Chanyu

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Chanyu (also known as Chan-yu and Shanyu; simplified Chinese: 单于; traditional Chinese: 單于; pinyin: Chányú; Wade–Giles: Ch'an2-yü2; Middle Chinese: [tɑn˥˩i̯u˩] (Guangyun) or [ʑi̯ɛn˩˥i̯u˩]; Xiongnu language: Sanok or Tsanak,[1] short form for Chengli Gutu Chanyu (Cheng-li Ku-tu Chan-yu; simplified Chinese: 撑犁孤涂单于; traditional Chinese: 撐犁孤塗單于; pinyin: Chēnglí Gūtu Chányú; Wade–Giles: Ch'eng1-li2 Ku1-t'u0 Ch'an2-yü2; according to Book of Han, it means Heaven, Child, Immense appearance[2])) was the title used by the nomadic supreme rulers of Middle and Central Asia for eight centuries and was superseded by the title "Khagan"" in 402 CE.[3] The title was used by the nomadic Xiongnu Luanti clan during the Qin (221-206 BCE) and Han dynasties (206 BCE–220 CE).

The reason 'Chanyu' is preferable to 'Shanyu' is to be found in the Guangyun, a dictionary compiled in 601 CE by Lu Fayan and completed during the Song dynasty from 1007 to 1011. It gives three readings for the first character of this title, [i.e., Chanyu]: dan, chan, and shan. The form chan is specifically mentioned as being used in the Xiongnu title Chanyu. The reading shan is used as a place or family name; the reading shan means 'immense' or 'sky.'[4][5][6] Certain Mongolian scholars[who?] think that the title "Chengli Gutu Chanyu" is equivalent to the Mongolian phrase "Tengriin Huhudu Chino" meaning "Heaven's Child Wolf". "Chino", also written "Chono", means wolf in Mongolian and it seems plausible that the Chanyu was seen as embodying the spirit of the tribal wolf totem. Irreverent use of the sacred name "Chino" was and is still seen as taboo by Mongols and substitutes such as "Tengriin Nogai" (Dog of Heaven) and "Kheeriin Bookhoi" (Steppe Bookhoi) are used instead when referring to wolves. There is also an uncanny resemblance between Modu Chanyu and the name of Genghis Khan's first ancestor "Borte Chino" (Grey Wolf). Genghis Khan refers to the time of Modu Chanyu as "the remote times of our Chanyu" in his letter to Daoist Qiu Chuji.

Literally, the full phrase in which Chanyu is used means "son of endless sky", clearly an epithet for a ruler, just as the Chinese have called the emperor the "son of heaven". "Chengli" refers to the Turkic Tengri, the highest deity of the steppe tribes, similar to Dyaus Pita. The Xiongnu lateral succession system seems to have been what the late Joseph Fletcher called blood tanistry, with the closest male relative inheriting the position of Chanyu from his predecessor. There were sixty historical Chanyu.[7][8]

List of Xiongnu Chanyus[edit]

NB: Chanyu names do not always obey Chinese convention
Chinese name Pinyin/Wade-Giles Guangyun Personal Name Reign Note
Touman (頭曼單于/头曼单于) tóumàn/ t'ou-man 240–209 BC
Maodun (冒頓單于/冒顿单于) mòudùn / mou-tun 209–174 BC a.k.a. Batur (Baγatur) [9]
Laoshang (老上單于/老上单于) lǎoshàng / lao-shang 174–161 BC
Gunchen (軍臣單于/军臣单于) jūnchén / chün-ch'en 161–126 BC
Ichise (伊稚斜單于/伊稚斜单于) yīzhìxié / i-chih-hsieh 126–114 BC
Uwei (烏維/乌维) 114–105 BC
Ushylu (兒單于/儿单于) (烏師廬/乌师庐) 105–102/101 BC "Err Chanyu" (underage) [10]
Guilihu (呴犛湖/呴犁湖) 102/101–101/100 BC
Chedi (且鞮侯) (且鞮侯) 101/100–96 BC a.k.a. Quidi, Chedihou
Hulugu (狐鹿姑單于/狐鹿姑单于) húlùgū / hu-lu-ku 96–85 BC
Huandi (壺衍鞮單于/壺衍鞮单于) húyǎndī / hu-yen-ti 85–68 BC
Hyuilui-Juankui (虛閭權渠單于/虚闾权渠单于) xūlǘquánqú / hsü-lü-ch'üan-ch'ü 68–60 BC
Uyan-Guidi (握衍朐鞮單于/握衍朐鞮单于) wòyǎnqúdī / wo-lu-ch'ü-ti (屠耆堂/ 屠耆堂) 60–58 BC
Huhanye (呼韓邪單于/呼韩邪单于) hūhánxié / hu-han-hsieh Giheushyan [11]
( 稽侯狦)
58 – 31 BC
屠耆單于, 58–56 BC
呼揭單于, 57 BC
車犂單于, 57–56 BC
烏籍單于, 57 BC
閏振單于, 56–54 BC
Zhizhi Chanyu 郅支單于, 55 – 36 BC
伊利目單于, 49 BC
Fujulei [12]
(復株纍若鞮單于/复株累若鞮单于)
fùzhūléiruòdī/fu-chu-lei-je-ti Dyaotao-mogao [13]
(彫陶莫皋/雕陶莫皋)
31–20 BC "Jodi" in Hunnic means "respectful to parents" [14]
Seuxie [15]
(搜諧若鞮單于/搜谐若鞮单于)
Juimixui [16]
(且麋胥)
20–12 BC Title Jodi-Chanyu
Guia [17]
(車牙若鞮單于/车牙若鞮单于)
Juimigui [18]
(且莫車/挛鞮且莫车)
12–8 BC Title Jodi-Chanyu
Uchjulu [19] (烏珠留若鞮單于/乌珠留若鞮单于) Nengzhiyasi [20]
(囊知牙斯)
8 BC – 13 AD Title Jodi-Chanyu
Ulei Hyan [21] (烏累若鞮單于/乌累若鞮单于) (鹹/挛鞮咸) 13–18 AD Title Jodi-Chanyu
Yui [22] (呼都而尸道皋若鞮單于/呼都而尸道皋若鞮单于) (輿/挛鞮舆) 18–46 AD
Wudadi-hou [23] Wudadi (烏達鞮侯/乌达鞮侯) 46 AD

