Chandio

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Nawab Sir Mir Ghaibi Khan Chandio, land owner in Pakistan, with his friends and British guests in 1930.

The Chandio (چانڊيو) is a Baloch tribe in the Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan and Iran.[1]

The clans of the Chandio, Mirzani, Husnaani, Aajbani, Alhiyarzai, Bhundani, Choliyani, Ghaibiani, Guramani, Janwari, Lahrejo, Sakhani, Marfani, Misrani, Qambrani, Nathrani, Sumarani, Dauwani and Wazirani are known in Sindh, Punjab, and Iran (see Provinces of Pakistan). In Rahim Yar Khan the following clans are especially common: Hyderani, Sahab Khanani, Laalwani, Pesani, Rangani, Zangani, Peerlani, Jhandani, and Notani. Clans of Husnaani Chandio, Manani, Mawani, Dauwani, Hamzani, Thorha, Muradani, Lashkrani, Qambrani, Nathrani, are clans of the Husnaani Tribe.

The name "Chandio" is derived from a tribal elder named "Chhand" whose name was given to his descendants.

The first and leading place in the Chandia tribe belongs to the Mirzani clan and the second to the Husnaani.

History of the Mirzani and Husnani Chandia[edit]

Sardar Mir Sareman Khan Chandio had two sons, Haji and Husan, from whom sprang the clans of Mirzanis (named after Sareman’s father, Mirza Khan) and Husnanis respectively. Sareman is considered a cultural hero in the tribal history of Sindh. He laid the foundation of Chandia Jagir in 1501, which was bestowed upon him by Jam Nizamuddin Samo (1461-1508), the ruler of the Sama dynasty, in return for the help from Sardar Mir Sareman Khan and his tribe against the Arghuns, who frequently invaded western Sindh.

The Chandia tribe repelled every advance of the enemy and defended every inch of their land. Scattered all over the jaageer are graves of those who died while defending their territory. Many archeological and historical sites can also be found there. One such historical site, locally known as Dau Ja Quba, is located some eight kilometres southeast of Ghaibi Dero. The necropolis has been under threat of encroachment by local farmers.

On my way to the necropolis, I met Mir Mohammad Ayub Marphani Chandio and requested him to accompany me to the necropolis, to which he agreed. Mr Marphani has much knowledge about his tribe and he unerringly recalls the battles of his tribe against other tribes, particularly the Bughtis, Magsis and Sabhayas, etc. In addition to battles against other tribes, the Chandios also fought with one another. He forlornly narrated the battle which was fought between the two brother tribes of Haji and Hussan on Sardari Pug of the Chandia tribe, fought at Mahu (not far from Ghaibi Dero Jageer), locally known as the Battle of Mahu.

Mohammad Ayub took me to the place where the battle was fought. A land once marked with sand dunes has now been brought under cultivation. Near the battleground is the necropolis, which is spread over two hundred acres and contains eight derelict and dilapidated tombs, belonging to Sardar Daud Khan, Sardar Chakar Khan, Sewa Khan, Ghazi Khan, Rais Waali Rakhio, Rais Jan Mohammad Khan, Rais Mohammad Baqar, and Rais Ahmed Khan, respectively. This necropolis, however, is attributed to Sardar Daud Khan, who was the chief of the Husnani tribe. He was killed in 1614 during a battle against the troops of the Mirzani tribe at Mahu near Gebi Dero. Later, his descendants erected tombs for Sardar Daud Khan and Sardar Chakar Khan and her relatives and also the soldiers. These tombs were completed in the short span of six years between 1819 and 1825 (except the tomb of Ghazi Khan, which was built in 1840).

After the glory of the battle which involved much bloodshed, the Hasnani tribe decided to move to the present village of Rais Jo Goth, also called Chandian Jo Goth, in Shahdadkot, and the village of Rais Bhanbho Khan Chandio in Miro Khan Talukas of Larkana. Two clusters of their tombs still stand in both places, reminding us of their material glory of the past. According to the local accounts, the battles between the Haji and Hussan tribes claimed 1,600 Chandia lives.

Origin[edit]

The Chandios are a sub-tribe of The Hooth Baloch Tribe.[2] This was the first Baloch tribe who left the mountains of Balochistan, especially from Harboe (Kalat) and Dhadar (Bolan), due to a fruitless Baloch genocidal war between Rind and Lashari. This tribe settled in the Kohe Suleman areas of D.G Khan. The chief of the tribe at that time (1600 AD), Sardar Mir Harian Khan Baloch, established a new village in the name of his younger son, Mir Ahmed Khan Chandio, who was commonly known as Kot Ahmed Khan. This village is now known as Kotla Ahmed Khan, near Dera Ghazi Khan, and the grave of this brave Sardar is in the boundary wall of Pir Sakheeh Sarwar near D.G Khan. The group migrated from Dera Ghazi Khan to the mountains of Kirthar. That was the region where this family lived, called the Chandka region, which is in the Qambar-Shahdadkot, Larkana, and Dadu districts. The family later spread throughout the Sindh and Punjab region. The chief of Juguwala Village in Punjab distt Multan was Sardar Mubarak Khan Chandio (late). The Chandio tribe has now spread out over Pakistan, with a larger concentration in Sindh.

