|Charles M. Duke, Jr.|
Charles Duke official NASA portrait,
21 September 1971
October 3, 1935 |
Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
|Charles Moss Duke, Jr.|
|Fighter pilot, test pilot|
|USNA, B.S. 1957
MIT, M.S. 1964
|Rank||Brigadier General, USAF|
Time in space
|11d 01h 51m|
|Selection||1966 NASA Group 5|
Total EVA time
|20 hours 15 minutes|
|Retirement||January 1, 1976|
Charles Moss "Charlie" Duke, Jr. (born October 3, 1935), (Brig Gen, USAF, Ret.), is an American engineer, retired U.S. Air Force officer, test pilot, and a former astronaut for NASA. As Lunar Module Pilot for Apollo 16 in 1972, he became the tenth and youngest person to walk on the Moon.
Early life and education
Duke was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, on October 3, 1935. He attended Lancaster High School in Lancaster, South Carolina, and graduated as valedictorian from Admiral Farragut Academy in St. Petersburg, Florida, in 1953. He was active in the Boy Scouts of America and earned its highest rank, Eagle Scout. Duke received a Bachelor of Science degree in Naval Sciences from the United States Naval Academy in 1957, and a Master of Science degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1964.
Duke was commissioned upon graduation from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1957. Entering the U.S. Air Force, he went to Spence Air Base in Georgia for primary flight training, then to Webb Air Force Base in Texas for basic flying training, where he graduated with distinction in 1958 as a member of Pilot Training Class 59-B. Duke completed advanced training on the F-86 Sabre aircraft at Moody Air Force Base in Georgia, where he was a distinguished graduate. After completion of this training, Duke served three years as a fighter interceptor pilot with the 526th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at Ramstein Air Base in West Germany.
After graduating from the Aerospace Research Pilot School in September 1965, Duke stayed on as an instructor teaching control systems and flying in the F-101 Voodoo, F-104 Starfighter, and T-33 Shooting Star aircraft.
Following his NASA retirement, Duke entered the USAF Reserves, and served as Mobilization Augmentee to Commander Air Force Basic Military Training Center and to Commander USAF Recruiting Service. He graduated from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces in 1978. He was promoted to Brigadier General in 1979, and retired in June 1986.
In April 1966, Duke was one of the 19 selected for NASA's fifth group of astronauts. In 1969, he was a member of the astronaut support crew for Apollo 10. He then served as CAPCOM for Apollo 11, the first landing on the Moon, where his distinctive Southern drawl became familiar to audiences around the world. As CAPCOM, he became the voice of a Mission Control nervous by a long landing that almost expended all of the Lunar Module Eagle's fuel. Duke's first words to the Apollo 11 crew on the surface of the Moon were flustered, "Roger, Twank... Tranquility, we copy you on the ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We're breathing again. Thanks a lot!"
Duke was backup Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 13, however shortly before the mission he caught German measles from a friend's child and inadvertently exposed the prime crew to the disease. As Ken Mattingly had no natural immunity to the disease, Mattingly was then replaced as Command Module Pilot by Jack Swigert. Mattingly would be reassigned as Command Module Pilot of Duke's flight, Apollo 16.
Duke served as Lunar Module Pilot of Apollo 16 in 1972 where he and John W. Young landed at the Descartes Highlands and conducted three EVAs, making Duke the tenth person to walk upon the surface of the Moon. He also served as backup Lunar Module Pilot for Apollo 17. Duke retired from NASA in December 1975.
Apollo 16 (April 16–27, 1972) was launched from John F. Kennedy Space Center and was the fifth manned lunar landing mission. The crew consisted of John W. Young as Commander, Ken Mattingly as Command Module Pilot, and Duke as Lunar Module Pilot. Apollo 16 was the first scientific expedition to inspect, survey, and sample materials and surface features in the Descartes region of the rugged lunar highlands. John Young commenced the then-record setting lunar surface stay of 71 hours and 14 minutes by maneuvering the lunar module Orion to a landing on the rough Cayley Plains. In three subsequent excursions onto the lunar surface, he logged 20 hours and 15 minutes in extravehicular activities involving the emplacement and activation of scientific equipment and experiments, the collection of nearly 213 lb (96 kg) of rock and soil samples, and the evaluation and use of Rover-2 over the roughest surface yet encountered on the moon.
