Meridian (Chinese medicine)
The meridian system (simplified Chinese: 经络; traditional Chinese: 經絡; pinyin: jīngluò, also called channel network) is a traditional Chinese medicine belief about a path through which the life-energy known as "qi" flows.
The meridian network is typically divided into 2 categories, the jingmai (經脈) or meridian channels and the luomai (絡脈) or associated vessels (sometimes called "collaterals"). The jingmai contain the 12 tendinomuscular meridians, the 12 divergent meridians, the 12 principal meridians, the 8 extraordinary vessels as well as the Huato channel, a set of bilateral points on the lower back whose discovery is attributed to the famous physician in ancient China. The collaterals contain 15 major arteries that connect the 12 principal meridians in various ways, in addition to the interaction with their associated internal organs and other related internal structures. The collateral system also incorporates a branching expanse of capillary like vessels which spread throughout the body, namely in the 12 cutaneous regions as well as emanating from each point on the principal meridians. If one counts the number of unique points on each meridian, the total comes to 361, although 365 is usually used since it coincides with the number of days in a year. Note that this method ignores the fact that the bulk of acupoints are bilateral, making the actual total 670.
There are about 400 acupuncture points (not counting bilateral points twice) most of which are situated along the major 20 pathways (i.e. 12 primary & 8 extraordinary channels). However by the 2nd Century AD, 649 acupuncture points were recognized in China (reckoned by counting bilateral points twice). There are "Twelve Principal Meridians" where each meridian corresponds to either a hollow or solid organ; interacting with it and extending along a particular extremity (i.e. arm or leg). There are also "Eight Extraordinary Channels", two of which have their own sets of points, and the remaining ones connecting points on other channels.
Twelve standard meridians
The twelve standard meridians, also called Principal Meridians, are divided into Yin and Yang groups. The Yin meridians of the arm are Lung, Heart, and Pericardium. The Yang meridians of the arm are Large Intestine, Small Intestine, and Triple Burner. The Yin Meridians of the leg are Spleen, Kidney, and Liver. The Yang meridians of the leg are Stomach, Bladder, and Gall Bladder.
The table below gives a more systematic list of the twelve standard meridians:
|Meridian name (Chinese)||Quality of Yin or Yang||Extremity||Five Elements||Organ||Time of Day|
|Taiyin Lung Channel of Hand (手太阴肺经) or Hand's Major Yin Lung Meridian||Greater Yin (taiyin, 太阴)||Hand (手)||Metal (金)||Lung (肺)||寅 [yín]
3 a.m. to 5 a.m.
|Shaoyin Heart Channel of Hand (手少阴心经) or Hand's Minor Yin Heart Meridian||Lesser Yin (shaoyin, 少阴)||Hand (手)||Fire (火)||Heart (心)||午 [wǔ]
11 a.m. to 1 p.m.
|Jueyin Pericardium Channel of Hand (手厥阴心包经) or Hand's Absolute Yin Heart Protector Meridian||Faint Yin (jueyin - 厥阴)||Hand (手)||Fire (火)||Pericardium (心包)||戌 [xū]
7 p.m. to 9 p.m.
|Shaoyang Sanjiao Channel of Hand (手少阳三焦经) or Hand's Minor Yang Triple Burner Meridian||Lesser Yang (shaoyang, 少阳)||Hand (手)||Fire (火)||Triple Burner (三焦)||亥 [hài]
9 p.m. to 11 p.m.
|Taiyang Small Intestine Channel of Hand (手太阳小肠经) or Hand's Major Yang Small Intestine Meridian||Greater Yang (taiyang, 太阳)||Hand (手)||Fire (火)||Small Intestine (小肠)||未 [wèi]
1 p.m. to 3 p.m.
|Yangming Large Intestine Channel of Hand (手阳明大肠经) or Hand's Yang Supreme Large Intestine Meridian||Yang Bright (yangming, 阳明)||Hand (手)||Metal (金)||Large Intestine (大腸)||卯 [mǎo]
5 a.m. to 7 a.m.
