Chang Bogo-class submarine

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ChangBogoSSK061Typ209Uboat.jpg
Republic of Korea (ROK) Chang Bogo Type 209/1200 Submarine Chang Bogo heads out to sea during exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2004.
Class overview
Name: Chang Bogo class
Builders: Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft
Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering[1]
PT PAL
Operators:  Republic of Korea Navy
 Indonesian Navy
Succeeded by: Type 214 submarine
In commission: 1993–present
Planned: 18 (+3 Indonesia)
Completed: 9
Cancelled: 9
Active: 9
General characteristics
Displacement: 1200–1400 tons
Length: 56-61 m
Beam: 6.3 m (21 ft)
Draft: 5.5 m (18 ft)
Propulsion: 4 MTU Type 12V493 AZ80 GA31L diesel engines
1 Siemens electric motor
1 shaft
5,000 shp
Speed: 11 knots (20 km/h) surfaced
21.5 knots (39.8 km/h) submerged[citation needed]
Range: 11,000 nmi. at 10 knots, surfaced,
(20,000 km at 20 km/h);
8,000 nmi. at 10 knots, snorkeling,
(15,000 km at 20 km/h);
400 nmi. at 4 knots, submerged
(740 km at 7 km/h)
Endurance: 50 days
Test depth: 500 m
Complement: 33
Armament: 8 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
14 SUT torpedoes
UGM-84 Harpoon integration

The Chang Bogo Class Submarine (Hangul: 장보고급 잠수함, Hanja: 張保皐級潛水艦) is a variant of the Type 209 diesel-electric attack submarine initially developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) of Germany, intended for service with the South Korean Navy and Indonesian Navy. A Daewoo (DSME)-upgraded model of the Chang Bogo class Type 209 is being independently exported by Korea to Indonesia in 2012, after a series of heavy competitions from Russian, French, and German-Turkish consortiums including from Germany's original Type 209.[2] The variant is being considered for possible purchase by Thailand as well, as both newly built and second-hand options.[3] The class is named for Korean maritime figure Jang Bogo.

Armaments[edit]

The Chang Bogo class submarines are armed with 8 bow 533 mm torpedo tubes and 14 torpedoes. The ships are also armed with Sub-Harpoon missiles and can be armed with 28 Mines in place of Torpedoes and Harpoon.[4] The class is armed with SUT - Surface and Underwater Target Torpedoes.

Upgrades[edit]

The South Korean Chang Bogo-class submarines, originally based on Type 209/1200, had reportedly been heavily upgraded from a time early in the 21st century,[5] which if properly undertaken was supposed to include domestic hull stretch augmentation from 1,200 tons to 1,400 tons, and installment of domestically developed Torpedo Acoustic Counter Measures (TACM).[6][7] These upgrades could have been affected due to Korean economic problems of the late 1990s, which affected other plans to acquire nine 1,500-ton AIP-equipped boats or upgrade six 1200 boats to 1,500-tons AIP-equipped boats,[6][8][9] although the more ambitious plan to acquire nine 1,800-ton Type 214 AIP submarines was preserved and put under progress, which will reportedly be wrapped up in 2018 when all submarines of the type are scheduled to be commissioned. Outfitting the submarines with Sub-Harpoon launching capability was a part of the upgrade,[6] and this seems to have been properly carried out by 2002 on at least one submarine. By 2007, Na Daeyong and Lee Eokgi were demonstrated to have the capability.[1][10] In the 2008 RIMPAC the submarine Lee Sunshin also demonstrated its sub-harpoon capability.[11] By 2009 it was reported that nine South Korean-modified 1,400-ton Type 209 submarines were in service with the ROKN.[12][13] As of 2011 they were reported to be 1,200-ton Type 209 submarines.[14][15] They can equip the White Shark heavy torpedo,[7][16][17] and can possibly equip submarine-launched Hae Sung anti-ship missiles later on.[18][19] LIG Nex1 began producing TACM for unspecified submarine types of the ROKN as well, which finished development in 2000.[20][21] AIP and flank-array sonars are planned for future modernizations.[15] The Chang Bogo class offered to Indonesia will already be in stretched and augmented forms including guided missile-launching capabilities and a surface displacement of 1400 tons, quite similar to the original plan to upgrade the existing Chang Bogo class submarines of ROKN to similar specifications.[2]

A science documentary by EBS has revealed that Chang Bogo-class submarines undergo major generational overhaul and refit every eight to twelve years.[22] The overhaul and refit involves periodic cutting, complete disassembly, and rewelding of the hull for the upgrade or total replacement of the submarine's old engines, navigational equipment, batteries, and other essential equipment with their modern counterparts.[22] Hull stretch may also have taken place in some of the Chang Bogo-class vessels since the early 2000s, but it has neither been completely confirmed nor denied. Some Chang Bogo-class vessels are demonstrated to have sub-Harpoon launching capability when previously the class was lacking it. ROKN is committed to build and maintain a submarine force of 26 attack submarines until 2025, excluding small and midget submarines, though it is not clear how many submarines among those will belong to the Chang Bogo class.[23] The oldest commissioned Chang Bogo class submarine by then will be 32 years old.

