Charles I of Hungary

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Charles I
Chronicon Pictum I Karoly Robert.jpg
Charles depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
King of Hungary and Croatia
contested by Wenceslaus between 1301 and 1305, and by Otto between 1305 and 1312
Reign 1301 or 1308–1342
Coronation early 1301
15 or 16 June 1309
27 August 1310
Predecessor Andrew III or Otto
Successor Louis I
Spouse Maria of Bytom
Beatrix of Luxembourg
Elisabeth of Poland
Issue
more...
Catherine
Louis I
Andrew
Stephen
Dynasty Capetian House of Anjou
Father Charles Martel of Anjou
Mother Clementia of Habsburg
Born 1288
Died 16 July 1342 (aged 53–54)
Visegrád
Burial Székesfehérvár Basilica
Religion Roman Catholic
Statue of Charles I, Heroes' Square, Budapest, Hungary

Charles I, also known as Charles Robert (Hungarian: Károly Róbert; 1288 – 16 July 1342) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308. He was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou. His paternal grandmother, Mary, was a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary. Charles inherited the claim of his father, Charles Martel, Prince of Salerno, to the Kingdom of Hungary in 1295. However, most Hungarian prelates and lords refused to acknowledge his claim and remained loyal to Andrew III of Hungary. Charles's paternal grandfather, Charles II of Naples, made Charles's uncle, Robert, heir to the Kingdom of Naples, although Robert was a younger brother of Charles's father.

Charles came to the Kingdom of Hungary upon the invitation of an influential Croatian lord, Paul Šubić, in August 1300. Andrew III died on 14 January 1301 and Charles was crowned king within four months, but with a provisional crown instead of the Holy Crown of Hungary. Most Hungarian noblemen refused to yield him and elected Wenceslaus of Bohemia king. Charles was forced to withdraw to the southern regions of the kingdom. Pope Boniface VIII acknowledged Charles as the lawful king in 1303, but Charles could not strengthen his position against his opponent. Wenceslaus abdicated in favor of Otto of Bavaria in 1305. Because of the lack of a central government, the Kingdom of Hungary had disintegrated into a dozen provinces, each headed by a powerful nobleman. One of those "oligarchs", Ladislaus Kán, captured and imprisoned Otto of Bavaria in 1307. Charles was proclaimed king in Pest on 27 November 1308, but his rule was only nominal in most parts of his kingdom. He was only crowned with the Holy Crown on 27 August 1310.

Charles won his first decisive victory over the oligarchs in the Battle of Rozgony (at present-day Rozhanovce in Slovakia) on 15 June 1312. Thereafter his troops seized most fortresses of the powerful Aba family. During the next decade, royal power was restored in most regions of the kingdom. During his fight against the oligarchs, Charles was supported by the prelates and by the lesser nobility. After the death of the most powerful baron, Matthew Csák, in 1321, Charles became the undisputed ruler of the whole kingdom, with the exception of Croatia where local noblemen could preserve their autonomous status.

Charles also carried out numerous important political and economical reforms: he established the so-called honor system which made the powerful barons dependent of his favour, and he introduced new coins with a consistently high purity of gold. Charles's foreign policy largely stemmed from dynastic alliances. His most successful achievement was the mutual defense union with Poland and Bohemia against the Habsburgs. Charles also endeavoured to enforce his or his descendants' claim to the Kingdom of Naples, but he could achieve only sham results. Nevertheless, he was one of the most successful rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary whose efforts established his successor's achievements.

Early years[edit]

Childhood (1288–1300)[edit]

He was the only son of Charles Martel, Prince of Salerno, and his wife, Klementia of Habsburg.[1][2] He was born in 1288; the place of his birth is unknown.[1][2][3] Charles Martel was the firstborn son of Charles II of Naples and Charles II's wife, Mary, who was a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary.[4][5] After the death of her brother, Ladislaus IV of Hungary, in 1290, Queen Mary announced her claim to Hungary, stating that the House of Árpád (the royal family of Hungary) had become extinct with Ladislaus's death.[6] However, the Hungarian lords and prelates preferred a distant cousin of hers, Andrew III of Hungary, who was crowned king on 23 July 1290.[6][7] She renounced her claim to Hungary in favor of Charles Martel in January 1292.[8] The Babonići, Frankopans, Šubići and other Croatian and Slavonian noble families seemingly acknowledged Charles Martel's claim, but in fact they were often changing their loyalty between Charles Martel and Andrew III.[9][10]

