Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak
|Rajah of Sarawak|
|Reign||3 August 1868 – 17 May 1917|
|Predecessor||James of Sarawak|
|Successor||Vyner of Sarawak|
|Vyner of Sarawak and others|
|Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke|
|Father||Rev. Francis Johnson|
3 July 1829|
|Died||17 May 1917
|Burial||St Leonard's Church, Sheepstor on Dartmoor|
Charles, Rajah of Sarawak, GCMG (Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke; 3 June 1829 – 17 May 1917), born Charles Anthoni Johnson, ruled as the head of state of Sarawak from 3 August 1868 until his death. He succeeded his uncle, James Brooke, as the second White Rajah of this small country on the coast of Borneo.
Charles was born in Berrow Vicarage, Burnham, Somerset, in England, to the Rev. Francis Charles and Emma Frances Johnson. Emma Frances Johnson, née Brooke, was the younger sister of James Brooke, the first Rajah of Sarawak. In addition to Charles, Francis and Emma had other children: Captain John Brooke Johnson (1823–1868) (later Brooke Brooke), Mary Anna Johnson (b. 1824), Harriet Helena Johnson (b. 1826), Charlotte Frances Johnson (b. 1828), Captain (William) Frederic Johnson (b. 1830), Emma Lucy Johnson (b. 1832), Margaret Henrietta Johnson (1834–1845), Georgianna Brooke Johnson (1836–1854), James Stuart Johnson (1839–1840), and Henry Stuart Johnson (b. 1841).
Charles was educated at Crewkerne Grammar School and entered the Royal Navy. He adopted his uncle James's name and entered his service in 1852 as Resident at the Lundu station. In 1865, James named Charles as his successor.
Charles married Margaret Alice Lili de Windt at Highworth, Wiltshire on 28 October 1869; she was raised to the title of Ranee of Sarawak with the style of Her Highness 28 October 1869. They had six children, three of whom survived infancy:
- Dayang Ghita Brooke (1870–1873)
- James Harry Brooke (1872–1873)
- Charles Clayton Brooke (1872–1873)
- Vyner of Sarawak (1874–1963)
- Bertram, Tuan Muda (1876–1965)
- Henry Keppel Brooke, Tuan Bongsu (1879–1926)
Evidence also exists (see Reece cited in references below) that Charles Brooke had another son, Esca Brooke, born of a liaison with a native Malay woman which was unrecognized in English law. Esca was later adopted by Rev. William Daykin and moved to Canada.
Charles continued the work his uncle had started, suppressing piracy, slavery, and head-hunting, while encouraging trade and development and expanding his borders as the opportunity arose. In 1891 he established the Sarawak Museum, the first museum in Borneo. Brooke founded a boys' school in 1903, called the 'Government Lay School', where Malays could be taught in the Malay language. This was the forerunner of SMK Green Road. By the time of his death, Britain had granted Sarawak protectorate status, it had a parliamentary government and a railway, and oil had been discovered.
- The Peerage
- "Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 70". Royal Asiatic Society. v. 70 – 1997. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
- Ranee Margaret of Sarawak (2001). My Life in Sarawak. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-582663-9.
- R.H.W. Reece (1982). The Name of Brooke, the End of White Rajah Rule in Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-580474-4.
- Dictionary of National Biography entry
Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak
Brooke familyBorn: June 3 1829 Died: May 17 1917
|Rajah of Sarawak