Charles E. DeLong
DeLong was a native of New York. He relocated with his family to California before he turned twenty. By 1853, he owned several gold claims on the Yuba River in Nevada County. He was elected Deputy Sheriff and admitted to the Bar in 1857. The same year, he was elected to the California State Assembly from Yuba County, and served for two terms.
Diplomat in Japan
On November 11, 1869, DeLong presented his credentials to Emperor Meiji of Japan as Resident Minister of the United States Consulate in Japan. In the name of the United States, he recognized the legitimacy of Japan's sovereignty over the Ryukyu Islands.
After his return to Japan, he recommended the employment of fellow American Charles LeGendre as a foreign advisor to the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, partly to influence the Japanese government to take a more aggressive stance against China, thus preventing the 1871 treaty between Japan and China from turning into a Sino-Japanese alliance against the western powers 
His position was elevated to that of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary on June 9, 1872. He continued to serve in that capacity to October 7, 1873, although his career was marked by considerable friction with his superiors in Washington, who often accused him of overstepping his authority.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "De Long, Charles E." in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 151, p. 151, at Google Books.
- Bakken. Practicing Law in Frontier California p.142
- Online Archives of California
- Iwata, Masakazu. (1964). Ōkubo Toshimichi: the Bismarck of Japan, p. 188. at Google Books
- Wray, Japan examined: perspectives on modern Japanese page 138
- Hammesmith. Spoilsmen in a "Flowery Fairyland" page 80-100
- Yuba County Obits
- Bakken, Gordon Morris. Practicing Law in Frontier California University of Nebraska Press (2006) ISBN 0-8032-6260-4
- Hammersmith, Jack. Spoilsmen in a "Flowery Fairyland": The Development of the U.S. Legation in Japan, 1859-1906. Kent State University Press (1989) ISBN 0-87338-590-X
- Nish, Ian. (1998) The Iwakura Mission to America and Europe: A New Assessment. Richmond, Surrey: Japan Library. 10-ISBN 1873410840/13-ISBN 9781873410844; 10-ISBN 9780415471794/13-ISBN 0415471796; OCLC 40410662
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0-674-01753-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
- Wray, Harry. and Conroy, Hillary Japan examined: perspectives on modern Japanese. University of Hawaii Press (1994) ISBN 0-8248-0839-8
Robert B. Van Valkenburg
|Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Japan