Charles Martel died in autumn 1295 and his seven-year-old son, Charles, inherited his claim to Hungary.[11][3] Charles would have also been the lawful heir to his grandfather, Charles II of Naples, in accordance with the principles of primogeniture.[11][12] However, Charles II, who preferred his third son, Robert, to his grandson, bestowed the rights of a firstborn son upon Robert on 13 February 1296.[13] Pope Boniface VIII confirmed Charles II's decision on 27 February 1296, excluding the child Charles from succeeding his grandfather in the Kingdom of Naples.[13] Dante Alighieri wrote of "the schemes and frauds that would attack"[14] Charles Martel's family in reference to Robert's alleged manoeuvres to acquire the right to inherit Naples.[15] The 14th-century historian Giovanni Villani also noted that his contemporaries were of the opinion that Robert's claim to Naples was weaker than his nephew's.[15] The jurist Baldus de Ubaldis refrained from setting out his position on the legitimacy of Robert's rule.[15]

Struggle for Hungary (1300–1308)[edit]

Further information: Matthew III Csák, Ladislaus Kán and Amade Aba

A powerful Croatian lord, Paul Šubić, sent his brother, George, to Italy in early 1300 to convince Charles II of Naples to send his grandson to Hungary to personally claim the throne.[16] The king of Naples accepted the proposal and borrowed 1,300 ounce gold from Florentine bankers to finance Charles's journey.[8][17] A Neapolitan knight of French origin, Philip Drugeth, accompanied the twelve-year-old Charles to Hungary.[18] They disembarked in Split in Dalmatia in August 1300.[8][19] From Split, Paul Šubić escorted him to Zagreb where Ugrin Csák swore loyalty to Charles.[20] Charles's opponent, Andrew III of Hungary, died on 14 January 1301.[21] Charles hurried to Esztergom where the Archbishop-elect, Gregory Bicskei, crowned him with a provisional crown before 13 May.[22][23] However, most Hungarians considered Charles's coronation unlawful, because it was not performed with the Holy Crown of Hungary in Székesfehérvár as it was required by customary law.[22][20]

A dozen provinces depicted in a map
The provinces ruled by the "oligarchs" (powerful lords) in the early 14th century

Charles counted his regnal years from this coronation, but Hungary had actually disintegrated into about a dozen independent provinces, each ruled by a powerful lord, or "oligarch".[24][25][26] Among them, Matthew Csák dominated the northwestern parts of Hungary (which now form the eastern territories of present-day Slovakia), Amadeus Aba controlled the northeastern lands, Ivan Kőszegi ruled Transdanubia, and Ladislaus Kán governed Transylvania.[27] Most of those lords refused to accept Charles's rule and proposed the crown to Wenceslaus II of Bohemia's son and namesake, Wenceslaus, whose bride, Elisabeth, was Andrew III's only daughter.[5][28] Although Wenceslaus was crowned with the Holy Crown in Székesfehérvár, the legitimacy of his coronation was also questionable because John Hont-Pázmány, Archbishop of Kalocsa, put the crown on Wenceslaus's head instead of the Archbishop of Esztergom, as it was customary.[23]

After Wenceslaus's coronation, Charles withdrew to Ugrin Csák's domains in the southern regions of the kingdom.[29] Pope Boniface sent his legate, Niccolo Boccasini, to Hungary.[29] Boccasini convinced the majority of the Hungarian prelates to accept Charles's reign.[29] However, most Hungarian lords opposed Charles even thereafter, because they feared that "the free men of the kingdom should lose their freedom by accepting a king appointed by the Church",[30] according to the Illuminated Chronicle.[31] Charles laid siege to Buda, the capital of the kingdom, in September 1302, but Iván Kőszegi relieved the town.[23] Charles's charters show that he primarily stayed in the southern parts of the kingdom during the next years, although he also visited Amadeus Aba in the fortress of Gönc.[24]

Pope Boniface declared Charles the lawful king of Hungary on 31 May 1303.[32] His opponent, Wenceslaus, left Hungary in summer 1304, taking the Holy Crown with him.[29] Charles met his cousin, Rudolph III of Austria, in Pressburg (now Bratislava in Slovakia) on 24 August.[29][33] After signing an alliance, they jointly invaded Bohemia in autumn.[29][34] Wenceslaus renounced his claim to Hungary in favor of Otto III, Duke of Bavaria on 9 October 1305.[35]

Otto was crowned with the Holy Crown in Székesfehérvár on 6 December by Benedict Rád, Bishop of Veszprém, and Anton, Bishop of Csanád, but he could never strengthen his position in Hungary.[35][36][34] Charles seized Esztergom and many fortresses in the northern parts of Hungary (now in Slovakia) in 1306.[37][34] His partisans also occupied Buda in June 1307.[37] Ladislaus Kán seized and imprisoned Otto in Transylvania.[35][38] An assembly of Charles's partisans confirmed Charles's claim to the throne on 10 October, but three powerful lords—Matthew Csák, Ladislaus Kán, and Ivan Kőszegi—were absent from the meeting.[37][34] In 1308, Ladislaus Kán released Otto who left Hungary.[38] Otto never ceased styling himself King of Hungary, but he never returned to the country.[37]

