Chandra Deep Field South

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The Chandra Deep Field South, observed in the U-, B-, and R-bands with ESO's VIMOS and WFI instruments.
Three-colour composite image of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) camera on the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile).

The Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) is an image taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory satellite. The location was chosen because, like the Lockman Hole, it is a relatively clear "window" through the ubiquitous clouds of neutral hydrogen gas in our Milky Way galaxy, which allows us to clearly see the rest of the universe in X-rays.[1] The image is centered on RA 3h 32m 28.0s DEC −27° 48′ 30″ (J2000.0), covering 0.11 square degrees, measuring 16 arcminutes across. This patch of sky lies in the Fornax constellation.[2][3]

The image was created by compositing 11 individual ACIS-I exposures for a cumulative exposure time of over one million seconds, in the period 1999-2000, by a team led by Riccardo Giacconi.[2] This region was selected for observation because it has much less galactic gas and dust to obscure distant sources.[3]

Multispectral observations of the region were carried out in collaboration with the Very Large Telescope and the Paranal Observatory. Through the course of these investigations, the X-ray background was determined to originated from the central supermassive black holes of distant galaxies, and a better characterization of Type-II Quasars was obtained. [Note 1] The CDFS discovered over 300 X-ray sources, many of them from "low luminosity" AGN lying about 9 billion light years away. The study also discovered the then most distant Quasar 2, lying at redshift z=3.7, some 12 billion light years away.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Type-2 Quasars, or Quasar2's are quasars that are deeply embedded in dust and gas, from our point of view



  1. ^ "Chandra Deep Field South - Field Selection". Retrieved 2011-12-12. 
  2. ^ a b ESO, "The Chandra Deep Field South" (accessed 10 October 2009)
  3. ^ a b c ESO Press Release 05/01 "Chandra and the VLT Jointly Investigate the Cosmic X-Ray Background" 13 March 2001 (accessed 10 October 2009)

External links[edit]

Coordinates: Sky map 03h 32m 28.0 s, −27° 48′ 30 ″