Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located in the northeast of the People's Republic of China, in the center of the Songliao Plain. It is administered as a sub-provincial city including counties and county-level cities, with a population of 7,674,439 at the 2010 census under its jurisdiction. The city's built-up (or metro) area, including 5 districts and 4 development areas, had a population of 3,815,270 in 2010 as Shuangyang district is not conurbated yet.
The name, which means "Long Spring", originated from the Jurchen language. Known as China's Automobile City, Changchun is an important industrial base with a particular focus on the automotive sector. Apart from this industrial aspect, Changchun is also one of four "National Garden Cities" awarded by the Ministry of Construction of P.R. China in 2001 due to its high urban greening rate.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Administrative divisions
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Infrastructure
- 7 Military
- 8 Universities and colleges
- 9 Sports
- 10 Film
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes and references
- 13 External links
Changchun was initially established on Imperial Decree as a small Trading post and frontier village during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor. Trading activities mainly involved furs and other natural products during this period. In 1800, Emperor Jiaqing of the Qing dynasty selected a small village on the east bank of the Yitong River and named it "Changchun Ting".
In May 1898, Changchun got its first railway station, located in Kuancheng, part of the railway from Harbin to Lüshun (the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway), constructed by the Russian Empire.
After Russia's loss of the southernmost section of this branch as a result of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, the Kuancheng station (Kuanchengtze, in contemporary spelling) became the last Russian station on this branch. The next station just a short distance to the south—the new "Japanese" Changchun station—became the first station of the South Manchuria Railway, which now owned all the tracks running farther south, to Lüshun, which they re-gauged to the standard gauge (after a short period of using the narrow Japanese 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge during the war).
A special Russo-Japanese agreement of 1907 provided that Russian gauge tracks would continue from the "Russian" Kuancheng Station to the "Japanese" Changchun Station, and vice versa, tracks on the "gauge adapted by the South Manchuria Railway" (i.e. the standard gauge) would continue from Changchun Station to Kuancheng Station.
An epidemic of pneumonic plague occurred in surrounding Manchuria from 1910 to 1911. It was the worst-ever recorded outbreak of pneumonic plague which was spread through the Trans-Manchurian railway from the border trade port of Manzhouli. This turned out to be the beginning of the large pneumonic plague pandemic of Manchuria and Mongolia which ultimately claimed 60,000 victims.
Changchun city planning and development from 1906-1931
The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 and saw the transfer and assignment to Japan in 1906 the railway between Changchun and Port Arthur, and all the branches.
Having realized at length the vital importance of the geographical location of Changchun as the conjuncture of Japan, China and Russia, a mission of planners and engineers were dispatched to Changchun by Japanese Government to investigate on the spot the site for a new railway station.
Japan, without the consent of Chinese Government, did a secret purchase and grab of land from local farmers at considerable high price. Consequently, Changchun Railway Station was constructed and a leasehold of the South Manchuria Railway Affiliated Areas (SMRAA) was developed near and far. In order to turn Changchun into a stronghold for pillaging agricultural and mineral resources of Manchuria, Japan started to blueprint the master plan of Changchun and invested heavily on the urban construction of the city.
As the prelude and preparation of invasion and long-lasting occupation of China, Japan initiated at the beginning of 1907 the planning programme of the SMRAA which embodied distinctive colonial characteristics. The guiding ideology of the overall design was to build a high standard colonial city with sophisticated facilities, multiple functions and large scale.
The comprehensive plan was to meet the needs of:
- Comfort demand of Japanese employees at Manchurian Railways
- Assurances of Changchun to be a base for Japanese control of the whole Manchuria
- Effective counterweight of Russia in this part of China.
Railway nexus status was thickly underlined in the planning and construction, the main design concepts of which read as follows: under conventional grid pattern terms, two geoplagiotropic boulevards were newly carved eastward and westward from the grand square of the new railway station. The two helped forming two intersections with the gridded prototypes, which led to two circles of South and West. The two sub-civic centres served as axis on which eight radial roads were blazed that took the shape of a sectoral structure.
This kind of radial circles and the design concept of urban roads were at that time quite advanced and scientific. It activated to great extend the serious urban landscapes as well as a clearly identification of the traditional gridded pattern.