|Taiyin Spleen Channel of Foot (足太阴脾经) or Foot's Major Yin Spleen Meridian||Greater Yin (taiyin, 太阴)||Foot (足)||Earth (土)||Spleen (脾)||巳 [sì]
9 a.m. to 11 a.m.
|Shaoyin Kidney Channel of Foot (足少阴肾经) or Foot's Minor Yin Kidney Meridian||Lesser Yin (shaoyin, 少阴)||Foot (足)||Water (水)||Kidney (腎)||酉 [yǒu]
5 p.m. to 7 p.m.
|Jueyin Liver Channel of Foot (足厥阴肝经) or Foot's Absolute Yin Liver Meridian||Faint Yin (jueyin, 厥阴)||Foot (足)||Wood (木)||Liver (肝)||丑 [chǒu]
1 a.m. to 3 a.m.
|Shaoyang Gallbladder Channel of Foot (足少阳胆经) or Foot's Minor Yang Gallbladder Meridian||Lesser Yang (shaoyang, 少阳)||Foot (足)||Wood (木)||Gall Bladder (膽)||子 [zǐ]
11 p.m. to 1 a.m.
|Taiyang Bladder Channel of Foot (足太阳膀胱经) or Foot's Major Yang Urinary Bladder Meridian||Greater Yang (taiyang, 太阳)||Foot (足)||Water (水)||Urinary bladder (膀胱)||申 [shēn]
3 p.m. to 5 p.m.
|Yangming Stomach Channel of Foot (足阳明胃经) or Foot's Yang Supreme Stomach Meridian||Yang Bright (yangming, 阳明)||Foot (足)||Earth (土)||Stomach (胃)||辰 [chén]
7 a.m. to 9 a.m.
Eight extraordinary meridians
The eight extraordinary meridians are of pivotal importance in the study of Qigong, T'ai chi ch'uan and Chinese alchemy. These eight extra meridians are different to the standard twelve organ meridians in that they are considered to be storage vessels or reservoirs of energy and are not associated directly with the Zang Fu, i.e. internal organs. These channels were first systematically referred to in the "Spiritual Axis" chapters 17, 21 and 62, the "Classic of Difficulties" chapters 27, 28 and 29 and the "Study of the 8 Extraordinary vessels" (Qi Jing Ba Mai Kao) by Li Shi Zhen 1578.
The eight extraordinary vessels are (奇經八脈; qí jīng bā mài):
- Conception Vessel (Ren Mai) - 任脈 [rèn mài]
- Governing Vessel (Du Mai) - 督脈 [dū mài]
- Penetrating Vessel (Chong Mai) - 衝脈 [chōng mài]
- Girdle Vessel (Dai Mai) - 帶脈 [dài mài]
- Yin linking vessel (Yin Wei Mai) - 陰維脈 [yīn wéi mài]
- Yang linking vessel (Yang Wei Mai) - 陽維脈 [yáng wéi mài]
- Yin Heel Vessel (Yin Qiao Mai) - 陰蹻脈 [yīn qiāo mài]
- Yang Heel Vessel (Yang Qiao Mai) - 陽蹻脈 [yáng qiāo mài]
Scientific view of traditional Chinese meridian theory
In 1694, during the "quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns", after having seen some meridian diagrams from the Nèi Jīng and misinterpreting them as anatomical drawings, British Scholar William Wotton wrote this famous criticism of TCM:
- It would be tedious to dwell any longer upon such Notions as these, which every page of Cleyer's book is full of. The Anatomical Figures annexed to the Tracts, which also were sent out of China, are so very whimsical, that a Man would almost believe the whole to be a Banter, if these Theories were not agreeable to the occasional hints that may be found in the Travels of the Missionaries. This, however, does no prejudice to their [Medicinal Simples], which may, perhaps, be very admirable, and which a long Experience may have taught the Chineses to apply with great success; and it is possible that they may sometimes give not unhappy Guesses in ordinary Cases, by feeling their Patients Pulses: Still, this is little to Physic, as an Art; and however, the Chineses may be allowed to be excellent Empiricks, as many of the West-Indian Salvages [Savages] are, yet it cannot be believed that they can be tolerable Philosophers; which, in an Enquiry into the Learning of any Nation, is the first Question that is to be considered.
