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|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Mayor||Zhou Derui (周德睿)|
|• Party Secretary||Wang Qun (王群)|
|• Prefecture-level city||2,748.7 km2 (1,061.3 sq mi)|
|Elevation||35 m (115 ft)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||5,717,218|
|• Density||2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|City tree||Camphor Laurel|
Changde (Chinese: 常德; pinyin: Chángdé) is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Hunan province, People's Republic of China, with a population of 5,717,218 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 1,232,182 in the built up area made of 2 urban districts (Dingcheng and Wuling). In addition to the urban districts the prefecture-level city of Changde also includes the city of Jinshi and six counties. Changde is adjacent to Dongting Lake to the east, the city of Yiyang to the south, Wuling and Xuefeng Mountains to the west, and Hubei to the north.
The area has been inhabited by human since around 8,000 years. In that time the city has changed names several times, but it has been known as Changde since the twelfth century. The city is well-known for the Battle of Changde during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45) and the atrocities committed then by the Japanese armed forces.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Economy
- 4 Education
- 5 Notable People
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Sister Cities
- 8 Notes and references
- 9 External links
Changde is known for its many Paleolithic and Neolithic sites. About 500 of them have been discovered to date. In 1984 neolithic human settlements were discovered in Li County, part of Changde. In 1988, the Pengtoushan site was excavated leading to the identification of the "Pengtoushan Culture". The site contains the earliest evidence of a settled village yet discovered in China. Archeological research from 2011 suggests that a settlement called Shanlonggang, part of the Pengtoushan civilization, may have cultivated rice 8,000-9,000 years ago, making it the possible birthplace of human rice cultivation.
In historical times it was also a centre from which governments controlled the mountain tribes of western Hunan. A county, named Linyuan, was established there in the 2nd century BC.
In the Han Dynasty the area was called "Wuling County". In the Sui Dynasty, it was called Langzhou. During the Song Dynasty, it was called Dingcheng. In the Tang Dynasty (618–907) it became the seat of Lang prefecture. In 1117, Changde county was established, and around 1165, Changde superior prefecture was established. The name Changde has been used for the city ever since. This status was retained until 1912, when the superior prefecture was abolished and the city became a county seat.
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century
In the late 19th century Changde became a prosperous commercial center and the chief agricultural central market of the Yuan River basin. Many Chinese firms, and — after 1905, when it was opened to foreign trade — foreign firms as well, maintained branches there to buy rice, cotton, tung oil, and timber, so that Changde's economic influence reached out into northern Guizhou, southwestern Hubei, and parts of southeastern Sichuan province. The merchants of the Taho quarter of the city controlled much of the northwestern Hunan economy, and early in the 20th century Changde was the second city of Hunan, after Changsha.
In the 1943 Battle of Changde, the Kuomintang's National Revolutionary Army attempted to stop the invading Japan Imperial troops from completing their invasion of Sichuan. Frustrated, the Japanese side employed chemical weapons to clear their way. During the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials, proof was presented of operations to contaminate the area with plague as early as 1941 and 1942.
Although the commercial dominance of Changde firms disappeared with the advent of communist rule in 1949, the city remained an important center of trade, with the majority of its population engaged either in commerce or in transportation.
In 1975, Changde was hit by Typhoon Nina.
Located on the Yuan River upstream from its junction with the Lake Dongting system, Changde is a natural center of the northwest Hunan plain. The city was historically situated on the north bank of the Yuan River, and has since expanded development south of the river.
It has a monsoon-influenced, four-season humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with cool, damp winters, and hot, humid summers. Winter begins relatively dry but not sunny and becomes progressively damper and cloudier; spring brings frequent rain and the highest humidity levels of the year. Summer is comparatively sunny, while autumn is somewhat dry. The monthly 24-hour average temperatures ranges from 4.7 °C (40.5 °F) in January to 28.6 °C (83.5 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 16.92 °C (62.5 °F). The annual precipitation is about 1,320 mm (52 in), while there are 1,602 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Changde (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.3
|Average low °C (°F)||2.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||60.1
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||11.8||11.6||16.1||16.6||14.9||14.5||11.4||10.1||9.5||12.0||9.8||8.4||146.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||83.1||68.5||80.8||116.7||149.9||150.0||224.0||213.2||155.0||135.3||118.7||106.8||1,602|
|Percent possible sunshine||26||22||22||30||36||36||53||52||42||38||37||34||35.7|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
The municipal executive, legislature and judiciary is in Wuling District (武陵区), together with the city's Communist Party headquarters and Public Security bureau. Wuling sits on the left bank of the Yuan River (沅江); opposite is the administrative centre for Dingcheng District (鼎城区).
Changde prefecture-level city oversees two districts, one county-level city and six counties :
|Name||Chinese||Administrative seat||Post code||Population
|Wuling District||武陵区||Nanpinggang Township (南坪岗乡)||415000||620,973||412||2,084||509,940|
|Dingcheng District||鼎城区||Wuling Town (武陵镇)||415100||837,563||2340||342||836,799|
|Jinshi City||津市市||Xianyang Street Subdistrict (襄阳街街道)||415400||251,064||556||450||243,242|
|Shimen County||石门县||Chu River Town (楚江镇)||415300||599,475||3970||151||673,435|
|Li County||澧县||Liyang Town (澧阳镇)||415500||827,021||2075||399||824,902|
|Linli County||临澧县||Anfu Town (安福镇)||415200||401,071||1204||333||411,971|
|Anxiang County||安乡县||Shenliu Town (深柳镇)||415600||525,619||1086||484||543,602|
|Hanshou County||汉寿县||Longyang Town (龙阳镇)||415900||799,497||2091||383||764,213|
|Taoyuan County||桃源县||Zhang River Town (漳江镇)||415700||854,935||4442||192||932,771|
Tobacco is the most important industry in Changde. Changde is also an administrative centre and a storage and shipping point for tung oil, grain, cotton, medicinal herbs, and wood. Manufactures include ceramics, machine tools, textiles, leather, and processed foods. Grain, oil, cotton, and other commodities are loaded into medium-sized ships and taken to Yueyang, Changsha, or Hankou (Wuhan, Hubei province) for onward shipment. Timber is also rafted there and floated across Lake Dongting to Yueyang, and thus to the Yangtze River. After 1949 the city developed some light industry, mostly based on such local products as wood, leather, and bristles.