With the new Changchun railway station as its centre, the urban plan divided the SMRAA into such rectangles as residential quarters of 15%, commerce of 33%, grain depot of 19%, factories of 12%, public entertainment of 9% and administrative organs(including Japanese garrison) of 12%. Each block provided the railway station with supporting and systematic services in the light of its own functions.
In the meantime, a comprehensive system of judiciary and military police was established which was totally independent of China. This accounted for the widespread domain of military facilities within the urban construction area of 3. 967k㎡，such as railway garrison, gendarmerie, police department and its 18 local police stations.
Perceiving Changchun as a tabula rasa upon which to erect new and sweeping conceptions of the built environment, Japanese used the city as a practical laboratory to create two distinct and idealized urban milieus, each appropriate to a particular era. From 1906 to 1931 Changchun served as a key railway town through which the Japanese orchestrated informal empire; between 1932 and 1945 the city became home to a grandiose, new Asian capital. Yet while the façades the town and later the capital—as well as the attitudes of the state they upheld—contrasted markedly, the shifting styles of planning and architecture consistently attempted to represent Japanese rule as progressive, beneficent, and modern.
Behind the development of Changchun, in addition to the railway trade driven, it suggested an important period of the Northeast modern architectural culture reflecting the urban design endeavours and revealing Japanese ambition of invading and occupying China. Japanese architecture and culture had been widely applied to Manchukuo to highlight the special status of the Japanese puppet. Once again, the urban planning will and should stem from a culture, be it aggressive or creative. Changchun’s planning and construction process can serve as a good example.
Changchun expanded rapidly as the junction between of the Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railway and the Russian-owned Chinese Eastern Railway, while remaining the break of gauge point between the Russian and standard gauges into the 1930s,
Manchukuo and World War II
On March 10, 1932 the capital of Manchukuo, a Japan-controlled puppet state in Manchuria, was established in Changchun. The city was then renamed Hsinking (Chinese: 新京; pinyin: Xīnjīng; Wade–Giles: Hsin-ching; Japanese:Shinkyō; literally "New Capital") on March 13. The Emperor Puyi resided in the Imperial Palace (Chinese: 帝宮; pinyin: Dì gōng) which is now the Museum of the Manchu State Imperial Palace. During the Manchukuo period, the region experienced harsh suppression, brutal warfare on the civilian population, forced conscription and labor and other Japanese sponsored government brutalities; at the same time a rapid industrialisation and militarisation took place. Hsinking was a well-planned city with broad avenues and modern public works. The city underwent rapid expansion in both its economy and infrastructure. Many of buildings built during the Japanese colonial era still stand today, including those of the Eight Major Bureaus of Manchukuo (Chinese: 八大部; pinyin: Bādà bù) as well as the Headquarters of the Japanese Kwantung Army.
Construction of Hsinking
Hsinking was the only Direct-controlled municipality (特别市) in Manchukuo after Harbin was incorporated into the jurisdiction of Binjiang Province. In March 1932, the Inspection Division of South Manchuria Railway started to draw up the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking (simplified Chinese: 大新京都市计画; traditional Chinese: 大新京都市計畫; pinyin: Dà xīn jīngdū shì jìhuà). The Bureau of capital construction (simplified Chinese: 国都建设局; traditional Chinese: 國都建設局; pinyin: Guódū jiànshè jú) which was directly under the control of State Council of Manchukuo was established to take complete responsibility of the formulation and the implementation of the plan. Kuniaki Koiso, the Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army, and Yasuji Okamura, the Vice Chief-of-Staff, finalized the plan of a 200 km2 (77 sq mi) construction area. The Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking was influenced by the renovation plan of Paris in the 19th century, the garden city movement, and theories of American cities' planning and design in the 1920s. The city development plan included extensive tree planting. By 1934 Hsinking was known as the Forest Capital with Jingyuetan Park built, which is now China's largest Plantation and a AAAA-rated recreational area.
