Charles I of Hungary
Charles depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
|King of Hungary and Croatia
contested by Wenceslaus between 1301 and 1305, and by Otto between 1305 and 1312
|Reign||1301 or 1308–1342|
15 or 16 June 1309
27 August 1310
|Predecessor||Andrew III or Otto|
|Spouse||Maria of Bytom
Beatrix of Luxembourg
Elisabeth of Poland
|Dynasty||Capetian House of Anjou|
|Father||Charles Martel of Anjou|
|Mother||Clementia of Habsburg|
|Died||16 July 1342 (aged 53–54)
Charles I, also known as Charles Robert (Hungarian: Károly Róbert; 1288 – 16 July 1342) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308. He was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou. His paternal grandmother, Mary, was a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary. Charles inherited the claim of his father, Charles Martel, Prince of Salerno, to the Kingdom of Hungary in 1295. However, most Hungarian prelates and lords refused to acknowledge his claim and remained loyal to Andrew III of Hungary. Charles's paternal grandfather, Charles II of Naples, made Charles's uncle, Robert, heir to the Kingdom of Naples, although Robert was a younger brother of Charles's father.
Charles came to the Kingdom of Hungary upon the invitation of an influential Croatian lord, Paul Šubić, in August 1300. Andrew III died on 14 January 1301 and Charles was crowned king within four months, but with a provisional crown instead of the Holy Crown of Hungary. Most Hungarian noblemen refused to yield him and elected Wenceslaus of Bohemia king. Charles was forced to withdraw to the southern regions of the kingdom. Pope Boniface VIII acknowledged Charles as the lawful king in 1303, but Charles could not strengthen his position against his opponent. Wenceslaus abdicated in favor of Otto of Bavaria in 1305. Because of the lack of a central government, the Kingdom of Hungary had disintegrated into a dozen provinces, each headed by a powerful nobleman. One of those "oligarchs", Ladislaus Kán, captured and imprisoned Otto of Bavaria in 1307. Charles was proclaimed king in Pest on 27 November 1308, but his rule was only nominal in most parts of his kingdom. He was only crowned with the Holy Crown on 27 August 1310.
Charles won his first decisive victory over the oligarchs in the Battle of Rozgony (at present-day Rozhanovce in Slovakia) on 15 June 1312. Thereafter his troops seized most fortresses of the powerful Aba family. During the next decade, royal power was restored in most regions of the kingdom. During his fight against the oligarchs, Charles was supported by the prelates and by the lesser nobility. After the death of the most powerful baron, Matthew Csák, in 1321, Charles became the undisputed ruler of the whole kingdom, with the exception of Croatia where local noblemen could preserve their autonomous status.
Charles also carried out numerous important political and economical reforms: he established the so-called honor system which made the powerful barons dependent of his favour, and he introduced new coins with a consistently high purity of gold. Charles's foreign policy largely stemmed from dynastic alliances. His most successful achievement was the mutual defense union with Poland and Bohemia against the Habsburgs. Charles also endeavoured to enforce his or his descendants' claim to the Kingdom of Naples, but he could achieve only sham results. Nevertheless, he was one of the most successful rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary whose efforts established his successor's achievements.
- 1 Early years
- 2 Reign
- 3 Foreign policy
- 4 Family
- 5 References
- 6 Sources
- 7 External links
He was the only son of Charles Martel, Prince of Salerno, and his wife, Klementia of Habsburg. He was born in 1288; the place of his birth is unknown. Charles Martel was the firstborn son of Charles II of Naples and Charles II's wife, Mary, who was a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary. After the death of her brother, Ladislaus IV of Hungary, in 1290, Queen Mary announced her claim to Hungary, stating that the House of Árpád (the royal family of Hungary) had become extinct with Ladislaus's death. However, the Hungarian lords and prelates preferred a distant cousin of hers, Andrew III of Hungary, who was crowned king on 23 July 1290. She renounced her claim to Hungary in favor of Charles Martel in January 1292. The Babonići, Frankopans, Šubići and other Croatian and Slavonian noble families seemingly acknowledged Charles Martel's claim, but in fact they were often changing their loyalty between Charles Martel and Andrew III.
Charles Martel died in autumn 1295 and his seven-year-old son, Charles, inherited his claim to Hungary. Charles would have also been the lawful heir to his grandfather, Charles II of Naples, in accordance with the principles of primogeniture. However, Charles II, who preferred his third son, Robert, to his grandson, bestowed the rights of a firstborn son upon Robert on 13 February 1296. Pope Boniface VIII confirmed Charles II's decision on 27 February 1296, excluding the child Charles from succeeding his grandfather in the Kingdom of Naples. Dante Alighieri wrote of "the schemes and frauds that would attack" Charles Martel's family in reference to Robert's alleged manoeuvres to acquire the right to inherit Naples. The 14th-century historian Giovanni Villani also noted that his contemporaries were of the opinion that Robert's claim to Naples was weaker than his nephew's. The jurist Baldus de Ubaldis refrained from setting out his position on the legitimacy of Robert's rule.
