The Chapada Diamantina is at the center of Bahia state, in the Northeast of Brazil. It is the setentrional zone of the Espinhaço Range, has approximately 38.000 km2 and encompasses 58 municipalities. Technically it is considered part of the Bioma Caatinga, and is the highest area in this bioma, almost all of it over 500 m of altitude. The vegetation, always conditioned by the physiographic conditions, is represented by the Cerrado, rocky fields, forests and Caatinga, all of them harbouring great biodiversity and endemisms. The regions climate is considered to be Mesotermic, of the Cwb according to the Koeppen classification, and is quite cooler than the surroundings, with annual averages under 22oC.But usually, considering the area currently used as tourism destination, one think of Chapada Diamantina as the region roughly between the cities of Mucugê (S 13o, W 41o 22’) at the South, Andaraí (S 12o 41’ 26’’, W 41o 19’ 36’’) at the Southeast, Lençóis (S 12o 33’, W 41o 43’) at Northeast and Palmeiras (S 11o 9’, W 42o 3’) at Northwest. This region is named the Serra do Sincorá Ridge. Notwithstanding, the city of Ibicoara, near the southern limits of Chapada, is also becoming important. The Sincorá Ridge is N – S oriented and has a length of 160 km and 20 to 30 km of width. The breathtaking landscape, its huge canyons with rivers of brownish waters, the high altitude grasslands, known locally as Gerais, innumerous waterfalls and a great extent of trails, once used by miners in their search for diamonds, makes it one of the best destinations in the country for the practice of outdoor activities. At the city of Lençóis, one of the most important, one can find quite a few ecotourism agencies as well as independent guides ready to organize tours through the region. Maybe Chapada Diamantina is the best destination for the practice of trekking in the country. Among the main attractions are the Pai Inácio Hill, Fumaça Waterfall,Mixila Waterfall, Sossego Waterfall and the Vale do Pati which is considered the best trekking destination in the country. Rock climbing is a relatively new activity, but is developing quickly as some local and outside climbers are opening more and more sport and traditional routes, mainly at the city of Lençóis and at Vale do Capão, district of Palmeiras and at Igatú, district of Andaraí. Lençóis, one of the main cities is 420 km from Salvador and can be reached by car, bus or plane.
Chapada Diamantina is an erosional landform in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The Chapada Diamantina runs from North to South in the middle of Bahia and is an extension of the Espinhaco Range System. The rocks in the system date back to Pangaea and erosion of the formation began in the Precambrian eon. The Range System has an erosional outlier that exposes a contact, the Pai Inacio Anticlilne. The Pai Inacio Anticline is 25 km wide and exposes the sedimentary rocks of the Paraguacu group. At the contact there are two different rock groups exposed one being the Chapada Diamantina and the Paraguacu, with the Chapada Diamantinea overlaying the Paraguacu group. The two rock groups not only in elasticity but in composition as well. The Chapada Diamantina is composed primarily of sandstone, pelites and diamond bearing conglomerates. The Paraguacu is composed of fine-grained sandstones, siltstones and argillites. The rocks of the Paraguacu are softer and therefore more sucptible to weathering and folding. It is the folds in the Paraguacu that allows for the entry of water into the rock’s structure which in turn is responsible for the erosion.