In accordance with the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking, the area of publicly shared land (including the Imperial Palace, government offices, roads, parks and athletic grounds) in Hsinking was 47 km2 (18 sq mi), whilst the area of residential, commercial and industrial developments was planned to be 53 km2 (20 sq mi).。 However, Hsinking's population exceeded the prediction of 500,000 by 1940. In 1941, the Capital Construction Bureau modified the original plan, which expanded the urban area to 160 km2 (62 sq mi). The new plan also focused on the construction of satellite towns around the city with a planning of 200 m2 (2,200 sq ft) land per capita. Because the effects of war, the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking remained unfinished. By 1944, the built up urban area of Hsinking reached 80 km2 (31 sq mi), while the area used for greening reached 70.7 km2 (27.3 sq mi). As Hsinking's city orientation was the administrative center and military commanding center, land for military use exceeded the originally planned figure of 9 percent, while only light manufacturing including packing industry, cigarette industry and paper-making had been developed during this period. Japanese force also controlled Hsinking's police system, instead of Manchukuo government. Major officers of Hsinking police were all ethnic Japanese.
The population of Hsinking also experienced rapid growth after being established as the capital of Manchukuo. According to the census in 1934 taken by the police agency, the city's municipal area had 141,712 inhabitants. By 1944 the city's population had risen to 863,607, with 153,614 Japanese settlers. This population amount made Hsinking the third largest metropolitan city in Manchukuo after Mukden and Harbin, as the metropolitan mainly focused on military and politics function.
Japanese chemical warfare agents
In 1936, the Japanese established Unit 100 to develop plague biological weapons, although the declared purpose of Unit 100 was to conduct research about diseases originating from animals. During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II the headquarters of Unit 100 ("Wakamatsu Unit") was located in downtown Hsinking, under command of veterinarian Yujiro Wakamatsu. This facility was involved in research of animal vaccines to protect Japanese resources, and, especially, biological-warfare. Diseases were tested for use against Soviet and Chinese horses and other livestock. In addition to these tests, Unit 100 ran a bacteria factory to produce the pathogens needed by other units. Biological sabotage testing was also handled at this facility: everything from poisons to chemical crop destruction.
Siege of Changchun
Kuomintang forces occupied the city in 1946, but were unable to hold the countryside against communist forces. The city fell to the communists in 1948 after the 5 month Siege of Changchun by the People's Liberation Army. Large numbers of civilians starved in the siege; estimates range from 150,000 to 330,000. As of 2009 the history of the siege is still subject to official censorship in the PRC.
Renamed Changchun by the People's Republic of China government, it became the capital of Jilin in 1954. The Changchun Film Studio is also one of the remaining film studios of the era. Changchun Film Festival has become a unique gala for film industries since 1992.
From the 1950s, Changchun was designated to become a center for China's automotive industry. Construction of the First Automobile Works (FAW) began in 1953 and production of the Jiefang CA-10 truck, based on the Soviet ZIS-150 started in 1956. Soviet Russia lent assistance during these early years, providing technical support, tooling, and production machinery. In 1958, FAW introduced the famous Hongqi (Red Flag) limousines This series of cars are billed as "the official car for minister-level officials".
Changchun lies in the middle portion of the Northeast China Plain. Its municipality area is located at latitude 43° 05′−45° 15′ N and longitude 124° 18′−127° 02' E. The total area of Changchun municipality is 20,571 km2 (7,943 sq mi), including metro areas of 2,583 square kilometres (997 sq mi), and a city proper area of 159 km2 (61 sq mi). The city is situated at a moderate elevation, ranging from 250 to 350 metres (820 to 1,150 ft) within its administrative region. In the eastern portion of the city, there lies a small area of low mountains. The city is also situated at the crisscross point of the third east–westward “Europe-Asia Continental Bridge”. Changchun prefecture is dotted with 222 rivers and lakes. Yitong River, a small tributary of Songhua River runs through the city proper.
