|Birth name||Charles Edward Coughlin|
October 25, 1891|
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
|Died||October 27, 1979
Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, United States
|Parents||Thomas J. Coughlin and Amelia Mahoney|
Charles Edward Coughlin, commonly known as Father Coughlin, (October 25, 1891 – October 27, 1979) was a controversial Roman Catholic priest based near Detroit at Royal Oak, Michigan's National Shrine of the Little Flower church. He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, as up to thirty million listeners tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 1930s. He was forced off the air in 1939.
Early in his radio career, Coughlin was a vocal supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal. By 1934 he became a harsh critic of Roosevelt as too friendly to bankers. In 1934 he announced a new political organization called the National Union for Social Justice. He wrote a platform calling for monetary reforms, the nationalization of major industries and railroads, and protection of the rights of labor. The membership ran into the millions, but it was not well-organized at the local level.
After hinting at attacks on Jewish bankers, Coughlin began to use his radio program to issue antisemitic commentary, and in the late 1930s to support some of the policies of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. The broadcasts have been called "a variation of the Fascist agenda applied to American culture". His chief topics were political and economic rather than religious, with his slogan being "Social Justice", initially in support of, and later opposing, the New Deal. Many American bishops as well as the Vatican wanted him silenced, but after the outbreak of World War II in Europe in 1939 it was the Roosevelt administration that finally forced the cancellation of his radio program and forbade the dissemination through the mail of his newspaper, Social Justice.
Early life and work
Coughlin was born in Hamilton, Ontario, to Irish Catholic parents, Thomas J. Coughlin and Amelia Mahoney. After his basic education, he attended St. Michael's College run by Congregation of St. Basil, a society of priests dedicated to education, in Toronto in 1911. After graduation, he felt called to be a Catholic priest and entered the Basilian Fathers, and prepared for Holy Orders at St. Basil's Seminary, being ordained to the priesthood in Toronto in 1916. He then was sent to teach at Assumption College, also operated by the Basilians, in Windsor, Ontario.
In 1923 a change in the internal life of his religious congregation led to a major shift in his future. The Basilians were required by the Holy See to change the structure of the congregation from a Society of common life, on the pattern of the Society of Saint-Sulpice, to one which required them to follow a more monastic way of life, taking the traditional three religious vows. Coughlin could not accept this, and left the congregation, moving to the United States, where he settled in Detroit, Michigan, and was incardinated by the Archdiocese of Detroit in 1923. After being transferred several times to different parishes, in 1926 he was assigned to the newly founded Shrine of the Little Flower, at that time composed of some 25 families in the largely-Protestant suburban community of Royal Oak, Michigan. His powerful preaching soon caused the parish congregation to flourish.
Coughlin began his radio broadcasts in 1926 on station WJR, in response to cross burnings by the Ku Klux Klan on the grounds of his church, giving a weekly hour-long radio program. His program was picked up by CBS four years later for national broadcast. Until the beginning of the Depression, Father Coughlin mainly covered religious topics in his weekly radio addresses, in contrast to the political topics which dominated his radio speeches throughout the 1930s. He reached a very large audience that extended well beyond his own Irish Catholic base.
His radio addresses began to communicate a more political message in January 1930, when he began a series of attacks against socialism and Soviet Communism. He also criticized the capitalists in America whose greed had made Communist ideology attractive to many Americans. He warned, "Let not the workingman be able to say that he is driven into the ranks of socialism by the inordinate and grasping greed of the manufacturer." Having gained a reputation as an outspoken anti-Communist, in July 1930 he was given star billing as a witness before the House Committee to Investigate Communist Activities.
In 1931 the CBS radio network dropped free sponsorship after Coughlin refused to accept network demands that his scripts be reviewed prior to broadcast, so he raised money to create his own national linkup, which soon reached millions of listeners on a 36-station hookup.
