,300/km2 (24,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||91-172-XXX XXXX|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-CH|
|Vehicle registration||CH-01 to CH-04|
|HDI Category||very high|
|The city of Chandigarh comprises all of the union territory's area|
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in the northern part of India that serves as the capital of the states of Haryana and Punjab. As a union territory, the city is ruled directly by the Union Government of India and is not part of either state. The city of Chandigarh was the first planned city in India post-independence in 1947 and was known internationally for its architecture and urban design. The master plan of the city was prepared by Le Corbusier, transformed from an earlier plan by the American planner Albert Mayer. Most of the government buildings and housing in the city, however, is designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by Pierre Jeanneret, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry.
The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories by per capita income in the country. The city was reported to be the cleanest in India in 2010, based on a national government study, and the territory also headed the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index. The metropolitan of Chandigarh-Ajitgarh-Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city. This is the first smoke free city in India.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Environment
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Places to Visit
- 6 Economy
- 7 Proposals
- 8 Education
- 9 Transport
- 10 Entertainment
- 11 Notable people from Chandigarh
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
After the partition of India in 1947, the former British province of Punjab was also split between east Punjab in India and west Punjab in Pakistan. The Indian Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition. The name Chandigarh, meaning "the Fort of Chandi", is derived from Chandi Mandir, an ancient temple devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, near the city in Panchkula.
Chandigarh hosts the largest of Le Corbusier's many Open Hand sculptures, standing 26 metres high. The Open Hand (La Main Ouverte) is a recurring motif in Le Corbusier's architecture, a sign for him of "peace and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive." It represents, what Le Corbusier called, the 'Second Machine Age'. However, two of the six monuments planned in the Capitol Complex which has the High Court, the Assembly and the Secretariat, remain incomplete. These include Geometric Hill and Martyrs Memorial; drawings were made; their execution, however, was never fully accomplished after starting out in 1956.
On 1 November 1966, the newly formed state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of Punjab, in order to create Haryana as a majority Haryanvi-speaking people, while the western portion of Punjab retained a mostly Punjabi language-speaking majority and remained as the current state of Punjab. Chandigarh was located on the border of both states and the states moved to incorporate the city into their respective territories. However, the city of Chandigarh was made into a union territory to serve as capital of both states.
Geography and climate
Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Sivalik range of the Himalayas in northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 44.5 sq mi or 114 km². and shares its borders with the states of Haryana and Punjab. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are . It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft).
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Chandigarh has a humid subtropical climate characterised by a seasonal rhythm: very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (−1 °C to 46 °C). The average annual rainfall is 1110.7 mm. The city also receives occasional winter rains from the Western Disturbance originating over the Mediterranean Sea. Cold winds usually tend to come from the north near Shimla, capital of Himanchal Pradesh and from the state of Jammu and Kashmir, both of which receive their share of snowfall during wintertime.
- Spring: The climate remains the most enjoyable part of the year during the spring season (from February-end to early-April). Temperatures vary between (max) 13 °C to 20 °C and (min) 5 °C to 12 °C.
- Autumn: In autumn (from September-end to mid November.), the temperature may rise to a maximum of 30 °C. Temperatures usually remain between 10° to 22° in autumn. The minimum temperature is around 6 °C.
- Summer: The temperature in summer (from Mid-April to June-end) may rise to 44nbsp;C .The temperatures might sometime rise to 44 degree Celsius in mid june . Temperatures generally vary between 40 to 42 degree Celsius .
- Monsoon: During monsoon (from early-July to mid-September), Chandigarh receives moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the month of August or September). Usually, the rain bearing monsoon winds blow from south-west/south-east. Mostly, the city receives heavy rain from south (which is mainly a persistent rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from North-west or North-east. Maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigrah during monsoon season is 195.5 mm in a single day.