Changchun has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa). Winters are long (lasting from November to March), cold, and windy, but dry, due to the influence of the Siberian anticyclone, with a January mean temperature of −15.1 °C (4.8 °F). Spring and fall are somewhat short transitional periods, with some precipitation, but are usually dry and windy. Summers are hot and humid, with a prevailing southeasterly wind due to the East Asian monsoon; July averages 23.1 °C (73.6 °F). Snow is usually light during the winter, and annual rainfall is heavily concentrated from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 47 percent in July to 66 percent in January and February, a typical year will see around 2,617 hours of sunshine, and a frost-free period of 140 to 150 days. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −33.0 °C (−27 °F) to 35.7 °C (96 °F).
|Climate data for Changchun|
|Record high °C (°F)||4.6
|Average high °C (°F)||−9.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−15.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−19.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−33
|Precipitation mm (inches)||3.2
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.7||4.6||5.5||7.1||9.8||13.6||15.4||12.4||8.8||6.7||5.7||5.4||98.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||188.5||195.3||239.2||241.3||261.2||247.6||220.3||235.2||234.8||214.3||174.6||164.3||2,616.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||66||66||65||60||58||54||47||54||63||63||60||60||59|
|Source #1: China Meteorological Administration|
|Source #2: Weather China|
|Map||#||Name||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010 census)||Area (km2)|
|1||Chaoyang District||朝阳区||Cháoyáng Qū||675270||237|
|2||Nanguan District||南关区||Nánguān Qū||533979||81|
|3||Kuancheng District||宽城区||Kuānchéng Qū||457959||238|
|4||Erdao District||二道区||Èrdào Qū||402090||452|
|5||Luyuan District||绿园区||Lùyuán Qū||602072||216|
|Economic Development Zone||经济开发区||Jīngjì Kāifā Qū||241736||112|
|Hi-tech Development Zone||高新开发区||Gāoxīn Jīngjì Kāifā Qū||171418||210|
|Jingyue Development Zone||净月开发区||Jìngyue Kāifā Qū||236382||488|
|Xixin development zone||西新开发区||Xīxīn Kāifā Qū||208759|
|Total (City Proper)||3530115||3,019|
|6||Shuangyang District||双阳区||Shuāngyáng Qū||377933||1,677|
|8||Jiutai District||九台区||Jiǔtái Qū||738606||3375|
|10||Nong'an County||农安县||Nóng'ān Xiàn||1029680||5,400|
|Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions. In 1958, 5 counties were put under Changchun's jurisdiction, pilling up the total population to over 4 million.|
According to the Sixth China Census, the total population of the City of Changchun reached 7.677 million in 2010. The statistics in 2011 estimated the total population to be 7.59 million. The birth rate was 6.08 percent and the death rate was 5.51 percent. The urban area had a population of 3.53 million people. In 2010 the sex ratio of the city population was 102.10 males to 100 females.
Changchun achieved a GDP of RMB332.9 billion in 2010, representing a rise of 15.3 percent year on year. Primary industry output increased by 3.3 percent to RMB25.27 billion. Secondary industry output experienced an increase of 19.0 percent, reaching RMB171.99 billion, while the tertiary industry output increased 12.6 percent to RMB135.64 billion. The GDP per capita of Changchun was ¥58,691 in 2012. 
The city's leading industries are production of automobiles, agricultural product processing, biopharmaceuticals, photo electronics, construction materials, and the energy industry. Changchun is the largest automobile manufacturing, research and development center in China, producing 9 percent of the country's automobiles in 2009. Changchun is home to China's biggest vehicle producer FAW (First Automotive Works) Group, which manufactured first Chinese truck and car since 1956. The automaker's factories and associated housing and services occupies a substantial portion of the city's southwest end. Specific brands produced in Changchun includes the Red Flag luxury brand, as well as joint ventures with Audi, Volkswagen, and Toyota. In 2012, FAW sold 2.65 million units of auto. The sales revenue of FAW amounted to RMB 408.46 billion, reprensenting a rise of 10.8% on year. As cradle of the auto industry, one of Changchun’s better known nicknames is "China's Detroit".
Manufacturing of transportation facilities and machinery is also among Changchun's main industries. China's 50 percent of passenger trains, and 10 percent of tractors are produced in Changchun. Changchun Railway Vehicles, one of the main branches of China CNR Corporation, has a joint venture established with Bombardier Transportation to build Movia metro cars for the Guangzhou Metro and Shanghai Metro, and Rapid Transit Vehicle cars for the Tianjin Metro.