He strongly endorsed Franklin D. Roosevelt during the 1932 Presidential election. He was an early supporter of Roosevelt's New Deal reforms and coined the phrase "Roosevelt or Ruin", which became famous during the early days of the first FDR administration. Another phrase he became known for was "The New Deal is Christ's Deal." In January 1934, Coughlin testified before Congress in support of FDR's policies, saying, "If Congress fails to back up the President in his monetary program, I predict a revolution in this country which will make the French Revolution look silly!" He further stated to the Congressional hearing, "God is directing President Roosevelt."
Coughlin's support for Roosevelt and his New Deal faded later in 1934, when he founded the National Union for Social Justice (NUSJ), a nationalistic worker's rights organization which grew impatient with what it viewed as the President's unconstitutional and pseudo-capitalistic monetary policies. His radio programs preached more and more about the negative influence of "money changers" and "permitting a group of private citizens to create money" at the expense of the general welfare of the public. He also spoke about the need for monetary reform based on "free silver". Coughlin claimed that the Great Depression in the United States was a "cash famine". Coughlin proposed monetary reforms, including the nationalization of the Federal Reserve System, as the solution.
Among the NUSJ's articles of faith were work and income guarantees, nationalizing necessary industry, wealth redistribution through taxation of the wealthy, federal protection of worker's unions, and decreasing property rights in favor of the government controlling the country's assets for public good. Illustrative of his disdain for free market capitalism is his statement
- We maintain the principle that there can be no lasting prosperity if free competition exists in industry. Therefore, it is the business of government not only to legislate for a minimum annual wage and maximum working schedule to be observed by industry, but also to curtail individualism that, if necessary, factories shall be licensed and their output shall be limited.
By 1934, Coughlin was perhaps the most prominent Roman Catholic speaker on political and financial issues, with a radio audience that reached tens of millions of people every week. Alan Brinkley states that "by 1934, he was receiving more than 10,000 letters every day" and that "his clerical staff at times numbered more than a hundred". Moreover he foreshadowed modern talk radio and televangelism. In 1934, when Father Coughlin began criticizing the New Deal, Roosevelt sent Joseph P. Kennedy and Frank Murphy, both prominent Irish Catholics, to try to tone him down. Ignoring them, Coughlin began denouncing Roosevelt as a tool of Wall Street. Coughlin supported Huey Long until Long was assassinated in 1935, and then supported William Lemke's Union Party in 1936. Coughlin opposed the New Deal with increasing vehemence. His radio talks attacked Roosevelt, capitalists, and Jewish conspirators. Another nationally known priest, Monsignor John A. Ryan, initially supported Coughlin, but opposed his efforts after Coughlin turned on Roosevelt. Kennedy, who strongly supported the New Deal, warned as early as 1933 that Coughlin was "becoming a very dangerous proposition" as an opponent of Roosevelt and "an out and out demagogue". Kennedy worked with Roosevelt, Bishop Francis Spellman and Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (the future Pope Pius XII) in a successful effort to get the Vatican to silence Coughlin in 1936. In 1940–41, reversing his own views, Kennedy attacked the isolationism of Coughlin.
In 1935, Coughlin proclaimed, "I have dedicated my life to fight against the heinous rottenness of modern capitalism because it robs the laborer of this world's goods. But blow for blow I shall strike against Communism, because it robs us of the next world's happiness." He accused Roosevelt of "leaning toward international socialism on the Spanish question". Coughlin's NUSJ gained a strong following among nativists and opponents of the Federal Reserve, especially in the Midwest. As Michael Kazin notes, Coughlinites saw Wall Street and Communism as twin faces of a secular Satan. They believed that they were defending those people who cohered more through piety, economic frustration, and a common dread of powerful, modernizing enemies than through any class identity.
One of Coughlin's campaign slogans was: "Less care for internationalism and more concern for national prosperity" which went well with the 1930s isolationist movement in the United States. Coughlin's organization especially appealed to Irish Catholics.
In 1936, Coughlin helped found a short-lived political party, the Union Party, which nominated William Lemke for President. Coughlin promised to retire if Lemke did not get nine million votes, and when he received only 900,000 Coughlin stopped broadcasting briefly, returning to the air in 1937.
After the 1936 election, Coughlin increasingly expressed sympathy for the fascist governments of Hitler and Mussolini as an antidote to Communism. He claimed that Jewish bankers were behind the Russian Revolution, and that Russian Bolshevism was a disproportionately Jewish phenomenon.
