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The Chapada Diamantina is at the center of Bahia state, in the Northeast of Brazil. It is the septentrional zone of the Espinhaço Range, has approximately 38,000 km2 (15,000 sq mi) and encompasses 58 municipalities. Technically it is considered part of the caatinga biome, and is the highest area in this biome, almost all of it over 500 m of altitude. The vegetation, always conditioned by the physiographic conditions, is represented by the cerrado, rocky fields, forests and caatinga, all of them harbouring great biodiversity and endemisms. The regions climate is considered to be Mesotermic, of the Cwb according to the Köppen classification, and is quite cooler than the surroundings, with annual averages under 22 °C. But usually, considering the area currently used as tourism destination, one think of Chapada Diamantina as the region roughly between the cities of Mucugê (S 13°, W 41° 22’) at the South, Andaraí (S 12° 41’ 26’’, W 41° 19’ 36’’) at the Southeast, Lençóis (S 12° 33’, W 41° 43’) at Northeast and Palmeiras (S 11° 9’, W 42° 3’) at Northwest. This region is named the Serra do Sincorá Ridge. Notwithstanding, the city of Ibicoara, near the southern limits of Chapada Diamantina, is also becoming important. The Sincorá Ridge is North–South oriented and has a length of 160 km and 20 to 30 km of width. The breathtaking landscape, its huge canyons with rivers of brownish waters, the high altitude grasslands, known locally as Gerais, innumerous waterfalls and a great extent of trails, once used by miners in their search for diamonds, makes it one of the best destinations in the country for the practice of outdoor activities. At the city of Lençóis, one of the most important, one can find quite a few ecotourism agencies as well as independent guides ready to organize tours through the region. Maybe Chapada Diamantina is the best destination for the practice of trekking in the country. Among the main attractions are the Morro do Pai Inácio (Pai Inácio Hill), Cachoeira da Fumaça, Mixila Waterfall, Sossego Waterfall and the Vale do Pati which is considered the best trekking destination in the country. Rock climbing is a relatively new activity, but is developing quickly as some local and outside climbers are opening more and more sport and traditional routes, mainly at the city of Lençóis and at Vale do Capão, district of Palmeiras and at Igatu, district of Andaraí. Lençóis, one of the main cities is 420 km from Salvador and can be reached by car, bus or plane.
Chapada Diamantina is an erosional landform in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The Chapada Diamantina runs from North to South in the middle of Bahia and is an extension of the Espinhaço Range System. The rocks in the system date back to Pangaea and erosion of the formation began in the Precambrian eon. The Range System has an erosional outlier that exposes a contact, the Pai Inácio Anticline. The Pai Inácio Anticline is 25 km wide and exposes the sedimentary rocks of the Paraguaçu group. At the contact there are two different rock groups exposed one being the Chapada Diamantina and the Paraguaçu, with the Chapada Diamantina overlaying the Paraguaçu group. The two rock groups not only in elasticity but in composition as well. The Chapada Diamantina is composed primarily of sandstone, pelites and diamond bearing conglomerates. The Paraguaçu is composed of fine-grained sandstones, siltstones and argillites. The rocks of the Paraguaçu are softer and therefore more suceptible to weathering and folding. It is the folds in the Paraguaçu that allows for the entry of water into the rock’s structure which in turn is responsible for the erosion.