Chapman reflex points
Chapman reflex points, or Chapman's points, are small, discrete tissue texture changes located just deep to the skin. The Chapman point is hypothesized to be an outward physical representation of internal dysfunction or pathology of an organ system.
The points were first described by Dr. Frank Chapman, DO in 1920, who described the palpatory findings as "small pearls of tapioca that are firm, partially fixed, and located under the skin in the deep fascia." The points are useful as a diagnostic aid for connecting internal pain to a specific pathology. These points can be used diagnostically for osteopathic manipulative medicine. No histologic or scientific basis has yet been established for these points.
Important Chapman reflex points
|Lungs||Upper lung: 3rd ICS, just lateral to the sternum
Lower lung: 4th ICS, just lateral to the sternum.
|Stomach||6th intercostal space (ICS), one inch lateral from the sternoclavicular joint||T6 to T7, in the intercostal space, about 2 cm lateral from the spinous process.|
|Gall bladder||6th intercostal space, mid-clavicular line.|
|Pancreas||Lateral to the costal cartilage between the 7th and 8th ribs on the right||Transverse process of T7 and T8 on the right.|
|Adrenals||2" superior and 1" lateral to the umbilicus||Between the spinous and transverse processes of T11 and T12|
|Kidney||1" superior and 1" lateral to the umbilicus||Between the spinous and transverse processes of T12 and L1.|
|Appendix||Tip of the 12th rib on the right||transverse process of T11|
|Urethra||Anteriorly in the myofascial tissues along the superior margin of the pubis ramus about 2 centimeters lateral to the symphysis.|
|Prostate||Myofascial tissue along the posterior margin of the iliotibial band.||Sacral base (superior sacrum), bilaterally.|
|Colon||greater trochanter to just above the knee on the Iliotibial band.|
- Washington, K; Mosiello, R; Venditto, M; Simelaro, J; Coughlin, P; Crow, WT; Nicholas, A (October 2003). "Presence of Chapman reflex points in hospitalized patients with pneumonia.". the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 103 (10): 479–83. PMID 14620082. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- "Glossary of Osteopathic Terminology". American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. April 2009. p. 10. Retrieved 25 August 2012.