Changi Prison

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Changi Prison's main building (built 2000)

Changi Prison (Chinese: 樟宜监狱; Malay: Penjara Changi; Tamil: சாங்கி சிறைச்சாலை) was a prison located in Changi in the eastern part of Singapore. It has since been relocated as Changi Prison Complex and Changi Women's Prison and Drug Rehabilitation Centre.

History[edit]

First Prison and POW Camp[edit]

Liberated Allied prisoners lying in a corridor and looking out of cell doorways in Changi Prison, c. 1945

Changi Prison was constructed by the British administration of the Straits Settlements as a civilian prison, in 1936.

During World War II, following the Fall of Singapore in February 1942, the Japanese military detained about 3,000 civilians in Changi Prison, which was built to house only 600 prisoners. The Japanese used the British Army's Selarang Barracks, near the prison, as a prisoner of war camp, holding some 50,000 Allied—predominantly British and Australian—soldiers and, from 1943, Dutch civilians brought over by the Japanese from the islands in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia).[1] Although POWs were rarely, if ever, held in the civilian prison, the name Changi became synonymous with the POW camp in the UK, Australia, The Netherlands, and elsewhere.

About 850 POWs died during their internment in Changi during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore,[2] a relatively low rate compared to the overall death rate of 27% for POWs in Japanese camps.[3] However, many more prisoners died after being transferred from Changi to various labour camps outside Singapore, including the Burma Railway and the Sandakan airfield.

Allied prisoners of war after the liberation of Changi Prison, Singapore - c. 1945

Allied POWs, mainly Australians, built a chapel at the prison in 1944 using simple tools and found materials.Stanley Warren of the 15th Regiment, Royal Regiment of Artillery Stanley Warren painted a series of murals at the chapel. Another British POW, Sgt. Harry Stodgen built a Christian cross out of a used artillery shell. After the war, the chapel was dismantled and shipped to Australia, while the cross was sent to the UK. The chapel was reconstructed in 1988, and is now located at the Royal Military College Duntroon, Canberra.

After the war, the prison was used to hold former Japanese staff officers, Kampetai, police, and guards from concentration camps. Executions were conducted in the inner yard where three gallows were erected. British soldiers were stationed there as prison guards. On 17 Oct. 1945, all 260 German seamen of the former U-Boats were moved from Pasir Panjang to the prison. On 26 June 1946, all German soldiers and civilians were notfied they would be shipped back to England on a passenger liner, the Empresss of Australia. [4]:245-252

Kempeitai[edit]

The prison also contained the headquarters of the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. The Kempeitai tortured prisoners there, who they suspected were spies.[citation needed]

Changi Chapel and Museum[edit]

Main article: Changi Museum
Changi chapel, built by Australian POWs in 1944, later relocated to Duntroon, Canberra

In 1988, Singapore built a replica chapel (which was built by the POWs) and museum next to the Changi Prison. When Changi Prison was expanded in 2001, the chapel and museum were relocated to a new site 1 km away and the Changi chapel and museum were officially established 15 February 2001.

Present Day[edit]

Main article: Changi Prison Complex

In 2000, the prison was demolished and its inmates were relocated to the new consolidated prison complex in a neighbouring site. In view of its historical significance, the Preservation of Monuments Board worked with the Singapore Prison Service and the Urban Redevelopment Authority to allow the front gates of the old prison to be preserved and moved to the new prison. Earlier in 1994, Changi Women's Prison and Drug Rehabilitation Centre was opened.

Past Prominent Detainees[edit]

Prisoners of War[edit]

Convicted criminals incarcerated after conversion from a wartime prisoner camp[edit]

Changi in popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Changi Heritage: Changi and the War
  2. ^ Journal
  3. ^ Military History Online
  4. ^ Giese, O., 1994, Shooting the War, Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, ISBN 1557503079
  5. ^ The story of the Rice Cakes
  6. ^ Angel Wings
  7. ^ Tall Grow the Tallow Woods
  8. ^ Richmond, Caroline (29 October 2013). "News Science Medical research Hugh de Wardener obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  9. ^ John Hayter Priest in Prison Tynron Press 1991 ISBN 1-85646-051-7
  10. ^ Who's Who in Australia (Crown Content Melb, 2007) pp 1444: Millner, James Sinclair (1919–2007)
  11. ^ http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/rivett-rohan-deakin-11533

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 1°21′25.47″N 103°58′25.11″E / 1.3570750°N 103.9736417°E / 1.3570750; 103.9736417