|Charles M. Duke, Jr.|
Charles Duke official NASA portrait,
21 September 1971
October 3, 1935 |
Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S.
|Other names||Charles Moss Duke, Jr.|
|Other occupation||Test pilot|
|Alma mater||USNA, B.S. 1957
MIT, M.S. 1964
|Rank||Brigadier general, USAF|
|Time in space||11d 01h 51m|
|Selection||1966 NASA Group|
|Retirement||January 1, 1976|
Charles Moss "Charlie" Duke, Jr. (born October 3, 1935) is a retired US Air Force brigadier general, and a former United States astronaut for NASA. As lunar module pilot for Apollo 16 in 1972, he became the tenth and youngest person to walk on the Moon.
A resident of New Braunfels, Texas, he is currently chairman of the board of directors of the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation.
Duke was born in Charlotte, North Carolina on October 3, 1935. He attended Lancaster High School in Lancaster, South Carolina, and graduated as valedictorian from Admiral Farragut Academy in St. Petersburg, Florida in 1953. He is also an Eagle Scout. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in naval sciences from the United States Naval Academy in 1957 and a Master of Science degree in aeronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1964.
Duke was commissioned upon graduation from the Naval Academy in 1957. Entering the US Air Force, he went to Spence Air Base in Georgia for primary flight training, then to Webb Air Force Base in Texas for basic flying training, where he graduated with distinction in 1958 as a member of Pilot Training Class 59-B. Duke completed advanced training on the F-86 Sabre aircraft at Moody Air Force Base in Georgia, where he was a distinguished graduate. After completion of this training, Duke served three years as a fighter interceptor pilot with the 526th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at Ramstein Air Base in West Germany.
After graduating from the Aerospace Research Pilot School in September 1965, Duke stayed on as an instructor teaching control systems and flying in the F-101 Voodoo, F-104 Starfighter, and T-33 Shooting Star aircraft.
In April 1966, Duke was one of the 19 selected for NASA's fifth group of astronauts. In 1969, he was a member of the astronaut support crew for Apollo 10. He then served as CAPCOM for Apollo 11, the first landing on the Moon, where his distinctive Southern drawl became familiar to audiences around the world. As CAPCOM, he became the voice of a Mission Control nervous by a long landing that almost expended all of the Lunar Module Eagle's fuel. Duke's famous first words to the Apollo 11 crew on the surface of the Moon were flustered, "Roger, Twank... Tranquility, we copy you on the ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We're breathing again. Thanks a lot!"
Duke was backup Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 13, however shortly before the mission he caught German measles from a friend's child and inadvertently exposed the prime crew to the disease. As Ken Mattingly had no natural immunity to the disease, Mattingly was then replaced as Command Module Pilot by Jack Swigert. Mattingly would be reassigned as Command Module Pilot of Duke's flight, Apollo 16.
Duke served as Lunar Module Pilot of Apollo 16 in 1972 where he and John W. Young landed at the Descartes Highlands and conducted three EVAs, making Duke the tenth person to walk upon the surface of the Moon. He also served as backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 17. Duke retired from NASA in December 1975.
Apollo 16 (April 16 – 27, 1972) was launched from John F. Kennedy Space Center and was the fifth manned lunar landing mission. The crew consisted of John W. Young as commander, Ken Mattingly as command module pilot, and Duke as lunar module pilot. Apollo 16 was the first scientific expedition to inspect, survey, and sample materials and surface features in the Descartes region of the rugged lunar highlands. John Young commenced the then-record setting lunar surface stay of 71 hours and 14 minutes by maneuvering the lunar module Orion to a landing on the rough Cayley Plains. In three subsequent excursions onto the lunar surface, he logged 20 hours and 15 minutes in extravehicular activities involving the emplacement and activation of scientific equipment and experiments, the collection of nearly 213 lb (96 kg) of rock and soil samples, and the evaluation and use of Rover-2 over the roughest surface yet encountered on the moon.
Other Apollo 16 achievements included the largest payload placed in lunar orbit (76,109 lb or 34,595 kg); first cosmic ray detector deployed on the lunar surface; first lunar observatory with the far UV camera; and longest in-flight EVA from a command module during transearth coast (1 hour and 13 minutes). The Apollo 16 mission was concluded with a Pacific Ocean splashdown and subsequent recovery by USS Ticonderoga.
Duke is married to Dorothy Meade Claiborne of Atlanta, Georgia. They have two grown sons and nine grandchildren. He and his wife reside in New Braunfels, Texas. Recreational interests include hunting, fishing, reading, and playing golf. Duke is an Eagle Scout and recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of America. Duke became a committed Christian after his Apollo 16 flight, and is active in prison ministry.
TV and film
Duke is one of the astronauts featured in the book and documentary In the Shadow of the Moon. At the end of the documentary, in response to Moon landing hoax theories, he says "We've been to the Moon nine times. Why would we fake it nine times, if we faked it?"
In 1973, Duke received an honorary doctorate of philosophy from the University of South Carolina. He also received an honorary doctorate of humanities from Francis Marion University in 1990. Other honors include:
- NASA Distinguished Service Medal
- JSC Certificate of Commendation in 1970
- Air Force Distinguished Service Medal with Oak leaf cluster
- Legion of Merit
- Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings
- Society of Experimental Test Pilots' Iven C. Kincheloe Award of 1972
- American Astronautical Society Flight Achievement Award for 1972
- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Haley Astronautics Award for 1973
- Fédération Aéronautique Internationale V.M. Komarov Diploma in 1973
- Named South Carolina Man of the Year in 1973
- Inducted into the South Carolina Hall of Fame in 1973
- Presented the Boy Scouts of America Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in 1975.
- Texas Science Hall of Fame in 2000
- Kennesaw State University honorary alumnus 2007
- Airdrie Astronomical Association honorary amember 2010
- NASA Advisory Council, at-large member 1998–2000
- Astronaut Scholarship Foundation, chairman of the board (2011– )
- Air Force Association
- Society of Experimental Test Pilots
- Reserve Officers Association
- USNA Alumni Association
- Full Gospel Businessmen's Fellowship
- Christian Business Men's Committee
- International Fellowship of Christian Businessmen
- Explorers Club
- National Space Society
- Young Astronaut Council, former director
- "Footagevault, Project MOCR".
- "Astronaut Bio: Charles Duke 05/94". NASA Johnson Space Center. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Townley, Alvin. Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
- "Distinguished Eagle Scouts". Scouting.org. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
- "Video: Charlie Duke - Interviews with the men on the moon". The Daily Telegraph. July 17, 2009. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
- Moonwalker by Charlie & Dotty Duke, published by Thomas Nelson Inc, April 1990, ISBN 0-8407-9106-2
- Official NASA biography, December 1994
- Spacefacts biography of Charles Duke
- Official website of Charlie Duke
- Biography at Astronautix.com
- Visit to Scotland 2010