Pope Clement V sent a new papal legate, Gentile Partino da Montefiore, to Hungary.[37][39] Montefiore arrived in the summer of 1308.[37] In the next months, he persuaded the most powerful lords to accept Charles's rule one by one.[37] At the Diet which was held in the Dominican monastery in Pest, Charles was unanimously proclaimed king on 27 November 1308.[39][40] The delegates sent by Matthew Csák and Ladislaus Kán were also present at the assembly.[40]

Reign[edit]

Wars against the oligarchs (1308–1323)[edit]

Further information: Battle of Rozgony
Two armies of knights on horses are fighting against each other under a fortress built on a hill
The Battle of Rozgony depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle: in this battle, Charles defeated the sons of Amadeus Aba's sons on 15 June 1312

The papal legate convoked the synod of the Hungarian prelates who declared the monarch inviolable in December 1308.[39][40] They also urged Ladislaus Kán to hand the Holy Crown over to Charles.[40] After Kán's refusal, the legate consencrated a new crown for Charles.[39] Thomas II, Archbishop of Esztergom crowned Charles king with the new crown in the Church of Our Lady in Buda on 15 or 16 June 1309.[39][41] However, most Hungarians regarded his second coronation invalid.[37] The papal legate excommunicated Ladislaus Kán who finally agreed to give the Holy Crown over to Charles.[39] On 27 August 1310, Archbishop Thomas of Esztergom put the Holy Crown on Charles's head in Székesfehérvár, thus Charles's third coronation was performed in full accordance with customary law.[37][42][41] However, his rule remained nominal in most parts of his kingdom.[37]

Matthew Csák laid siege Buda in June 1311 and Ladislaus Kán denied to assist the king.[43][42] Charles sent an army to invade Matthew Csák's domains in September, but it achieved nothing against the powerful lord.[44] In the same year, Ugrin Csák died, enabling Charles to take possessions of the deceased lord's domains which were situated between Požega in Slavonia and Temesvár (now Timișoara in Romania).[45][46] The burghers of Kassa (now Košice in Slovakia) assassinated Amadeus Aba in September 1311.[47] Charles's envoys arbitrated an agreement between the Aba's sons and the town, which also prescribed that the Abas should withdraw from two counties and allow the noblemen inhabiting their domains to freely join Charles.[47] However, the Abas soon entered into an alliance with Matthew Csák against the king.[45] The united forces of the Abas and Matthew Csák besieged Kassa, but Charles routed them in the Battle of Rozgony (now Rozhanovce in Slovakia) on 15 June 1312.[48][41] Almost half of the noblemen who had served Amadeus Aba fought on Charles's side in the battle.[49] In July, Charles captured the Abas' many fortresses in Abaúj, Torna and Sáros counties, including Füzér, Regéc, and Munkács (now Mukacheve in Ukraine).[50] Thereafter he waged war against Matthew Csák; he captured Nagyszombat (now Trnava in Slovakia) in 1313, and Visegrád in 1315, but could not win a decisive victory.[45]

Charles transferred his residence from Buda to Temesvár in early 1315.[51][45] Ladislaus Kán died in 1315, but his sons did not yield to Charles.[52][43] Charles launched a campaign against the Kőszegis in Transdanubia and Slavonia in the first half of 1316.[53][54] Local noblemen joined the royal troops, which contributed to the quick collapse of the Kőszegis' rule in southern parts of their domains.[53] Meanwhile, James Borsa made an alliance with Ladislaus Kán's sons and other lords against Charles.[43] They offered the crown to Andrew of Galicia.[43][53] Charles' troops, which were under the command of a former supporter of the Borsas, Dózsa Debreceni, defeated the rebels' united troops at Debrecen at the end of June.[54][55] In the next two months, many fortresses of Borsa and his allies fell to the royal troops in Bihar, Szolnok, Borsod and Kolozs counties.[54]

Stefan Dragutin, who controlled the Szerémség, Macsó and other regions along the southern borders of Hungary, died in 1316.[54][56] Charles confirmed the right of Stefan Dragutin's son, Vladislav, to succeed his father and declared Vladislav the lawful ruler of Serbia against Stefan Uroš II Milutin.[54] However, Stefan Uroš II captured Vladislav and invaded the Szerémség.[57][53] Charles launched a counter-campaign across the river Száva and seized the fortress of Macsó.[53] In May 1317, Charles's army suppressed the Abas' revolt, seizing Ungvár and Nevicke Castle (present-day Uzhhorod and Nevytsky Castle in Ukraine) from them.[58] Thereafter Charles invaded Matthew Csák's domains and captured Komárom (now Komárno in Slovakia) on 3 November 1317.[58] In the same years Charles laid claim to the Principality of Salerno and the domain of Monte Sant'Angelo in the Kingdom of Naples.[59]

