Charles Helou

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Charles Helou
Charles Helou.jpg
9th President of Lebanon
In office
23 September 1964 – 22 September 1970
Preceded by Fuad Chehab
Succeeded by Suleiman Frangieh
Personal details
Born (1913-09-25)25 September 1913
Beirut
Died 7 January 2001(2001-01-07) (aged 87)
Beirut
Nationality Lebanese
Political party Kataeb Party
Religion Maronite Catholic

Charles Helou (Arabic: شارل الحلو‎) (25 September 1913 – 7 January 2001) was President of Lebanon from 1964 to 1970.

Born in Beirut, Helou was the scion of a powerful Maronite family from Baabda. He graduated with honours from St. Joseph's University in Beirut in 1929, and went on to complete a Law degree in 1934. Helou was a successful businessman and founded the French language newspaper L'Eclair du Nord. He was also at one time the Political Editor of Le Jour a French daily newspaper owned by his close friend Michel Chiha. In 1936, he made his first foray into politics, when he joined with Pierre Gemayel and three others in launching the Kataeb (Phalangist) Party. Differences with Gemayel later led Helou to quit the party, however.

Helou's first governmental appointment was as Ambassador to the Vatican in 1947. In 1949 he took part in the Israel/Lebanese armistice negotiations where Israel tried to gain diplomatic concessions in exchange for the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanese Sovereign territory.[1] He later served in the Cabinet as Minister of Justice and Health (1954–1955) and as Minister of Education (1964). Initially Helou's lack of political affiliation gave him the appearance of a leader able to unite Lebanon and he was chosen to succeed Fuad Chehab as President by the National Assembly in 1964.[2]

Helou (left) with Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser during the 1964 Arab League summit in Alexandria

The alliance between Chehab and Lebanese prime minister Rashid Karami, a staunch Arab nationalist, soon left Karami in effective control of the Lebanese government.[3] Helou founded and launched the Institute for Palestine Studies in 1963.[citation needed] The most pressing issue that was first to cause problems for Helou was the Israeli diversion of the Jordan river.[4]

The impressive economic growth that characterized Helou's presidency was marred by the Intra Bank crisis of 1966 and Lebanon's increasing inability to avoid involvement in the Arab-Israeli conflict. The Six Day War of 1967, strained sectarian relations in Lebanon. Many Muslims wanted Lebanon to join the Arab war effort, while many Christians wished to eschew participation. Helou managed to keep Lebanon from entanglement, apart from a brief air strike, but found it impossible to put the lid on the tensions that had been raised. Parliamentary elections in 1968 revealed an increasing polarization in the country, with two major coalitions, one pro-Arab Nationalism, led by Rashid Karami and the other pro-Western, led jointly by former President Camille Chamoun, Pierre Gemayel and Raymond Eddé, both made major gains and won 30 of the 99 seats each.

In addition, government authority was challenged by the presence of armed Palestinian guerrillas in the south of the country, and clashes between the Lebanese army and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) became increasingly frequent. For a long time, Helou resisted their demands, but in 1969, after failing to end the rebellion militarily, he finally gave in and signed[citation needed] the Cairo Agreement, which permitted Palestinian guerrillas to launch raids into Israel from bases inside Lebanon, hoping that they would confine their operations to cross-border attacks against Israel and would stop challenging the Lebanese government. As it turned out, the clashes only intensified.

In 1970, Helou endorsed Elias Sarkis as his chosen successor, but the latter lost the election in the National Assembly by one vote to Suleiman Frangieh. Unlike other former Presidents, who remained politically active after retirement, Helou faded from the scene. He was involved in a philanthropic venture, founding a number of restaurants to provide free hot meals to elderly people.

Helou died of a heart attack on 7 January 2001. He was 87.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Podeh, Elie Kaufman, Asher and Maʻoz, Moshe (2005) Arab-Jewish Relations: From Conflict to Resolution? Essays in Honour of Moshe Maʻoz Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 1-903900-68-9 p. 164
  2. ^ Lee, Khoon Choy (1993) Diplomacy of a Tiny State World Scientific, ISBN 981-02-1219-4 p. 223
  3. ^ Reich, Bernard (1990) Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-26213-6 pp 298-299
  4. ^ Meyer, Armin (2003) MeyerQuiet Diplomacy: From Cairo to Tokyo in the Twilight of Imperialism iUniverse, ISBN 0-595-30132-0 p 129
Preceded by
Fuad Chehab
President of Lebanon
1964–1970
Succeeded by
Suleiman Frangieh