Struggle for Hungary (1300–1308)
A powerful Croatian lord, Paul Šubić, sent his brother, George, to Italy in early 1300 to convince Charles II of Naples to send his grandson to Hungary to personally claim the throne. The king of Naples accepted the proposal and borrowed 1,300 ounce gold from Florentine bankers to finance Charles's journey. A Neapolitan knight of French origin, Philip Drugeth, accompanied the twelve-year-old Charles to Hungary. They disembarked in Split in Dalmatia in August 1300. From Split, Paul Šubić escorted him to Zagreb where Ugrin Csák swore loyalty to Charles. Charles's opponent, Andrew III of Hungary, died on 14 January 1301. Charles hurried to Esztergom where the Archbishop-elect, Gregory Bicskei, crowned him with a provisional crown before 13 May. However, most Hungarians considered Charles's coronation unlawful, because it was not performed with the Holy Crown of Hungary in Székesfehérvár as it was required by customary law.
Charles counted his regnal years from this coronation, but Hungary had actually disintegrated into about a dozen independent provinces, each ruled by a powerful lord, or "oligarch". Among them, Matthew Csák dominated the northwestern parts of Hungary (which now form the eastern territories of present-day Slovakia), Amadeus Aba controlled the northeastern lands, Ivan Kőszegi ruled Transdanubia, and Ladislaus Kán governed Transylvania. Most of those lords refused to accept Charles's rule and proposed the crown to Wenceslaus II of Bohemia's son and namesake, Wenceslaus, whose bride, Elisabeth, was Andrew III's only daughter. Although Wenceslaus was crowned with the Holy Crown in Székesfehérvár, the legitimacy of his coronation was also questionable because John Hont-Pázmány, Archbishop of Kalocsa, put the crown on Wenceslaus's head instead of the Archbishop of Esztergom, as it was customary.
After Wenceslaus's coronation, Charles withdrew to Ugrin Csák's domains in the southern regions of the kingdom. Pope Boniface sent his legate, Niccolo Boccasini, to Hungary. Boccasini convinced the majority of the Hungarian prelates to accept Charles's reign. However, most Hungarian lords opposed Charles even thereafter, because they feared that "the free men of the kingdom should lose their freedom by accepting a king appointed by the Church", according to the Illuminated Chronicle. Charles laid siege to Buda, the capital of the kingdom, in September 1302, but Iván Kőszegi relieved the town. Charles's charters show that he primarily stayed in the southern parts of the kingdom during the next years, although he also visited Amadeus Aba in the fortress of Gönc.
Pope Boniface declared Charles the lawful king of Hungary on 31 May 1303. His opponent, Wenceslaus, left Hungary in summer 1304, taking the Holy Crown with him. Charles met his cousin, Rudolph III of Austria, in Pressburg (now Bratislava in Slovakia) on 24 August. After signing an alliance, they jointly invaded Bohemia in autumn. Wenceslaus renounced his claim to Hungary in favor of Otto III, Duke of Bavaria on 9 October 1305.
Otto was crowned with the Holy Crown in Székesfehérvár on 6 December by Benedict Rád, Bishop of Veszprém, and Anton, Bishop of Csanád, but he could never strengthen his position in Hungary. Charles seized Esztergom and many fortresses in the northern parts of Hungary (now in Slovakia) in 1306. His partisans also occupied Buda in June 1307. Ladislaus Kán seized and imprisoned Otto in Transylvania. An assembly of Charles's partisans confirmed Charles's claim to the throne on 10 October, but three powerful lords—Matthew Csák, Ladislaus Kán, and Ivan Kőszegi—were absent from the meeting. In 1308, Ladislaus Kán released Otto who left Hungary. Otto never ceased styling himself King of Hungary, but he never returned to the country.
Pope Clement V sent a new papal legate, Gentile Partino da Montefiore, to Hungary. Montefiore arrived in the summer of 1308. In the next months, he persuaded the most powerful lords to accept Charles's rule one by one. At the Diet which was held in the Dominican monastery in Pest, Charles was unanimously proclaimed king on 27 November 1308. The delegates sent by Matthew Csák and Ladislaus Kán were also present at the assembly.