According to Science Based Medicine, "TCM is a pre-scientific superstitious view of biology and illness, similar to the humoral theory of Galen, or the notions of any pre-scientific culture. It is strange and unscientific to treat TCM as anything else. Any individual diagnostic or treatment method within TCM should be evaluated according to standard principles of science and science-based medicine, and not given special treatment."
Additionally, the National Council Against Health Fraud concluded that, "The World Health Organization has listed forty conditions for which claims of effectiveness have been made. They include acute and chronic pain, rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, muscle and nerve "difficulties," depression, smoking, eating disorders, drug "behavior problems," migraine, acne, ulcers, cancer, and constipation. Some chiropractors and psychologists have made unsubstantiated claims to improve dyslexia and learning disorders by acupressure. However, scientific evidence supporting these claims is either inadequate or nonexistent."
Finally, Dr. Stephen Barrett wrote, "TCM theory and practice are not based upon the body of knowledge related to health, disease, and health care that has been widely accepted by the scientific community. TCM practitioners disagree among themselves about how to diagnose patients and which treatments should go with which diagnoses. Even if they could agree, the TCM theories are so nebulous that no amount of scientific study will enable TCM to offer rational care."
- Acupuncture point
- List of acupuncture points
- Marma adi
- Nadi (yoga)
- Pressure points
- Glossary of alternative medicine
- Deng Yu, Zhu Shuanli, Xu Peng et al邓宇，朱栓立，徐彭等，Essence and New Translator of Channels经络英文新释译与实质，Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine中国中西医结合杂志，2000，20（8）：615
- Deng Yu, Zhu Shuanli, Xu Peng et al，New Translator with Characteristic of Wu xing Yin Yang，Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine，2000, 20 (12)
- Deng Yu et al; Fresh Translator of Zang Xiang Fractal five System，Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine; 1999
- Deng Yu et al，TCM Fractal Sets中医分形集，Journal of Mathematical Medicine ，1999，12（3），264-265
- Standard Acupuncture Nomenclature, World Health Organization
- Needham, Joseph; Lu Gwei-Djen (1980). Celestial Lancets. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 0-521-21513-7.
- Dillman, George and Chris, Thomas. Advanced Pressute Point Fighting of Ryukyu Kempo. A Dillman Karate International Book, 1994. ISBN 0-9631996-3-3
- Peter Deadman and Mazin Al-Khafaji with Kevin Baker. "A Manuel of Acupuncture" Journal of Chinese Medicine, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9510546-5-9
- T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Meditation by Da Liu, pages 35-41 - Routledge and Keegan Paul 1987 ISBN 0-14-019217-4
- The foundations of Chinese Medicine by Giovanni Maciocia, pages 355-365 - Churchill Livingstone 1989. ISBN 0-443-03980-1
- Needham, Joseph; Lu Gwei-Djen (1980). Celestial Lancets. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press. pp. 281–282. ISBN 0-521-21513-7.
- Novella, Steven (25 January 2012). "What Is Traditional Chinese Medicine?". http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org. Society for Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- "NCAHF Position Paper on Acupuncture (1990)". http://www.ncahf.org/index.html. 16 September 1990. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Barrett, Stephen (12 January 2011). "Be Wary of Acupuncture, Qigong, and "Chinese Medicine"". http://www.quackwatch.org/index.html. Retrieved 13 May 2015.