Foreign direct investment in the city was US$3.68 billion in 2012, up 19.6% year on year. In 2004 Coca-Cola set up a bottling plant in the city’s ETDZ in 2004 with an investment of US$20 million.
Changchun hosts the yearly Changchun International Automobile Fair, Changchun Film Festival, Changchun Agricultural Fair, Education Exhibition and the Sculpture Exhibition.
Other large companies in Changchun include:
- Yatai Group, since established in 1993 and listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 1995, it has developed into a major conglomerate involved in wide range of industries including property development, cement manufacturing, securities, coal mining, pharmaceuticals and trading.
- Jilin Grain Group, a major processor of grains.
Changchun Automotive Economic Trade and Development Zone
Founded in 1993, the Changchun Automotive Trade Center was re-established as the Changchun Automotive Economic Trade and Development Zone in 1996. The development zone is situated in the southwest of the city and is adjacent to the China First Automobile Works Group Corporation and the Changchun Film ThemeCity. It covers a total area of approximately 300,000 square meters. Within the development zone lies an exhibition center and five specially demarcated industrial centers. The Changchun Automobile Wholesale Center began operations in 1994 and is the largest auto-vehicle and spare parts wholesale center in China. The other centers include a resale center for used auto-vehicles, a specialized center for industrial/commercial vehicles, and a tire wholesale center.
Changchun High Technology Development Zone
The zone is one of the first 27 state-level advanced technology development zones and is situated in the southern part of the city, covering a total area of 49 km2 (19 sq mi). There are 18 full-time universities and colleges, 39 state and provincial-level scientific research institutions, and 11 key national laboratories. The zone is mainly focusing on developing five main industries, namely bio-engineering, automobile engineering, new material fabrication, photo-electricity, and information technology.
Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone
Established in April 1993, the zone enjoys all the preferential policies stipulated for economic and technological development zones of coastal open cities. The total area of CETDZ is 112.72 square kilometers, of which 30 square kilometers has been set aside for development and utilization. It is located 5 kilometres (3 miles) from downtown Changchun, 2 km (1.2 mi) from the freight railway station and 15 km (9 mi) from the Changchun international airport. The zone is devoted to developing five leading industries: namely automotive parts and components, photoelectric information, bio-pharmaceutical, fine processing of foods, and new building materials. In particular, high-tech and high value added projects account for over 80 percent of total output. In 2006 the zone's total fixed assets investment rose to RMB38.4 billion. Among the total of 1656 enterprises registered are 179 that are foreign-funded. The zone also witnessed a total industrial output of RMB 277 billion in 2007.
Changchun is a very compact city, planned by the Japanese with a layout of open avenues and public squares. The city is developing its city layout in a long-term bid to alleviate pressure on limited land, aid economic development and absorb a rising population. According to a draft plan up until 2020, the downtown area will expand southwards to form a new city center around Changchun World Sculpture Park, Weixing Square and their outskirts, and the new development zone.
Changchun has three passenger rail stations, most trains only stop at the central Changchun Railway Station (simplified Chinese: 长春站; traditional Chinese: 長春站), where there are multiple daily departures to other northeast cities such as Jilin City, Harbin, Shenyang, and Dalian, as well as other major cities throughout the country such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. The Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway which runs through three provinces in northeastern China, has a stop in Changchun. The new Changchun West Railway Station, situated in the western end of urbanized area, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway.
Despite once having the most complex tram system in Northern China, there is now only one remaining route open, route 54 (see Changchun Tram). However, Changchun is notable for having China's first urban light rail system, opened in 2002, which was developed from the existing tramway system. There is currently one line encompassing 14.6 km (9.1 mi) of track with plans to expand the system to an eventual 179 km (111 mi) of track.
Changchun is linked to the national highway network through the Changchun–Harbin Expressway, the Changchun–Jilin–Hunchun Expressway and the busiest section in the province, the Changchun–Jilin North Highway. This section connects the two biggest cities in Jilin and is the trunk line for the social and economic communication of the two cities.
Changchun is served by a comprehensive bus system—most buses (and the tram) charge 1 Yuan (元) per ride. Private automobiles are becoming very common on the city's congested streets. Bicycles are relatively rare compared to other northeastern Chinese cities, but mopeds, as well as pedal and even animal-drawn carts are relatively common.