Other Apollo 16 achievements included the largest payload placed in lunar orbit (76,109 lb or 34,595 kg); first cosmic ray detector deployed on the lunar surface; first lunar observatory with the far UV camera; and longest in-flight EVA from a command module during transearth coast (1 hour and 13 minutes). The Apollo 16 mission was concluded with a Pacific Ocean splashdown and subsequent recovery by USS Ticonderoga.
Following his NASA career, he has spoken about Apollo 16 at the first and second Starmus Festival events in the Canary Islands, in 2011 and 2014. His talk on the Apollo program from the first Starmus Festival was published in the book Starmus: 50 Years of Man in Space.
Duke is married to Dorothy Meade Claiborne of Atlanta, Georgia since June 1, 1963. They have two grown sons; Charles M. Duke (born March 8, 1965) and Thomas C. Duke (born May 1, 1967), and nine grandchildren. He and his wife reside in New Braunfels, Texas. Recreational interests include hunting, fishing, reading, and playing golf. Duke is an Eagle Scout and recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of America.
- NASA Advisory Council, at-large member 1998–2000
- Astronaut Scholarship Foundation, chairman of the board (2011– )
- Air Force Association
- Society of Experimental Test Pilots
- Reserve Officers Association
- USNA Alumni Association
- Full Gospel Businessmen's Fellowship
- Christian Business Men's Committee
- International Fellowship of Christian Businessmen
- Explorers Club
- National Space Society
- Young Astronaut Council, former director
Awards and honors
In 1973, Duke received an Honorary Doctorate of Philosophy from the University of South Carolina. He also received an Honorary Doctorate of humanities from Francis Marion University in 1990. Other honors include:
- NASA Distinguished Service Medal
- JSC Certificate of Commendation in 1970
- Air Force Distinguished Service Medal with Oak leaf cluster
- Legion of Merit
- Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings
- Society of Experimental Test Pilots' Iven C. Kincheloe Award of 1972
- American Astronautical Society Flight Achievement Award for 1972
- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Haley Astronautics Award for 1973
- Fédération Aéronautique Internationale V. M. Komarov Diploma in 1973
- Named South Carolina Man of the Year in 1973
- Inducted into the South Carolina Hall of Fame in 1973
- Presented the Boy Scouts of America Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in 1975
- Inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1983
- Inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame.
- Texas Science Hall of Fame in 2000
- Kennesaw State University honorary alumnus 2007
- Airdrie Astronomical Association honorary member 2010
TV and film
Duke is one of the astronauts featured in the book and documentary In the Shadow of the Moon. At the end of the documentary, in response to Moon landing hoax theories, he says "We've been to the Moon nine times. Why would we fake it nine times, if we faked it?"
- Weight: 155 lb (70 kg)
- Height: 5 ft 11½ in (1.82 m)
- Hair: Brown
- Eyes: Brown
- "Professional Profile". Charlieduke.net. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
- "Footagevault, Project MOCR". Footagevault.com. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
- "Astronaut Bio: Charles Duke 05/94". NASA Johnson Space Center. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "International Space Hall of Fame :: New Mexico Museum of Space History :: Inductee Profile". Nmspacemuseum.org. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
- "Starmus Festival and Stephen Hawking Launch the Book 'Starmus, 50... - TENERIFE, Spain, September 7, 2014 /PR Newswire UK/". united kingdom, spain, russia: Prnewswire.co.uk. 2014-09-07. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
- Townley, Alvin. Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
- "Distinguished Eagle Scouts" (PDF). Scouting.org. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
- "Video: Charlie Duke - Interviews with the men on the moon". The Daily Telegraph. July 17, 2009. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
- "Charlie Duke | Astronaut Scholarship Foundation". Astronautscholarship.org. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
- "Astronaut Bio: Charles Moss Duke, Jr. (Brigadier General, USAF (Reserve))". Spaceacts.com. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
- Moonwalker by Charlie & Dotty Duke, published by Thomas Nelson Inc, April 1990, ISBN 0-8407-9106-2
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