Changde is home to several institutions of higher education.
- Hunan University of Arts & Sciences (湖南文理学院)
- Changde Vocational and Technical College (常德职业技术学院)
- Changde Financial and Economic School (常德财经学校)
- Ding Ling - Modern author born in Linli county, Changde in 1904
- Jian Bozan - Marxist historian born in Taoyuan county, Chandge in 1898
- Liu Yuxi - famous Tang Dynasty poet worked as a minor government official in Changde (then Langzhou) for nine years
- Lin Boqu - Prominent early leader of the Chinese Communist Party born in Shujing, Linli county, Changde in 1886
- Song Jiaoren - Revolutionary political leader and founding member of the Kuomintang born in Taoyuan county, Changde in 1882
Changde has an extensive bus network with most short-distance busses within the city costing either 1 or 1.5 yuan depending on air-conditioning. The city is also connected to the passengar rail network at Changde Station in northern Wuling District.
Bus Rapid Transit
On December 26, 2012, Changde officially launched its Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system. As of July 2013, the BRT system in Changde has eight lines operating bot inside and outside BRT roads. These include the H1 main line running from Changde Bus Station to Deshan Bus Station and seven branch lines, H11, H12, H13, H15, H16, L12, and L13 with a total of 24 BRT stations in the city. The system operates on the same flat fare as the cities noral innercity busses network, charging 1 yuan for transit between any two stops on the line except in the summer when the fare increases to 1.5 yuan. Changde BRT uses Huanghai CNG busses. The stations are located in the center of the roadway.
Public Bike Service
Changde also has a public bike service begun in October 2012 with 30 rental stations throughout the city and a thousand bicycles. The system has continued to expand and plans at least a 120 rental staions and 3,200 bicycles by 2015. It is the second such system to be implemented in Hunan province after a similar bike rental program was begun in Zhuzhou in May of 2011. Users sign-up for the program with an annual or temporary subscription and must pay a ¥200 deposit. Riders can use the bikes for up to two hours for free and pay one yuan for each additional hour up to a maximum of fifteen yuan per day. Rental stations are open from 6 a.m. to 9 p.m.
Changde Taohuayuan Airport (CDG) was constructed in 1958 and links Changde with several other Chinese cities including Haikou, Beijing, Shanghai, Kunming, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Tianjin, Liuzhou, Chongqing, and Wuhan. The airport is located approximately 12.2 kilometres (7.6 mi) south of the city.
Since the Yuan river has a minimum channel depth of over two meters year-round, it is navigable by thousand-ton ships. Yuanguan port in Changde is the second largest port in Hunan province covering an area of 200 mu (13 hectares). Construction of the new port began in 1999 and the first and second stages were completed in 2008 with two thousand-ton berths, two five-hundred-ton berths and one three-hundred-ton berth. Since 2012, The port of Changde is linked directly to the port of Shanghai.
- Higashiōmi, Shiga, Japan (1994)
- Ipswich, Queensland, Australia (2011)
- Anne Arundel County, Maryland, United States
- Dimitrovgrad, Russia
- Hannover, Germany
Notes and references
- "Introduction of Changde". Changde(China) Official Web Portal- Changde's International Window. Changde City Government. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- Charles Higham (1996). The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-521-56505-7.
- "China's Hunan may be birthplace of cultivated rice". People's Daily. Xinhua News. November 24, 2011.
- "Tobacco Industry". Changde City Government. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- Kuhlman, Erika (2002). A to Z of Women in World History. Infobase Publishing. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-8160-4334-7.
- Guo Jian; Yongyi Song, Yuan Zhou (2006). Historical Dicionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Scarecrow Press inc. p. 125.
- "Liu Yuxi". Anchor Book of Chinese Poetry Web Companion. Whittier College. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Lin Boqu". CPC Encyclopedia. China Daily. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- Gao, James Zheng (2009). Historical Dictionary of Modern China. Scarecrow Press inc. p. 334. ISBN 978-0-8108-4930-3.
- "Changde BRT(Bus Rapid Transit) System". Changde City Government. 2013-07-30. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Changde BRT". Institute for Transportation & Development Policy. 2013-03-30. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Changde Public Bicycle Rental System". Changde City Government. 2013-07-31. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Hunan's First Public Bicycle Rental System Launched in Zhuzhou". Hunan Provincial People's Government. 2011-05-08. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Public Bike: Changde". Institue for Transportation and Development Policy. 2013-07-05. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "天津—常德—柳州航线6月28日开通，每天一班" (in Chinese). 常德桃花源机场. 2013-7-1. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Taohuayuan Airport". Changde City Government. 2010-07-5. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Changde Port- Shanghai Port Direct Route Opens". Hunan Provincial People's Government. 2012-09-18. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Sister Cities". City Government of Changde. 2013-06-06. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
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