Coughlin promoted his controversial beliefs by means of his radio broadcasts and his weekly rotogravure magazine, Social Justice, which began publication in March, 1936. During the last half of 1938, Social Justice reprinted in weekly installments the fraudulent, antisemitic text The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Charles Tull states, "Originally published in Russia in 1905, the Protocols purports to be an account of a Jewish conspiracy to seize control of the world".
On various occasions, Coughlin denied that he was antisemitic. In February 1939, when the notorious American Nazi organization the German American Bund held a large rally in New York City, Father Coughlin, in his weekly radio address, immediately distanced himself from the organization and clearly stated: "Nothing can be gained by linking ourselves with any organization which is engaged in agitating racial animosities or propagating racial hatreds. Organizations which stand upon such platforms are immoral and their policies are only negative." In August of that same year, in an interview with Edward Doherty of the weekly magazine Liberty, Coughlin stated:
- My purpose is to help eradicate from the world its mania for persecution, to help align all good men, Catholic and Protestant, Jew and Gentile, Christian and non-Christian, in a battle to stamp out the ferocity, the barbarism and the hate of this bloody era. I want the good Jews with me, and I'm called a Jew baiter, an anti-Semite.
On November 20, 1938, two weeks after Kristallnacht, Coughlin, referring to the millions of Christians killed by the Communists in Russia, said "Jewish persecution only followed after Christians first were persecuted." After this speech, some radio stations, including those in New York and Chicago, began refusing to air his speeches without pre-approved scripts; in New York, his programs were cancelled by WINS and WMCA, leaving Coughlin to broadcasting on the Newark part-time station WHBI. On December 18, 1938 thousands of Coughlin's followers picketed the studios of station WMCA in New York City to protest the station's refusal to carry Father Coughlin's broadcasts. A number of protesters made antisemitic statements such as "Send Jews back where they came from in leaky boats!" and "Wait until Hitler comes over here!" The protests continued for several months. Donald Warren, using information from the FBI and German government archives, has also argued that Coughlin received indirect funding from Nazi Germany during this period.
After 1936, Coughlin began supporting an organization called the Christian Front, which claimed him as an inspiration. In January 1940, a New York City unit of the Christian Front was raided by the FBI for plotting to overthrow the government. Coughlin had never been a member.
In March of 1940 The Radio League of the Little Flower, creators of Social Justice Magazine, self published a book titled "An Answer to Father Coughlin's Critics." This publication authored by "Father Coughlin's Friends." Chiefly, written as a source to "deal with those matters which relate directly to the main charges registered against Father Coughlin... to his being a pro-Nazi, anti-Semite, a falsifier of documents, etc." (preface)
Cancellation of radio show
At its peak in the early-to-mid 1930s, Coughlin's radio show was phenomenally popular. His office received up to 80,000 letters per week from listeners. Sheldon Marcus says that the size of Father Couglin's radio audience "is impossible to determine, but estimates range up to 30 million each week". He expressed an isolationist and conspiratorial viewpoint that resonated with many listeners.
Bishop Earl Alfred Boyea, Jr. in 1995 showed that the Catholic hierarchy did not approve of Coughlin. The Vatican, the Apostolic Legation in Washington, D.C., and the archbishop of Cincinnati all wanted him silenced. They recognized that only Coughlin's superior, Bishop Michael Gallagher of Detroit, had the canonical authority to curb him, but Gallagher supported the "Radio Priest". Due to Gallagher's autonomy and the prospect of the Coughlin problem leading to a schism, the Roman Catholic leadership let the issue rest.
After giving early support to Roosevelt, the populist message of "the radio priest" contained increasingly sharp attacks on the president's policies. The administration decided that although the First Amendment protected free speech, it did not necessarily apply to broadcasting, because the radio spectrum was a "limited national resource" and regulated as a publicly owned commons. New regulations and restrictions were created specifically to force Coughlin off the air. For the first time, authorities required regular radio broadcasters to seek operating permits. When Coughlin's permit was denied, he was temporarily silenced. Coughlin worked around the restriction by purchasing air-time and having his speeches played via transcription. However, having to buy the weekly air-time on individual stations seriously reduced his reach and strained his resources. Meanwhile Bishop Gallagher died and was replaced by a less sympathetic prelate.