- Winter: Winters (November-end to February-end) are mild but it can sometimes get quite chilly in Chandigarh. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) 5 °C to 14 °C and (min) -1 °C to 5 °C. Rain usually comes from the west during winters and it is usually a persistent rain for 2–3 days with sometimes hail-storms.The city witnessed bone-numbing chill as the maximum temperature on Monday, 7 January 2013 plunged to a 30-year low to settle at 6.1 degrees Celsius.
|Climate data for Chandigarh|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.4
|Average low °C (°F)||3.9
|Rainfall mm (inches)||46.6
|Avg. rainy days||3.8||3.9||2.6||2.4||2.5||7.1||12.9||13.3||6.1||1.9||1.3||1.9||59.7|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation|
Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense banyan and eucalyptus plantations. Ashoka, cassia, mulberry and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem. The city has forests surrounding that sustain many animal and plant species. Deer, sambars, barking deer, parrots, woodpeckers and peacocks inhabit the protected forests. Sukhna Lake hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season.
A parrot sanctuary in the city is home to a variety of bird species. It has popular gardens, e.g. Zakir Hussain Rose Garden, Rock Garden, Terrace Garden, Bougainvillea Garden, Shanti Kunj and many others.
|source:Census of India|
As of 2011[update] India census, Chandigarh had a population of 960,787 with metro population of 1,025,682, making for a density of about 9258 (7900 in 2001) persons per square kilometre. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. The sex ratio is 829 females for every 1,000 males –which is the lowest in the country, up from 777 in 2001. Chandigarh has an average literacy rate of 86.77%, higher than the national average; with male literacy of 90.81% and female literacy of 81.88%. 10.8% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Places to Visit
Chandigarh has various visitor attractions including theme gardens within the city. Some notable sites are:
- Sukhna Lake
- New Lake, Sector-42
- Rock garden, built by Nek Chand Saini
- Leisure valley, Sector-10
- Rose Garden, Sector-16
- Capitol Complex
- City Centre, Sector 17
- Open hand monument
- Garden of Silence
- Cactus Garden
- National Gallery of Portraits
- Garden of Fragrance
- Le Corbusier Centre, Sector-19
- Government Museum and Art Gallery, Sector-10
- International Doll Museum
- Butterfly Park
- Valley of Animals, Sector-49
- Elante Mall
The RBI ranked Chandigarh as the twelfth largest deposit centre and tenth largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012.
The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here. A significant percentage of Chandigarh’s population therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a “Pensioner's Paradise”. Ordnance Cable Factory of the Ordnance Factories Board has been set up by the Government of India. There are about 15 medium to large industries including two in the Public sector. In addition Chandigarh has over 2500 units registered under small-scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Yet, with a per capita income of 99,262, Chandigarh is the richest city in India. Chandigarh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.2 billion in current prices.
Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional headquarters at Sector 31, Chandigarh.
Chandigarh IT Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the information technology world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity to Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms and multinational corporations like Quark, Infosys, Dell, IBM, TechMahindra, have set up base in the city and its suburbs. According to a 2014 survey, Chandigarh is ranked 9th in the top 50 cities identified globally as "emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations" ahead of cities like Beijing.
Many projects have been proposed by the Chandigarh Administration. Some of them are:
- Chandigarh Metro: It is likely to start by the year 2018 with estimated cost of around 10,900 crores including 50% funds from the governments of Punjab and Haryana and 25% from Chandigarh and Government of India. Funds from the Japan government will include approximately 56% of the cost.
- Film City: As a Member of parliament from Chandigarh and having connection with the film industry, Kirron Kher promised a film city for Chandigarh. After winning the seat, she said that she had difficulty in acquiring land in Chandigarh. However, her proposal was accepted by the Chandigarh Administration and the film city is proposed to be set up in Sarangpur, Chandigarh.
There are numerous education institutions in Chandigarh. These range from privately and publicly operated schools to colleges and the Panjab University. Other Institutions are Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Govt Medical college & Hospital, Punjab Engineering College Deemed University, Govt College for Men, Govt College for Women, DAV College, MCM DAV College for Women, Sri Guru Gobind Singh Khalsa College-26, Govt Homeopathic College, Ayurvedic College, Govt Polytechnical College, Govt Home Science College, Dr Ambedkar Institute of Hotel management etc. These institutions are a large draw for students from around the world.