After Charles omitted to reclaim Church property that Matthew Csák had seized by force, the prelates of the realm made an alliance against all who would jeopadize their interests in early 1318.[60] Upon their demand, Charles held a Diet in summer, but refused to confirm the Golden Bull of 1222.[61][54] Before the end of the year, the prelates made a complaint against Charles because he had taken possession of Church property.[54] In the course of 1319, Dózsa Debreceni, whom Charles made Voivode of Transylvania, launched successful expeditions against Ladislaus Kán's sons and their allies, and Charles's Judge royal, Alexander Köcski, seized the Kőszegis' six fortresses.[62] In summer, Charles launched an expedition against Stefan Uroš II Milutin, during which retook Belgrade and restoret tha Banate of Macsó.[57] The last Diet during Charles's reign was held in 1320; thereafter he even failed to convoke the yearly public judicial sessions in contrast with the provisions of the Golden Bull.[63]

Matthew Csák died on 21 March 1321.[64] The royal army invaded the deceased lord's province which soon disintegrated because most of his former castellans yielded without resistance.[65][66] Charles personally led the siege of Csák's former seat, Trencsén (now Trenčín in Slovakia), which fell on 8 August.[65][66] About three months later, Charles's new Voivode, Thomas Szécsényi, seized Csicsó (present-day Ciceu-Corabia in Romania) which was the last fortress of Ladislaus Kán's sons.[65][43]

In January 1322, two Dalmatian towns, Šibenik and Trogir, rebelled against Mladen II Šubić, who was a son of Charles's one-time leading partisan, Paul Šubić.[67] The two towns also accepted the suzerainty of the Republic of Venice, although Charles had urged Venice not to intervene in the conflict between his subjects.[65] Many Croatian lords (including his own brother, Paul II Šubić) also turned against Mladen and their coalition defeated him at Klis.[68] In September, Charles marched to Croatia where all the Croatian lords who were opposed to Mladen Šubić yielded to him in Knin.[68] Mladen Šubić also visited Charles, but the king had the powerful lord imprisoned.[68]

Consolidation and reforms (1323–1330)[edit]

Coats of Arms of Charles I of Anjou, King of Hungary
An eldrely bearded man holding a sword is stabbed on the neck by a young man
The attempt of Felician Záh on the royal family, depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
An elderly bearded man holding a sword stay at a table together with a whipping girl, they are surrounded by a group of frightened people
Felician Záh, a 19th-century painting by Soma Orlai Petrich

Charles had taken "full possession" of his kingdom by 1323, according to one of his charters.[69] In the first half of that year, he moved his capital from Temesvár to Visegrád in the centre of his kingdom.[53][70] In the same year, the Dukes of Austria renounced Pressburg (now Bratislava in Slovakia) which had been controlled by them for decades in exchange for the support they had received from Charles against Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1322.[71]

Royal power was only nominally restored in the lands between the Carpathian Mountains and the Lower Danube which had been united under a voivode, known as Basarab, by the early 1320s.[72] Although Basarab was willing to accept Charles's suzerainty in a peace treaty signed in 1324, but refrained from renouncing of the lands he had occupied in the Banate of Severin.[72] Charles also attempted to reinstate royal authority in Croatia and Slavonia.[73] He dismissed the Ban of Slavonia, John Babonić, replacing him with Mikcs Ákos in 1325.[73][74] Ban Mikcs invaded Croatia to subjugate the local lords who had seized the fomer castles of Mladen Subić without the king's approval, but one of the Croatian lords, Ivan I Nelipac, routed the ban's troops in 1326.[73] Consequently, royal power remained only nominal in Croatia during Charles's reign.[73][75] The Babonići and the Kőszegis rose up in open rebellion in 1327, but Ban Mikcs and Alexander Köcski defeated them.[75] As a retaliation, at least 8 fortresses of the rebellious lords were confiscated in Slavonia and Transdanubia.[76]

Through his victory over the oligarchs, Charles acquired about 60% of the Hungarian castles, along with the domains attached to them.[77] In 1323, he set about to revise his previous land grants, which enabled him to reclaim former royal estates.[78] During his reign, special commissions were set up to detect royal estates which had been unlawfully acquired by their owners.[79] Charles refrained from making perpetual grants to his partisans.[78] Instead, he applied a system of "office fiefs", or honors, whereby his officials were entitled to enjoy all revenues accrued from their offices, but only for the time they held those offices.[80][81] That system assured the preponderance of royal power, enabling Charles to rule "with the plenitude of power", as he emphasized it in one of his charters of 1335.[80][63] He even ignored customary law, for instance through promoting "a daughter to a son" which entitled her to inherit her father's estates instead of her male cousins.[82] Charles also took control of the administration of the Church in Hungary.[83] He appointed the Hungarian prelates at will, without allowing the cathedral chapters to elect them.[83]