The grandson of Sardar Harian Khan, after completing his education in Iraq, accompanied and headed the tribe, was named Sardar and was famously known as Chandio. Following the request of the army chief of Sindh, Doulah Darya Khan Lashari, he migrated from Dera Ghazi Khan to the mountains of Khirther. According to an old Balochi rhyme, one brother of Chief Sardar Sareman Khan, namely Sardar Mir Hamal Khan Chandio, stayed in the area on the right bank of the Indus River extending from the border of Kashmore to Rajan pur and gave the name of Chandka to that area. Mazari Sardar Bazeel Khan (Bateel Khan) sent an envoy to see the green fields of grass that belonged to the Chandio tribe. The Mazaris then attacked the Chandios, but lost badly. In this war Mazari Sardar Bazeel Khan was killed by the arrow of Sardar Mir Hamal Khan Chandio, while Sardar Mir Hamal Khan was also killed in this battle after the worsted Mazaris went back to the mountains. The Mazaris afterwards attacked the Chandios seven times but were always beaten. The last Sardar of old Chandka was Mir Maarak Khan Chandio (Mubarak Khan); at that time the Mazaris' Sardar was Mir Shahli Khan Mazari. Each sardar married a woman of the other's family. The Mazaris' Sardar was still enviousness, however, and planned to possess the green fields of the Chandio tribe and planned a night attack on the Chandios. One night the Chandios were sleeping calmly when the Mazaris attacked and killed the Sardar Mir Maarak Khan and his sixty companions. The Mazaris also suffered much loss, but because of their clever plan they were successful. In this war the Mazaris held one war drum (Shutri Naghara) of the Chandio tribe, while the other one was taken by Mir Hyder Khan, the son of Mir Maarak Khan, and the remaining Chandios. The surviving Shutri naghara is still in the possession of the heir of Sardar Mir Hyder Khan Chandio at Kalay Waali near Bhong Tehsil Sadiqabad. The survivors of the Chandio tribe migrated with Mir Hyder Khan Chandio to the left bank of the Indus River from the right bank, some to the area of Bahawalpur State called Bhong and some to the part of Ubauro Tehsil called Deh Pakka Chandia.[3]

The Chandio tribe is now spread out over Pakistan, but chiefly concentrated in Sindh. In Sindh, this tribe lives especially in the districts of Nawabshah, Ghotki, Jamshoro, Daadu, Qmbar Shadad kot, Larkana, Noshehro Feroz, Khair pur, and Kashmore. In Punjab they are in the majority in the districts of Rahim Yar Khan, Muzafar Garh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Layyah, Multan, Bahawalpur, and Sargodha. In Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa this tribe lives in the district of Dera Ismail Khan, and In Balochistan they are in the majority in the districts of Sibi and Dera Murad Jamali. They also live in Jaffarabad, Jhal, Bolan, Khuzdar, and Kohlu.

Presence in Balochistan[edit]

The majority of the Chandio in Balochistan are in the Sibi District, and also some in Jafarabad, Usta Muhammad, Bolan, Khuzdar Karkh Tehsil, Barkhan, Kohlu Agency and Gawadar districts of Balochistan.

Population[edit]

According to a survey of the Sindh Qaumi Welfare Association, the Chandio tribe has a population of over 10 million people, who live in various parts of Pakistan. Districts Larkana, Qambar, Dadu, Nawabshah, Mirpurkhas, Badin, Karachi, Shikarpur, Sukkur and Khairpur have the largest numbers of Chandios in Sindh. The Chandio community is also settled in the Seraiki belt of Punjab and other parts of Pakistan like Bahawalpur city, Tehsil Jalalpur Pirwala, Multan, Muzaffargarh, Layyah, Bhakkar, Tehsil Darya Khan and in Balochistan. The Chandio tribe has also settled in Sibi, Kohlu, Jaffarabad, Naseerabad, Kachhi and Tehsil Karkh District Khuzdar.

Janvri has been excluded as a sub-clan of Chandio, and has been established as a separate tribe. They have been involved in the educational field, and large numbers of Janvri have joined the civil service.

Presence in Islamabad[edit]

According to social development societies of Sindh, there are over 10,000 Sindhi residing in Islamabad as of 2008, belonging to the following tribes: Chandio (900), Talpur (300), Channer (450-500), Memon, Soomro, Lashari, Hattar, Qazi, Khand, Junejo, Narejo and other tribes of Sindh (8000-9000). The majority of the Chandio tribe residing in Islamabad lived in village Late Nangar Khan Chandio, near Mithiani, Juguwala village near Multan, Tehsil Moro and District Naushahro Feroze. Other Chandio from District Larkana, Qambar-Shadadkot, Tando Allahyar, Dadu, Sibi, Muzaffargarh also lived in Islamabad.

Leadership[edit]

Ghaibi Khan Chandio was the chief of the Chandio tribe. In his lifetime he made Sultan Ahmed Chandio the Chief Sardar of the Chandio tribe. Later Sardar Shabir Ahmed Khan Chandio was the chief of the Chandios, after the death of his father. The second leader of the Husnani Chandio clan was Sardar Bhanbho Khan Chandio Husnani and Sardar Chakar Khan Chandio Husnani and his family. The 15th leader of the Bhundani Chandio clan is Sardar Asad Imdad Khan Chandio.

Nawab Sardar Ahmed Khan Chandio is the chief of the Chandio tribe.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gaibi Shabir Ahmed Chandio Foundation, 2011, webpage: GSACF.
  2. ^ The Historical, Social and Economic Setting by M. S. Asimov, page 304
  3. ^ Punjab Chiefs by Sir Lepal H Grafen/ Krnol Messay, page 541 to 559

External links[edit]