After the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Father Coughlin's opposition to the repeal of a neutrality-oriented arms-embargo law triggered more successful efforts to force him off the air. According to Marcus, in October 1939, one month after the invasion of Poland, "the Code Committee of the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) adopted new rules which placed rigid limitations on the sale of radio time to 'spokesmen of controversial public issues'". Manuscripts were required to be submitted in advance. Radio stations were threatened with the loss of their licenses if they failed to comply. This ruling was clearly aimed at Coughlin due to his opposition to prospective American involvement in what became known as World War II. As a result, in the September 23, 1940, issue of Social Justice Father Coughlin announced that he had been forced from the air "...by those who control circumstances beyond my reach".
Coughlin reasoned that although the government had assumed the right to regulate any on-air broadcasts, the First Amendment still guaranteed and protected freedom of the written press. He could still print his editorials without censorship in his own newspaper, Social Justice. After the attack on Pearl Harbor and the US declaration of war in December 1941, the anti-interventionist movements (such as the America First Committee) began to sputter out, and isolationists like Coughlin acquired the reputation of sympathy with the enemy. The Roosevelt Administration stepped in again. On April 14, 1942, U.S. Attorney General Francis Biddle wrote a letter to the Postmaster General, Frank Walker, and suggested the possibility of revoking the second-class mailing privilege of Social Justice, which would make it impossible for Coughlin to deliver the papers to his readers. Walker scheduled a hearing for April 29, which was later postponed until May 4.
Meanwhile, Biddle was also exploring the possibility of bringing an indictment against Coughlin for sedition as a possible "last resort". Hoping to avoid such a potentially sensational and divisive sedition trial, Biddle was first able to engineer a means of ending the publication of Social Justice itself. First Biddle had a meeting with another high official in the administration: banker Leo Crowley, who happened to be a friend of Detroit Bishop Edward Mooney, Bishop Gallagher's successor. Crowley then relayed Biddle's message to Mooney that the government was willing to "deal with Coughlin in a restrained manner if he [Mooney] would order Coughlin to cease his public activities". Consequently, on May 1, Mooney ordered Coughlin to stop his political activities and to confine himself to his duties as a parish priest, warning of potential defrocking if he refused. Coughlin complied and remained the pastor of the Shrine of the Little Flower. The pending hearing before the Postmaster, which had been scheduled to take place four days later, was cancelled now that it was no longer necessary.
Despite the end of his public career, Coughlin remained in his position as parish pastor until retiring in 1966. He died in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan in 1979 at the age of 88. He was buried in Holy Sepulchre Cemetery in Southfield, Michigan.
References in popular culture
- Coughlin was mentioned in a verse of Woody Guthrie's pro-interventionist song "Lindbergh": "Yonder comes Father Coughlin, wearin' the silver chain, Gas on the stomach and Hitler on the brain."
- Coughlin was attacked in 1942 cartoons by Theodor Seuss Geisel, best known for his children's books written under the pen name of Dr. Seuss.
- Sinclair Lewis's 1935 novel about a fascist coup in the United States, It Can't Happen Here, features a "Bishop Prang", an extremely successful pro-fascist radio host who is said to be "to the pioneer Father Coughlin ... as the Ford V-8 [was] to the Model A".
- The producers of the HBO television series Carnivàle have said that Coughlin was a historical reference for the character of Brother Justin Crowe.
- In the fictional work The Plot Against America, author Philip Roth uses Coughlin as the villain who helps a pro-fascist government.
- Sax Rohmer's 1936 novel President Fu Manchu features a character based on Coughlin, a Catholic priest and radio host who is the only person who knows that a criminal mastermind is manipulating a U.S. presidential race.
- Cole Porter referenced and rhymed "Coughlin" in his 1935 song "A Picture of Me Without You" (in the fourth refrain): "Picture City Hall without boondogglin', picture Sunday tea minus Father Coughlin".