He promoted the spread of chivalrous culture in his realms.[84] He regularly held tournaments and introduced the new ranks of "page of the royal court" and "knight of the royal court".[84][85] Charles was the first monarch to create a secular order of knighthood by establishing the Order of Saint George in 1326.[86][87] He was the first Hungarian king to grant helmet crests to his faithful followers to distinguish them from others "by means of an insignium of their own", according to a charter of his.[84][88]

Charles reorganized and improved the administration of royal revenues.[89] During his reign, five new "chambers" (administrative bodies headed by German, Italian or Hungarian merchants) were established for the control and collection of royal revenues from coinage, monopolies and custom duties.[90] In 1327, he partially abolished the royal monopoly of gold mining, giving one third of the royal revenues from the gold extracted from a newly opned mine to the owner of the land where that mine was discovered.[91] In the next years, new gold mines were opened at Körmöcbánya (now Kremnica in Slovakia), Nagybánya (present-day Baia Mare in Romania) and Aranyosbánya (now Baia de Arieș in Romania).[89][92] Hungarian mines yielded about 1,400 kilograms (3,100 lb) of gold around 1330, which made up more than 30% of the world's total production.[81] The minting of golden coins began under Charles's auspices in the lands north of the Alps in Europe.[91] His golden florins, which were modelled on the golden coins of Florence, were first issued in 1326.[91][93] Charles also renounced of the regular reminting of coins but introduced a new tax (the so-called chamber's profit) to compensate the loss of royal revenues from the compulsory exchange of coins after a renovation of the currency.[94]

Internal peace and increasing royal revenues strengthened the international position of Hungary in the 1320s.[95][96] On 13 February 1327, Charles and John of Bohemia signed an alliance in Nagyszombat (present-day Trnava in Slovakia) against the Habsburgs who had occupied Pressburg.[64] Next summer Hungarian and Bohemian troops invaded Austria and routed the Austrian army on the Leitha River.[97] On 21 September 1328, Charles signed a peace treaty with the three dukes of Austria (Frederick the Fair, Albert the Lame, and Otto the Merry) who renounced Pressburg and the Muraköz (now Međimurje in Croatia).[71][98]

Alliance with his father-in-law, Władysław I the Elbow-high, King of Poland, became a permanent element of Charles's foreign policy in the 1320s.[71] After being defeated by the united forces of the Teutonic Knights and John of Bohemia, Władysław I sent his son and heir, Casimir, to Visegrád to seek assistance from Charles in late 1329.[99] During his stay in Charles's court, the nineteen-year-old Casimir seduced Claire Záh who was a lady-in-waiting of Charles's wife, Elisabeth of Poland, according to an Italian writer.[100][101][102] On 17 April 1330, the young lady's father, Felician Záh, stormed into the dining room of the royal palace at Visegrád with a sword in his hand and attacked the royal family.[103] Záh wounded Charles on his hand, cut the queen's all fingers on her right hand and attempted to kill their two sons, Louis and Andrew, before the royal guards killed him.[104] Charles's revenge was brutal: Felician Záh's children (with the exception of Claire) were soon tortured to death, Claire's lips and all eight fingers were cut before she was dragged across the streets of many towns on a horse; Felician's all other relatives within the third degree of kinship (including his sons-in-law and sisters) were executed and those within the seventh degree were condemned to perpetual serfdom.[105][102]

Active foreign policy (1330–1339)[edit]

In September 1330, Charles launched a military expedition against Basarab of Wallachia who had attempted to get rid of his suzerainty.[106][75] After seizing the fortress of Severin, he refused to make peace with Basarab and marched towards Curtea de Argeș, which was Basarab's seat.[106] The Wallachians applied the Scorched earth tactics, compelling Charles to made a truce with Basarab and withdraw his troops from Wallachia.[106] While the royal troops were marching through a narrow pass across the Southern Carpathians on 9 November, the Wallachians ambushed them.[107] During the next four days, the royal army was decimated; Charles could only escape from the battlefield after changing his cloths with one of his knights, Desiderius Héder, who sacrificed his life for the king's escape.[107][71] Charles did not venture a new invasion of Wallachia which developed into an independetn principality thereafter.[107][71]