According to Chandigarh administration's department of education, there are a total of 107 government schools in Chandigarh including convent schools like St. Anne's Convent School-32, Carmel Convent School and Sacred Heart School. .
Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita in India. Wide, well maintained roads and parking spaces all over the city ease local transport.
The Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU) operates public transport buses from its Inter State Bus Terminals (ISBT) in Sectors 17 and 43 of the city. CTU also operates frequent bus services to the neighbouring states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and to Delhi. Chandigarh is well connected by road by NH 22 (Ambala - Kalka - Shimla - Khab, Kinnaur) and NH 21 (Chandigarh - Leh).
Chandigarh railway station lies in the Northern Railway zone of the Indian Railway network and provide connectivity to major Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Jaipur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Indore, Trivandrum and Amritsar. It also links other cities like Ambala, Kollam, Panipat and Kalka.
Chandigarh Airport has scheduled commercial flights to major cities of India including Delhi, Mumbai, Indore, Jaipur, Bangalore and Srinagar. A new international terminal is under construction. Flights are available to Kullu-Manali also with Himalayan Bulls.
It also has two gardens of international repute – the Rock Garden of Chandigarh in sector 1 and the Zakir Hussain Rose Garden in sector 16. The latter has the distinction of being the largest of its kind in Asia.
If we talk about internet connectivity, it is most important to know ISP companies in Chandigarh. Available internet providers are: Bharti Airtel, Connect Broadband, Tata photon & 3G wireless internet, BSNL broadband, Reliance DSL and Airtel 4G wifi among others. Same ISPs are serving in Mohali & Panchkula (other two cities of the Chandigarh Tricity).
Notable people from Chandigarh
- Kirron Kher, Indian actress and theatre artist (also BJP M.P.)
- Milkha Singh Commonwealth gold medalist. Bhaag Milkha Bhaag is a 2013 film based on his life. Jeev Milkha Singh is his son.
- Jaspal Bhatti, Padma Bhushan Awardee, Film and TV Actor and renowned satirist
- Savita Bhatti, Film and TV Actress, Social Activist
- Yuvraj Singh, Indian international cricketer
- Gurleen Chopra, Punjabi actress
- Jeev Milkha Singh, professional Golfer
- Binny Bansal, Founder of Flipkart
- Sachin Bansal, Founder of Flipkart
- Kulraj Randhawa, Punjabi Film Actress
- Ayushman Khurrana, Indian Film actor
- Gurbani Judge, MTV India VJ and actress
- Harita Kaur Deol,Pilot
- Yami Gautam, Indian film actress
- Surveen Chawla, Punjabi Film Actress
- Gul Panag, Indian film actress and Social Activist
- Kapil Dev, former Indian international cricketer
- Abhinav Bindra, Olympic gold medalist
- Mahi Gill, Indian actress
- Navalpreet Rangi, documentary filmmaker
- Neerja Bhanot, flight attendant and model
- Mukesh Gautam, Punjabi film director
- Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava, Bioinformatics Scientist
- Dinesh Mongia, Indian international cricketer
- Ramesh Kumar Nibhoria, winner of Ashden Awards-UK
- Nek Chand Saini, Indian artist and creator of the Rock Garden of Chandigarh
- Sabeer Bhatia, Indian-American Entrepreneur who founded Hotmail
Secretariat Building by Le Corbusier
- Outline of India
- Index of India-related articles
- Bibliography of India
- India – Wikipedia book
- Neyveli Township, a similarly planned city in Tamil Nadu, India
- Panjab University, Chandigarh
- PEC University of Technology
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- Nangia, Ashish. Re-locating Modernism: Chandigarh, Le Corbusier and the Global Postcolonial. PhD Dissertation, University of Washington, 2008.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chandigarh.|
- Chandigarh travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Chandigarh Administration Official Site
- Chandigarh Tourism
- Chandigarh Police
- District Courts Chandigarh