Northern Xiongnu (北匈奴)[edit]

Chinese name Pinyin/Wade-Giles Guangyun Personal Name Reign Note
Punu (蒲奴) Punu 46–? AD
Youliu [24] (優留) Youliu  ?–87 AD
Bey/Bi (北單于) Běi Chányú 88–? AD
Yuchujian [25] (於除鞬單于) Yuchujian 91–93 AD
Feng-hou (逢侯) Feng, a.k.a. Finghey 94–118 AD

Southern Xiongnu (南匈奴)[edit]

Chinese name Data Personal Name Reign
Hu, Han-Sie/Hanxie (呼韓邪)
Di II (第二)醢落尸逐鞮
a.k.a. Bey/Bi (KhuKheniy II) of the East partition
brought the southern Xiongnu into tributary relations
with Han China in AD 50
48–56/55 AD
Chiu-Fu Yu-Ti
(丘浮尤提)
Chupu-NoTi 55/56–56/57 AD
I-Fa Wu Yu-Ti
(伊伐於慮提)
 ??? 56/57–59 AD
XienTung ShiSuQuTi
(醢僮尸逐侯提)
Shtongsi SuyGhuTi 59–63 AD

丘除車林提
Kuchi QilinTi 63 AD
HuYeh ShiSuQuTi
(湖邪尸逐侯提)
Ghushi Shisu Quti 63–85 AD
I-Tu-Yi-Lu-Ti
(伊屠於閭提)
Iltu UluTi 85–88 AD
Tuntuhe [26] Siuan [27] XiuLan ShiSuQuTi (休蘭尸逐侯提) Shulan 88–93 AD
Anguo [28]
(安國)
a.k.a. Arqu started a large scale rebellion against
the Han
93–94 AD
Shizi-hou [29]
(尸逐)
Tindu ShiSuQuTi (亭獨尸逐侯提) 94–98 AD
Wanchi ShiSuQuTi
(萬氏尸逐侯提)
opposed by...
...Feng a.k.a. Finghey
98-124AD
98–118 AD
Wuzhi ShiSuQuTi
(烏稽尸逐侯提)
 ??? 124–127/128 AD
Xiuli [30] Kuti NoShiSuChin (去特若尸逐就)[citation needed], committed suicide under Chinese pressure 127/128–140/142?
Cheniu [31] Chu-Xiu ???[citation needed], popularly elected not from Hunnic dynastic lines 140–143 AD
Deuleuchu [32] Ghoran, Hulan NoShiSuChin (呼蘭若尸逐就)[citation needed], pin. Touluchu,[33] puppet fictitious appointee at the Chinese court 143–147 AD
Guiguir [34] Illin, I-Ling NoShiSuChin (伊陵若尸逐就)[citation needed], pin. Jucheer;[35] puppet Chinese appointee that escaped Chinese control; incarcerated by Chinese in 158 AD 147–158 AD (d. 172 AD)
Tude-joshy-zhuogu [36] Dotuk NoShiSuChin (屠特若尸逐就)[citation needed], a.k.a. Utno Shisu Quti 158–178 AD
Huzheng [37](呼徵) a.k.a. Hu, Ching; Ghuzhin 178–179 AD
Qiangqui
(羌渠)
a.k.a. Qiangquy, Qiangqu,[38] Jiangqu; killed in Xiuchuge Huns rebellion 179–188 AD
Yufuluo
(於扶羅)
a.k.a. Qizi ShiSuQu (特至尸逐侯)[citation needed]. The last ShiSu.
Homeless puppet Chanyu, overthrown in the Ordos by the unnamed Chanyu of
Xiluo 醯落 and Tu'ge 屠各. Led dozens of refugee
Xiongnu tribes to Pingyang (平阳) in Shanxi.
188–195 AD
Huchuquan (呼廚泉) Yufuluo's brother,[39] he ruled over the Pingyang Xiongnu
after Yufuluo died.
195–215/6 AD