In September 1331, Charles made an alliance with Otto the Merry, Duke of Austria, against Bohemia.[108] He also sent reinforcements to Poland to fight against the Teutonic Knights and the Bohemians.[109] Next year he signed a peace treaty with John of Bohemia and mediated a truce between the Bohemia and Poland.[108][110] In 1332 Charles allowed the collection of the papal tithe (the tenth part of the Church revenues) in his realms only after the Holy See agreed to gave one third of the money collected to him.[83] After years of negotiations, Charles visited his uncle, Robert, in Naples in July 1333.[111][112] Two months later, Charles's son, Andrew, was betrothed to Robert's granddaughter, Joanna, who had been made her grandfather's heir.[112][113] Charles only returned to Hungary in early 1334.[114]

In summer 1335, the delegates of John of Bohemia and the new King of Poland, Casimir III, entered into negotiations in Trencsén to put an end to the conflicts between the two countries.[115] With Charles's mediation, a compromise was reached on 24 August: John of Bohemia renounced his claim to Poland and Casimir of Poland acknowledged John of Bohemia's suzerainty in Silesia.[115][116] On 3 September, Charles signed an alliance with John of Bohemia in Visegrád, which was primarily formed against the Dukes of Austria.[117] Upon Charles's invitation, John of Bohemia and Casimir of Poland met in Visegrád in November.[116] During the congress of Visegrád, the two rulers confirmed the compromise that their delegates had worked out in Trencsén.[118] Casimir III also promised to pay 400,000 groschen to John of Bohemia, but a part of this indemnification (120,000 groschen) was finally paid off by Charles instead of his brother-in-law.[118] The three rulers agreed a mutual defense union against the Habsburgs and a new commercial route was set up to enable the merchants travelling between Hungary and the Holy Roman Empire to bypass Vienna.[116]

The Babonići and the Kőszegis made an alliance with the Dukes of Austria in January 1336.[96][119]

The immediate result of the congress was a combined attack by the Hungarians and Poles upon Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and his ally the Habsburg Duke Albert II of Austria, which resulted in favor of Charles in 1337.[120]

Nevertheless he was more than compensated for this disappointment by his compact in 1339 with his ally and brother-in-law, Casimir III of Poland, whereby it was agreed that Louis should succeed to the Polish throne on the death of the childless Casimir.[121]

Romantic painting Charles' army wear hussar clothes of the 17th century, by József Molnár
The Battle of Posada: Vlach (Romanian) warriors have ambushed the Hungarian mounted knights in a narrow valley.

The Árpád kings had succeeded in encircling their whole southern frontier with six military colonies or banates, comprising, roughly speaking, Little Wallachia (southern part of present-day Romania) and the northern parts of present-day Bulgaria, Serbia and Bosnia.

Because of its large financial power, the Kingdom of Hungary quickly rebuilt its army and found itself in conflict with the Holy Roman Empire in 1337. However, the Hungarian King maintained a de jure suzerainty over Wallachia until the diplomatic disputes had been solved.[122]

Last years (1339–1342)[edit]

Charles I died at Visegrád, Hungary[123] in 1342. His funeral ceremony - at city of Székesfehérvár - was attended by his lifelong allies: King Casimir III of Poland and Charles IV (later Holy Roman Emperor).[124]

Family[edit]

A crowned woman with two crowned children on her right and three children on her left
Charles's wife, Elisabeth of Poland and her five children depicted in Illuminated Chronicle

The Anonymi descriptio Europae orientalis ("An Anonymous' Description of Eastern Europe") wrote, in the first half of 1308, that "the daughter of the strapping Duke of Ruthenia, Leo, has been recently married to Charles, King of Hungary".[128][129] Charles also stated in a charter of 1326 that he once travelled to "Ruthenia" in order to bring back his first wife to Hungary.[130][129] A charter issued on 23 June 1326 referred to Charles's wife, Queen Mary.[131] According to historian Gyula Kristó, the three documents show that Charles married a daughter of Leo II of Galicia in late 1305 or early 1306.[132] Historian Enikő Csukovits accepts Kristó's interpretation, but she writes that Mary of Galicia most probably died before the marriage.[133] The Polish historian, Stanisław Sroka, rejects Kristó's interpretation, stating that Leo I—who was born in 1292, according to him—could hardly father Charles's first wife.[134] In accordance with previous academic consensus, Sroka says that Charles's first wife was Mary of Bytom from the Silesian branch of the Piast dynasty.[135]