Lithium-ion battery power stacks are being developed to increase the underwater endurance of Chang Bogo-class submarines by two to three times, offering four to five times the power density of Type 209's current lead-acid batteries and as much as twice the power density of Type 214's BZM 120 fuel cells.[24][25]

Sales[edit]

In December 2011, DSME won a contract to build three 1,400-ton Chang Bogo-class submarines for Indonesia at a cost of $1.07 billion.[26] Construction of the submarines will start in January 2012 for delivery by 2015 and 2016, for commissioning in the first half of 2018. They'll be equipped with torpedoes and guided missiles.[27][28][29][30][31][32] The submarines are described to be Korea's original model, bigger and more advanced than Indonesia's refurbished Type 209/1300.[2] Initially the offered submarines were going to be in-service ROKN submarines.[33] The sale will be done without the involvement of German companies.[34] South Korea is currently the only country outside Germany independently offering the Type 209 for sale. Indonesia was also offered two license built Type 209 submarines manufactured by a group of Turkish (SSM - Undersecretariat for Defense Industries) and German companies (HDW/ThyssenKrupp), a deal reported to be valued at $1 billion.[35] SSM was also offering the leases of Type 209 submarines until new submarines could be completed.[34] The offer has since been superseded by the DSME submarine contract. In early 2012, the Korean defense firm LIG Nex1 exhibited its latest suite of indigenously developed submarine sensors, submarine combat systems, and heavy-weight torpedoes and wire-guided torpedoes in Indonesia for potential use by the Indonesian navy's submarine forces.[36]

Improved Chang Bogo class[edit]

DSME signed a contract with Indonesia on for the supply of three Improved Chang Bogo class submarines. These submarines will be equipped with Atlas Electronic CSU 90 hull-mounted passive and active search-and-attack sonar and flank sonar arrays, Indra's Pegaso RESM system and Aries low-probability of intercept radar,[37] L-3's MAPPS integrated platform management systems[38] and Sagem's Sigma 40XP inertial navigation systems.[39]

Individual Ships[edit]

Country Class name Pennant Name Commissioned
 South Korea Chang Bogo class SS-061 Chang Bogo 1993
 South Korea Chang Bogo class SS-062 Lee Chun 1994
 South Korea Chang Bogo class SS-063 Choi Museon 1996
 South Korea Chang Bogo class SS-065 Park Wi 1996
 South Korea Chang Bogo class SS-066 Lee Jongmu 1996
 South Korea Chang Bogo class SS-067 Jeong Un 1998
 South Korea Chang Bogo class SS-068 Lee Sunsin 2000
 South Korea Chang Bogo class SS-069 Na Daeyong 2000
 South Korea Chang Bogo class SS-071 Lee Eokgi 2001
 Indonesia Improved Chang Bogo class
 Indonesia Improved Chang Bogo class
 Indonesia Improved Chang Bogo class

Pictures[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wertheim, Eric (2007). Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft, and Systems (Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World). US Naval Institute Press. p. 1067. ISBN 1-59114-955-X. 
  2. ^ a b c Korea wins $1 bil. Indonesian deal
  3. ^ Thailand’s New Second-Hand Submarines
  4. ^ Watts, Anthony (2006). Jane's Warship Recognition Guide. Harpercollins. p. 384. ISBN 0-00-718327-5. 
  5. ^ Chang Bogo class
  6. ^ a b c South Korean Submarine Arrives at Pearl Harbor, Signals
  7. ^ a b Underwater Weapon System
  8. ^ Kim, Duk-Ki (2000). Naval Strategy in Northeast Asia: Geo-strategic Goals, Policies and Prospects. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 0-7146-4966-X. 
  9. ^ Meconis, Charles; Wallace (2000). East Asian Naval Weapons Acquisitions in the 1990s: Causes, Consequences, and Responses. Praeger. p. 229. ISBN 0-275-96251-2. 
  10. ^ Navy deems RIMPAC a success
  11. ^ RIMPAC Exercise and Republic of Korea Navy
  12. ^ South Korea Awards Contracts for Two Trouble-Plagued Ship Programs
  13. ^ Indonesian Redtape Torpedoes Sub Sale Bid
  14. ^ Sagem to modernize navigation system on South Korea’s KSS-1 submarines
  15. ^ a b Changbogo class (209 class) submarine
  16. ^ White Shark
  17. ^ South Korea's weapons story Domestic torpedo Great White
  18. ^ ASM/SSM-700K Sea Star (Haesung / Haeseong / Haesong)
  19. ^ Hae Seong (ASM/SSM-700K) (Korea, South), Offensive weapons
  20. ^ Underwater Weapon System - LIG Nex1
  21. ^ LIG Nex1 TACM
  22. ^ a b Class submarine's secret weapon
  23. ^ Attack Submarine Deployments in the Pacific
  24. ^ Effectiveness of Lithium-Ion Battery Technology to ROK Submarine Force
  25. ^ Comparison of Lead-Acid Battery and Lithium-Ion Batteries for Type 209
  26. ^ RI orders 3 submarines worth $1b in regional ‘catch-up’
  27. ^ South Korea Exports Submarines to Indonesia
  28. ^ 3 MSI-90U Mk 2 For Indonesia Submarines
  29. ^ Indra to Implement its Technology in Indonesia's Type-209 Submarines for More than €10M
  30. ^ "DSME Completes of the Indonesian Submarine’s Basic Design". April 2, 2013. 
  31. ^ "OSI Maritime Systems Signs Contract to Deliver Integrated Navigation Systems to DSME for Indonesian Navy Type 209 SSK Program". May 31, 2013. 
  32. ^ "Sagem navigation system selected by DSME of South Korea for Indonesian submarines". November 25, 2013. 
  33. ^ Indonesia, South Korea consider submarine and aircraft exchange, ASIA PACIFIC
  34. ^ a b Turkey, Germany seek submarine sale of $1 bln
  35. ^ Turkey denies losing deal for Indonesian Navy submarines
  36. ^ LIG Nex1 Indonesia Presentation
  37. ^ http://www.indracompany.com/en/noticia/indra-to-implement-its-technology-in-indonesias-type-209-submarines-for-more-than-10m
  38. ^ http://www.mapps.l-3com.com/newsletters/MCN22.pdf
  39. ^ http://www.navyrecognition.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1371

External links[edit]