Wuhuan[edit]

Da Chanyu (大單于)[edit]

Chinese name Data Personal Name Reign
Liu Bao (劉豹) Yufuluo's son. He changed the Chanyu clan name from
Luanti to Liu – meaning Dragon in the Xiongnu
Language. He bore the title 匈奴 單于 but ruled only
over the West partition in Jiuyuan (九原) of the
Pingyang Xiongnu newly partitioned into North, South,
left (West), right (East), and Centre by Cao Cao
216–260AD
劉(刘)去卑 Liú Qùbēi Huchuquan's son. Cao Cao ordered him to rule
over the north partition of Pingyang Xiongnu as
Tiefu Right Virtuous King (鐵弗 右贤王).
260–272
劉誥升爰 Liú Gàoshēngyuán Son of 劉(刘)去卑 Liú Qùbēi. Bore the title 鐵弗 右贤王 272–309
Liu Yuan (劉淵) Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Guangwen (光文). Son of Liu Bao (劉豹). Bore the title Hun Chanyu 匈奴 單于. Of Hun tribe Yuanhai, so Chinese annals use Yuanhai as his name [40] 309–310
Liu He, ch. 劉和 py. liú hé Han Zhao state, personal name Xuantai 玄泰 7 days in 310
Liu Cong, ch. 劉聰 py. liú cōng Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Zhaowu, ch. 昭武, personal name Xuanmen 玄門, nickname Zai 載 310–318
Liu Can, ch. 劉粲 py. liú càn Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Yin, ch. 隱, personal name Shiguang 士光 a month and days in 318
Liu Yao ch. Liu Yao 劉曜 py. liú yaò Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Hou Zhu 後主, personal name Yongming 永明 318–329
Liu Xi ch. Liu Xi 劉熙 Last ruler of Han Zhao; statutory Chanyu, probably never raised to the throne 329
Liu Hu 劉虎 Liu Qubei's grandson. He was not allowed to call himself Chanyu 329–341
劉務恒 Liú Wùhéng  ??? 341–356
劉閼陋頭 Liú èlòutóu  ??? 356–358
劉悉勿祈 Liú Xīwùqí  ??? 358–359
劉衛辰 Liú Wèichén Posthumously named "Emperor Huan" 359–391
劉勃勃 Liú Bóbó a.k.a. Wulie (武烈 Wǔliè) established Xiongnu Xia 407 and in 413 reverted surname to 赫連 Hèlián 391–425
赫連昌 Hèlián Chāng  ??? 425–428
赫連定 Hèlián Dìng Last native ruler of Huns in China 428–431

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 刘正埮、高名凯、麦永乾、史有为编, 汉语外来词词典 (A Dictionary of Loan Words and Hybird Words in Chinese), 上海辞书出版社. 1984, p. 63.
  2. ^ Book of Han, Vol. 94-I, 匈奴謂天為「撐犁」,謂子為「孤塗」,單于者,廣大之貌也,
  3. ^ Taskin V.S. "Materials on history of Dunhu group nomadic tribes", Moscow, 1984, p. 305,306, (Таскин В.С. "Mатериалы по истории древних кочевых народов группы Дунху") (Russian)
  4. ^ "Early Chinese Settlement Policies towards the Nomads." Pan Yihong. Asia Major, 3rd series, Vol. V, Part 2, (1992), p. 42, n. 2.
  5. ^ Lexicon of Reconstructed Pronunciation in Early Middle Chinese, Late Middle Chinese and Early Mandarin, p. 48. (1991) Edwin G. Pulleyblank. UBC Press. Vancouver.
  6. ^ Indo-Scythian Studies being Khotanese Texts Volume VII, p. 32. (1985). H. W. Bailey. Cambridge University Press.
  7. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times, vol. 1, Sankt Petersburg, 1851, p. 10 on )
  8. ^ Taskin V.S., Materials on history of Sünnu, transl., 1968, Vol. 1, p. 34 on
  9. ^ Hirth F. Sinologische Beitrage zur Geschichte der Turk-Volker. Die Ahnentafel Attila's nach Johannes von Thurocz. Bull. Imp. Acad, series V, vol. XIII, 1900, No 2, pp. 221–261.
  10. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 46
  11. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 59
  12. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86
  13. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86
  14. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 107
  15. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86
  16. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86
  17. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 87
  18. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 87
  19. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 87
  20. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", Australian National University Faculty of Asian Studies Monographs, New Series No.4, Canberra 1984, [1]
  21. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", vol. 1, Sankt Petersburg, 1851, p. 105–107
  22. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 108–109
  23. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  24. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  25. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  26. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  27. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 130–134
  28. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  29. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  30. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  31. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  32. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 144
  33. ^ R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  34. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145
  35. ^ R. de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, 1984
  36. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times, 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145 (True name unknown; the Chinese moniker has negative connotation; confirmed by Chinese Court as Chanyu in 172 AD)
  37. ^ Bichurin N.Ya., Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times, 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145
  38. ^ R. de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, 1984
  39. ^ R. de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, 1984
  40. ^ [2] note 208