- Coughlin's influence on American antisemitic organizations in the 1930s and 1940s is referenced in Arthur Miller's 1945 novel Focus.
- In the M*A*S*H episode "The Bus", Frank Burns claims that during his sophomore year he lost a debate to a Jewish fellow student by the name of Helen Rappaport. The topic of the debate was "Should Father Coughlin become our next President?"
- Kennedy 1999, p. 232.
- DiStasi 2001, p. 163.
- "Father Charles Coughlin". FamousWhy. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- "Charles Coughlin biography". Browse Biography. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- Shannon 1989, p. 298.
- Marcus 1972, pp. 31-32.
- Brinkley & 1982 p95.
- Marcus 1972, p. 2.
- Rollins & O'Connor 2005, p. 160.
- "'Roosevelt or Ruin', Asserts Radio Priest at Hearing". Washington Post. Jan 17, 1934. pp. 1–2.
- Carpenter 1998, p. 173.
- Principles of the National Union for Social Justice, quoted in Brinkley 1982, pp. 287–288.
- Beard & Smith 1936, p. 54.
- Brinkley 1982, p. 119.
- Sayer 1987, pp. 17-30.
- Brinkley 1982, p. 127.
- Turrini 2002, pp. 7, 8, 19.
- Maier 2003, pp. 103-107.
- Smith 2002, pp. 122,171 , 379, 502.
- Kazin 1995, pp. 109, 123.
- Kazin 1995, pp. 109.
- Kazin 1995, pp. 112.
- Brinkley 1982.
- Marcus 1972, pp. 189-190.
- Marcus 1972, pp. 188-189.
- Tull 1965, p. 197.
- Marcus 1972, pp. 256.
- Schrag 2010.
- Marcus 1972, pp. 181-182.
- Marcus 1972, p. 188.
- Tull 1965, p. 193.
- Tull 1965, pp. 195, 211-212, 224-225.
- Bredemus 2011.
- Coughlin 1939.
- Tull 1965, pp. 211-212.
- Dollinger 2000, p. 66.
- Warren 1996, pp. 165-169.
- Warren 1996, pp. 235-244.
- "Coughlin Supports Christian Front". New York Times. January 22, 1940. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Marcus 1972, p. 4.
- Boyea 1995.
- Marcus 1972, pp. 175-176.
- Marcus 1972, p. 176.
- Marcus 1972, pp. 176-177.
- Dinnerstein, Leonard (1994). Antisemitism in America. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
- Marcus 1972, pp. 209-214, 217.
- Tull 1965, p. 235.
- Marcus 1972, p. 216.
- "Charles Edward Coughlin". Find a Grave.com.
- "A Catalog of Political Cartoons by Dr. Seuss". Libraries.ucsd.edu. 1941-01-30. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
- "Carnivale press conference". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
- Beard, Charles A.; Smith, George H.E., eds. (1936). Current Problems of Public Policy: A Collection of Materials. New York: The Macmillan Company. p. 54.
- Boyea, Earl (1995). "The Reverend Charles Coughlin and the Church: the Gallagher Years, 1930-1937". Catholic Historical Review 81 (2): 211–225.
- Bredemus, Jim (2011). "American Bund - The Failure of American Nazism: The German-American Bund’s Attempt to Create an American "Fifth Column"". TRACES. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Brinkley, Alan (1982). Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and the Great Depression. New York: Knopf Publishing Group. ISBN 0-394-52241-9.
- Carpenter, Ronald H. (1998). Father Charles E. Coughlin. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 173.
- Coughlin, Charles (Feb 27, 1939). "Column". NY Times.
- Dollinger, Marc (2000). Quest for Inclusion. Princeton University Press.
- DiStasi, Lawrence (May 1, 2001). Una storia segreta: The Secret History of Italian American Evacuation and Interment During World II. (Heyday Books). p. 163.
- Kazin, Michael (1995). The Populist Persuasion: An American History. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03793-3.
- Kennedy, David M. (1999). Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945. Oxford University Press. p. 232.