Charles's "first consort, Maria ... was of the Polish nation" and she was "the daughter of Duke Casimir",[136] according to the Illuminated Chronicle.[128] According to Sroka, she married Charles in 1306.[137] Kristó writes that the marriage of Charles and Mary of Bytom only took place most probably in the first half of 1311.[138] According to the Illuminated Chronicle, she died on 15 December 1317, but a royal charter, which was issued on 12 July 1318, stated that her husband made a land grant with her consent.[139] Charles's next—second or third—wife was Beatrice of Luxembourg, who was a daughter of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor, and the sister of John, King of Bohemia.[139] Their marriage took place before the end of February 1319.[140] She died in childbirth in early November in the same year.[140] Charles's last wife, Elisabeth, daughter of Władysław I, King of Poland.[141] She was born around 1306.[141] Their marriage took place on 6 July 1320.[141]

Most 14th-century Hungarian chronicle write that Charles and Elisabeth of Poland had five sons.[142] Their first son, Charles, was born in 1321 and died in the same year, according to the Illuminated Chronicle.[143] On the other hand, a charter of June 1323 states that the child died in this month.[144] The second son of Charles and Elisabeth, Ladislaus, was born in 1324.[145] The marriage of Ladislaus and Anne, a daughter of King John of Bohemia, was planned by their parents, but Ladislaus died in 1329.[146] Charles's and Elisabeth of Poland's third son, Louis, who was born in 1326, survived his father and succeeded him as King of Hungary.[146] His younger brothers, Andrew and Stephen, who were born in 1327 and 1332, respectively, also survived Charles.[146]

Although no contemporaneous or nearly contemporaneous sources made mention of Charles's further children, Charles may have fathered two daughters, according to historians Zsuzsa Teke and Gyula Kristó.[146][147] Zsuzsa Teke writes that they were born to Mary of Bytom, but the nearly contemporaneous Peter of Zittau wrote that she died childless.[147][145] According to Gyula Kristó, a miniature in the Illuminated Chronicle, which depicts Elisabeth of Poland and five children, implies that she gave birth to Charles's two daughters, because Kristó identifies two of the three children standing on her right as daughters.[142] The elder of Charles's two possible daughters, Catherine, who was born in early 1320s, was the wife of Henry II, Duke of Świdnica.[142] Their only daughter, Anne, grew up in the Hungarian royal court after her parents' death, implying that Charles and Elisabeth of Poland were her grandparents.[148] Historian Kazimierz Jasiński say that Elisabeth, the wife of Boleslaus II of Troppau, was also Charles's daughter.[145] If she was actually Charles's daughter, she must have been born in about 1330, according to Kristó.[145]