Changchun is headquarters of the 16th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Shenyang Military Region responsible for defending China's northeastern borders with Russia and North Korea.
Universities and colleges
Changchun has 27 regular institutions of full-time tertiary education with a total enrollment of approximate 160,000 students. Jilin University and Northeast Normal University are two key universities in China. Jilin University is also one of the largest universities in China, with more than 60,000 students.
- Changchun Normal University
- Changchun Taxation College
- Changchun University of Science and Technology
- Changchun University
- Jilin College of the Arts
- Jilin Huaqiao Foreign Languages Institute, a private college offering bachelor study programs in foreign languages, international trade management and didactics
- Jilin University
- Northeast Normal University
As a major Chinese city, Changchun is home to many professional sports teams:
- Changchun Yatai Football Club, who have played home soccer matches at the Development Area Stadium since 2009. In 2007 they won the Chinese Super League.
- China Sharks (ice hockey)
- Jilin Northeast Tigers (Basketball)
- Changchun Wuhuan Gymnasium, the main venue of the 2007 Asian Winter Games.
- It has an indoor speed skating arena, Jilin Provincial Speed Skating Rink, as one of four in China.
Notes and references
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- "2010年长春市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 Statistics Communique on National Economy and Social Development of Changchun, 2010" (in Chinese). 5 June 2011.
- "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions-Jilin". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- 中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发5号 (in Chinese). 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- "Changchun (Jilin) City Information".
- "Changchun Business Guide - Economic Overview". echinacities.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- 新京特別市公署『新京市政概要』12-13頁、新京商工公会刊『新京の概況 建国十周年記念發刊』1-7頁、『満洲年鑑』昭和20年（康徳12年）版 389-390頁、他を参照。
- "History". Changchun Municipal Government. Retrieved 23 July 2012.[dead link]
- Zhiting, Li (28 June 2005). "Changchun Ⅱ- Le chemin de fer de Changchun". cctv.com-Francais (in French). Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Provisional Convention ... concerning the junction of the Japanese and Russian Railways in Manchuria" - June 13, 1907. Endowment for International Peace (2009). Manchuria: Treaties and Agreements. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 108. ISBN 1-113-11167-4.
- Luis Jackson, Industrial Commissioner of the Erie Railroad. "Rambles in Japan and China". In Railway and Locomotive Engineering, vol. 26 (March 1913), pp. 91-92
- Nishiura, Hiroshi (9 May 2006). Epidemiology of a primary pneumonic plague in Kantoshu, Manchuria, from 1910 to 1911: statistical analysis of individual records collected by the Japanese Empire. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Jing-tao, Wang. "Analysis of the Rat Plague of Northeast China and the Sanitary and Antiepidemic Condition of Yanbian in the Early 20th Century" (in Chinese). Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Akira Koshizawa, Manchukuo Capital Planning (Jiangsu: Social Sciences Academic Press,2011), 26-97.
- Yishi Liu, “A Pictorial History of Changchun, 1898-1962,” Cross Current 5, (2012): 191-217.
- Akira Koshizawa, Manchukuo Capital Planning (Jiangsu: Social Sciences Academic Press,2011), 26-97
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- Harris, Sheldon H. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45 , and the American Cover-Up. London: Routledge, 1994.
- LTC David M. Glantz, "August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria". Leavenworth Papers No. 7, Combat Studies Institute, February 1983, Fort Leavenworth Kansas.
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- "Mao’s Red Flag Returning To Drive China Leaders From Audi: Cars". bloomberg.com. Bloomberg LP. Feb 27, 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "Asian Winter Games open in northeastern city Changchun". CCTV.com. 29 January 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
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- 长春气候背景分析 (in Chinese). Weather China.
- "Administrative Districts". Changchun Municipal Government. Retrieved 23 July 2012.[dead link]
- "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census" (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of China. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- Changchun: Economic News and Statistics for Changchun's Economy
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- "Bombardier to supply 246 Movia cars for Shanghai Line 12". Railway Gazette International. 2009-12-18. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
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- Jilin Huaqiao Foreign Languages Institute
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