Changes in British sovereignty
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
(article under construction)
A list of former British colonies, dependencies and dates when they severed legal ties with Britain:
Gains in sovereignty
Losses in sovereignty or other jurisdiction
- Wei-hai-Wei (1930) - fully restored to Chinese sovereignty on 1 October.
- Australia, Canada, the Irish Free State, New Zealand, Newfoundland, and South Africa (1931) - Sovereignty over these relinquished on 11 December as per the Statute of Westminster
- British India (1947) - partitioned on 15 August into the independent dominions of India and Pakistan.
- Union of Burma and Dominion of Ceylon (1948) - independence to Burma as a republic granted on 4 January; to Ceylon on 4 February.
- Newfoundland and Labrador (1949) - incorporated into Canada as a province on 31 March.
- Gold Coast (as Ghana) (1957) - independence granted on 6 March.
- States of Malacca and Penang (1957) - joined Federation of Malaya on 31 August.
- Republic of Cyprus (1960) - independence granted on 16 August.
- Sierra Leone and Tanganyika (1961) - independence granted to Sierra Leone on 27 April; to Tanganyika on 9 December.
- Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and Uganda (1962) - independence granted to Jamaica on 6 August; to Trinidad and Tobago on 31 August; and to Uganda on 9 October.
- States of Sabah (as North Borneo), Sarawak, and Singapore (1963) - states formed Malaysia with the Federation of Malaya on 16 September; Nigeria and Kenya independence granted to Nigeria as federal republic on 1 October; Kenya on 12 December.
- Malawi (as Nyasaland), Malta, and Zambia (1964) - independence granted to Malawi on 6 July; Malta on 21 September; Zambia on 24 October.
- The Gambia (1965) - independence granted on 18 February.
- Guyana (as British Guiana), Botswana (as Bechuanaland Protectorate), Lesotho (as Basutoland), and Barbados (1966) - independence granted to Guyana on 26 May; Botswana on 30 September; Lesotho on 4 October; Barbados on 30 November.
- State of Aden (1967) - joined South Yemen on 30 November.
- Mauritius and Swaziland (1968) - independence granted to Mauritius on 12 March; to Swaziland on 6 September.
- Fiji (1970) - independence granted on 10 October.
- The Bahamas (1973)- independence granted on 10 July.
- Seychelles, Tuvalu, and the Commonwealth of Dominica (1978) - independence granted to Seychelles on 29 June; to Tuvalu on 1 October; to Dominica as a republic on 3 November.
- Saint Lucia, Kiribati, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1979) - independence granted to Saint Lucia on 22 February; to Kiribati on 12 July; to Saint VIncent and the Grenadines on 27 October.
- Zimbabwe (as Southern Rhodesia) and Vanuatu (as New Hebrides) (1980) - independence to Zimbabwe as a republic granted on 17 April; to Vanuatu on 1 July.
- Antigua and Barbuda (1981) - independence granted on 1 November.
- Saint Christopher and Nevis (1983) - independence granted on 19 September.
- Hong Kong (1997) - returned to the People's Republic of China as a Special Administrative Region on 1 July as per the Sino-British Joint Declaration.
Termination of personal union or other connection with the United Kingdom's monarchy
- Ireland (1949) - ended dominion status by unilateral legislative act on 18 April.
- India (1950) - ended dominion status by constitutional amendment on 26 January.
- Pakistan (1956) - dominion status ended with new constitution on 23 March.
- Ghana (1960) - dominion status ended by referendum on 1 July.
- South Africa (1961) - dominion status ended by referendum on 31 May.
- Tanganyika (1962) - dominion status ended on 9 December.
- Uganda (1963) - dominion status ended by Constitution of Uganda constitutional amendment on 9 October.
- Kenya (1964) - dominion status ended with new constitution on 12 December.
- Nigeria and the Malawi (1966) - dominion status ended by Nigeria via constitutional amendment on 24 May; Malawi via new constitution on 6 July.
- Guyana and The Gambia (1970)- end of dominion statuses by Guyana via constitutional amendment effective 17 March; The Gambia via referendum on 14 April.
- Sierra Leone (1971) - dominion status ended on 19 April.
- Sri Lanka (1972)- dominion status ended on 22 May.
- Malta (1974) - dominion status ended on 13 December.
- Trinidad & Tobago (1976) - dominion status ended on 1 March.
- Mauritius (1992) - dominion status ended on 12 March.
- Canada (1982) - severed legal ties with Britain, but retains Elizabeth II as head of state.
- Australia and New Zealand (1986) - severed legal ties with Britain, but each individually retains Elizabeth II as head of state.
- Republic of Fiji (1987) - post-coup end of dominion status accepted on 15 October. Elizabeth II remains traditional (though unofficial) Paramount Chief.