Charles also fathered an illegitimate son, Coloman.[137] His mother was a daughter of Gurke Csák.[149] Coloman was born in early 1317.[149] He was elected Bishop of Győr in 1336.[150]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kristó 2002, p. 24.
  2. ^ a b Csukovits 2012, p. 112.
  3. ^ a b Dümmerth 1982, p. 220.
  4. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 110, 383.
  5. ^ a b Cartledge 2011, p. 33.
  6. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 110.
  7. ^ Bartl et al. 2002, p. 34.
  8. ^ a b c Kristó 2002, p. 25.
  9. ^ Magaš 2007, p. 59.
  10. ^ Fine 1994, p. 207.
  11. ^ a b Kelly 2003, p. 8.
  12. ^ Dümmerth 1982, p. 222-223.
  13. ^ a b Dümmerth 1982, p. 224.
  14. ^ The Divine Comedy, Dante Alighieri (Paradise, 9.3.), p. 667.
  15. ^ a b c Kelly 2003, p. 276.
  16. ^ Fine 1994, p. 208.
  17. ^ Dümmerth 1982, p. 228.
  18. ^ Engel 2001, p. 144.
  19. ^ Engel 2001, p. 111.
  20. ^ a b Kristó 2002, pp. 25-26.
  21. ^ Dümmerth 1982, p. 229.
  22. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 128.
  23. ^ a b c Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 188.
  24. ^ a b Kristó 2002, p. 26.
  25. ^ Engel 2001, p. 124.
  26. ^ Kontler 1999, p. 84.
  27. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 125-126.
  28. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 128-129.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Engel 2001, p. 129.
  30. ^ The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle: (ch. 188.133), p. 143.
  31. ^ Zsoldos 2013, p. 212.
  32. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 189.
  33. ^ Kristó 2002, p. 27.
  34. ^ a b c d Kristó 2002, p. 28.
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  38. ^ a b Pop 2005, p. 251.
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  43. ^ a b c d e Pop 2005, p. 252.
  44. ^ Kristó 2002, p. 32.
  45. ^ a b c d Engel 2001, p. 131.
  46. ^ Zsoldos 2013, p. 222.
  47. ^ a b Zsoldos 2013, p. 221.
  48. ^ Zsoldos 2013, p. 229.
  49. ^ Zsoldos 2013, p. 236.
  50. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 193.
  51. ^ Kristó 2002, p. 35.
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  53. ^ a b c d e f Engel 2001, p. 132.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 194.
  55. ^ Zsoldos 2013, p. 235.
  56. ^ Fine 1994, p. 260.
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  58. ^ a b Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 195.
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  60. ^ Engel 2001, p. 142.
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  67. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 210-211.
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  69. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 144,391.
  70. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 198.
  71. ^ a b c d e Engel 2001, p. 136.
  72. ^ a b Sălăgean 2005, p. 149.
  73. ^ a b c d Fine 1994, p. 213.
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  75. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 135.
  76. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 199.
  77. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 149-150.
  78. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 150.
  79. ^ Engel 2001, p. 149.
  80. ^ a b Kontler 1999, p. 89.
  81. ^ a b Cartledge 2011, p. 34.
  82. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 140, 178.
  83. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 143.
  84. ^ a b c Boulton 2000, p. 29.
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  86. ^ Boulton 2000, p. 27.
  87. ^ Cartledge 2011, p. 35.
  88. ^ Engel 2001, p. 147.
  89. ^ a b Kontler 1999, p. 90.
  90. ^ Engel 2001, p. 154.
  91. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 156.
  92. ^ Engel 2001, p. 155.
  93. ^ Kontler 1999, p. 91.
  94. ^ Kontler 1999, pp. 91-92.
  95. ^ Kontler 1999, p. 92.
  96. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 134.
  97. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 200.
  98. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 201.
  99. ^ Knoll 1972, pp. 51, 54.
  100. ^ Knoll 1972, p. 54.
  101. ^ Dümmerth 1982, p. 341.
  102. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 139.
  103. ^ Engel 2001, p. 138.
  104. ^ Kristó 2002, p. 40.
  105. ^ Kristó 2002, pp. 40-41.
  106. ^ a b c Sălăgean 2005, p. 194.
  107. ^ a b c Sălăgean 2005, p. 195.
  108. ^ a b Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 202.
  109. ^ Knoll 1972, p. 58.
  110. ^ Knoll 1972, p. 61.
  111. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, pp. 202-203.
  112. ^ a b Dümmerth 1982, p. 352.
  113. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 137-138.
  114. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 203.
  115. ^ a b Knoll 1972, p. 73.
  116. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 137.
  117. ^ Knoll 1972, pp. 74-75.
  118. ^ a b Knoll 1972, p. 75.
  119. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 204.
  120. ^ Bain 1911, p. 922.
  121. ^ Bain 1911, p. 923.
  122. ^ Djuvara, pp.190–195 – "...Basarab l-ar fi trimis prin 1343 sau 1344, pe fiul său Alexandru, asociat la domnie, pentru a restabili legăturile cu regele Ungariei, ...".
  123. ^ "Charles I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  124. ^ Pál Engel,Tamás Pálosfalvi,Andrew Ayton: The Realm of St. Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895-1526
  125. ^ Teke 1994, p. 48.
  126. ^ Dümmerth 1982, pp. 62-63, Appendix.
  127. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 271, Appendix 5.
  128. ^ a b Kristó 2005, p. 15.
  129. ^ a b Sroka 1992, p. 261.
  130. ^ Kristó 2005, p. 16.
  131. ^ Kristó 2005, p. 17.
  132. ^ Kristó 2005, pp. 17-18.
  133. ^ Csukovits 2012, p. 114.
  134. ^ Sroka 1992, p. 262.
  135. ^ Sroka 1992, p. 263.
  136. ^ The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle: (ch. 197.139), p. 145.
  137. ^ a b Sroka 1992, p. 265.
  138. ^ Kristó 2005, p. 19.
  139. ^ a b Kristó 2005, pp. 19-20.
  140. ^ a b Kristó 2005, p. 22.
  141. ^ a b c Knoll 1972, p. 42.
  142. ^ a b c Kristó 2005, p. 25-26.
  143. ^ Kristó 2005, p. 23.
  144. ^ Kristó 2005, pp. 23-24.
  145. ^ a b c d Kristó 2005, p. 26.
  146. ^ a b c d Kristó 2005, p. 27.
  147. ^ a b Teke 1994, p. 49.
  148. ^ Kristó 2005, p. 25.
  149. ^ a b Szovák 1994, p. 316.
  150. ^ Szovák 1994, p. 317.

Sources[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

  • The Divine Comedy: The Inferno, the Purgatorio, and the Paradiso - Dante Alighieri (Translated by John Ciardi) (2003). Penguin Books. ISBN 0-451-20863-3.
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Attribution

External links[edit]

Charles I of Hungary
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 1288 Died: 16 July 1342
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Andrew III
King of Croatia
1301–1342
Succeeded by
Louis I
Preceded by
Otto
King of Hungary
1308–1342