- Lawrence, John Shelton; Jewett, Robert (2002). The Myth of the American Superhero. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 132.
- Marcus, Sheldon (1972). Father Coughlin: The Tumultuous Life Of The Priest Of The Little Flower. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 0-316-54596-1.
- Maier, Thomas (2003). The Kennedys: America's Emerald Kings. pp. 103–107.
- Rollins, Peter C.; O'Connor, John E. (2005). Hollywood's White House: The American Presidency in Film and History. University Press of Kentucky. p. 160.
- Sayer, J. (1987). "Father Charles Coughlin: Ideologue and Demagogue of the Depression". Journal of the Northwest Communication Association 15 (1): 17–30.
- Schrag, Peter (05-01 2010). Not Fit for Our Society: Nativism and Immigration. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520259782. Check date values in:
- Severin, Werner Joseph; Tankard, James W. (2001) . Communication Theories (5th revised ed.). Longman. ISBN 0-8013-3335-0.
- Shannon, William V. (1989) . The American Irish: a political and social portrait. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-87023-689-1. OCLC 19670135.
- Smith, Amanda (2002). Hostage to Fortune. pp. 122, 171, 379, 502.
- Tull, Charles J. (1965). Father Coughlin and the New Deal. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-0043-7.
- Turrini, Joseph M. (March 2002). "Catholic Social Reform and the New Deal". Annotation (National Historical publications and Records Commission) 30 (1): 7, 8, 19. Retrieved 2013-02-02.
- Warren, Donald (1996). Radio Priest: Charles Coughlin The Father of Hate Radio. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 0-684-82403-5.
- Woolner, David B.; Kurial, Richard G. (2003). FDR, the Vatican, and the Roman Catholic Church in America, 1933-1945. p. 275.
- Abzug, Robert E. American Views of the Holocaust, 1933-1945. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999.
- Athans, Mary Christine. "A New Perspective on Father Charles E. Coughlin". Church History 56:2 (June 1987), pp. 224–235.
- Athans, Mary Christine. The Coughlin-Fahey Connection: Father Charles E. Coughlin, Father Denis Fahey, C.S. Sp., and Religious Anti-Semitism in the United States, 1938-1954. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1991. ISBN 0-8204-1534-0
- Carpenter, Ronald H. "Father Charles E. Coughlin: Delivery, Style in Discourse, and Opinion Leadership", in American Rhetoric in the New Deal Era, 1932-1945. E. Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2006, pp. 315–368. ISBN 0-87013-767-0
- General Jewish Council. Father Coughlin: His "Facts" and Arguments. New York: General Jewish Council, 1939.
- Hangen, Tona J. Redeeming the Dial: Radio, Religion and Popular Culture in America. Raleigh, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 2002. ISBN 0-8078-2752-5
- O'Connor, John J. "Review/Television: Father Coughlin, 'The Radio Priest'". The New York Times. December 13, 1988.
- Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Age of Roosevelt: The Politics of Upheaval, 1935-1936. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003. (Originally published in 1960.) ISBN 0-618-34087-4
- Sherrill, Robert. "American Demagogues". The New York Times. July 13, 1982.
- Smith, Geoffrey S. To Save A Nation: American Counter-Subversives, the New Deal, and the Coming of World War II. New York: Basic Books, 1973. ISBN 0-465-08625-X
- Spivak, John L. Shrine of the Silver Dollar. New York: Modern Age Books, 1940.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charles Coughlin.|
- Social Security History
- Father Coughlin & The Search For "Social Justice" Text
- Brief information on Coughlin, including an audio excerpt
- "Charles Edward Coughlin". Find a Grave. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- Video of Father Coughlin attacking Roosevelt
- History Channel Audio File- Father Coughlin denouncing the New Deal
- American Jewish Committees extensive archive on Coughlin; includes contemporary pamphlets and correspondence
- Father Charles Coughlin FBI Files
- Am I An Anti-Semite? by Charles Coughlin at archive.org
- Booknotes interview with Donald Warren on Radio Priest: Charles Coughlin, the Father of Hate Radio, September 8, 1996.
- Father Charles Coughlin radio broadcasts at archive.org