Wars against the oligarchs (1308–1323)
The papal legate convoked the synod of the Hungarian prelates who declared the monarch inviolable in December 1308. They also urged Ladislaus Kán to hand the Holy Crown over to Charles. After Kán's refusal, the legate consencrated a new crown for Charles. Thomas II, Archbishop of Esztergom crowned Charles king with the new crown in the Church of Our Lady in Buda on 15 or 16 June 1309. However, most Hungarians regarded his second coronation invalid. The papal legate excommunicated Ladislaus Kán who finally agreed to give the Holy Crown over to Charles. On 27 August 1310, Archbishop Thomas of Esztergom put the Holy Crown on Charles's head in Székesfehérvár, thus Charles's third coronation was performed in full accordance with customary law. However, his rule remained nominal in most parts of his kingdom.
Matthew Csák laid siege Buda in June 1311 and Ladislaus Kán denied to assist the king. Charles sent an army to invade Matthew Csák's domains in September, but it achieved nothing against the powerful lord. In the same year, Ugrin Csák died, enabling Charles to take possessions of the deceased lord's domains which were situated between Požega in Slavonia and Temesvár (now Timișoara in Romania). The burghers of Kassa (now Košice in Slovakia) assassinated Amadeus Aba in September 1311. Charles's envoys arbitrated an agreement between the Aba's sons and the town, which also prescribed that the Abas should withdraw from two counties and allow the noblemen inhabiting their domains to freely join Charles. However, the Abas soon entered into an alliance with Matthew Csák against the king. The united forces of the Abas and Matthew Csák besieged Kassa, but Charles routed them in the Battle of Rozgony (now Rozhanovce in Slovakia) on 15 June 1312. Almost half of the noblemen who had served Amadeus Aba fought on Charles's side in the battle. In July, Charles captured the Abas' many fortresses in Abaúj, Torna and Sáros counties, including Füzér, Regéc, and Munkács (now Mukacheve in Ukraine). Thereafter he waged war against Matthew Csák; he captured Nagyszombat (now Trnava in Slovakia) in 1313, and Visegrád in 1315, but could not win a decisive victory.
Charles transferred his residence from Buda to Temesvár in early 1315. Ladislaus Kán died in 1315, but his sons did not yield to Charles. Charles launched a campaign against the Kőszegis in Transdanubia and Slavonia in the first half of 1316. Local noblemen joined the royal troops, which contributed to the quick collapse of the Kőszegis' rule in southern parts of their domains. Meanwhile, James Borsa made an alliance with Ladislaus Kán's sons and other lords against Charles. They offered the crown to Andrew of Galicia. Charles' troops, which were under the command of a former supporter of the Borsas, Dózsa Debreceni, defeated the rebels' united troops at Debrecen at the end of June. In the next two months, many fortresses of Borsa and his allies fell to the royal troops in Bihar, Szolnok, Borsod and Kolozs counties.
Stefan Dragutin, who controlled the Szerémség, Macsó and other regions along the southern borders of Hungary, died in 1316. Charles confirmed the right of Stefan Dragutin's son, Vladislav, to succeed his father and declared Vladislav the lawful ruler of Serbia against Stefan Uroš II Milutin. However, Stefan Uroš II captured Vladislav and invaded the Szerémség. Charles launched a counter-campaign across the river Száva and seized the fortress of Macsó. In May 1317, Charles's army suppressed the Abas' revolt, seizing Ungvár and Nevicke Castle (present-day Uzhhorod and Nevytsky Castle in Ukraine) from them. Thereafter Charles invaded Matthew Csák's domains and captured Komárom (now Komárno in Slovakia) on 3 November 1317. In the same years Charles laid claim to the Principality of Salerno and the domain of Monte Sant'Angelo in the Kingdom of Naples.
After Charles omitted to reclaim Church property that Matthew Csák had seized by force, the prelates of the realm made an alliance against all who would jeopadize their interests in early 1318. Upon their demand, Charles held a Diet in summer, but refused to confirm the Golden Bull of 1222. Before the end of the year, the prelates made a complaint against Charles because he had taken possession of Church property. In the course of 1319, Dózsa Debreceni, whom Charles made Voivode of Transylvania, launched successful expeditions against Ladislaus Kán's sons and their allies, and Charles's Judge royal, Alexander Köcski, seized the Kőszegis' six fortresses. In summer, Charles launched an expedition against Stefan Uroš II Milutin, during which retook Belgrade and restoret tha Banate of Macsó. The last Diet during Charles's reign was held in 1320; thereafter he even failed to convoke the yearly public judicial sessions in contrast with the provisions of the Golden Bull.
Matthew Csák died on 21 March 1321. The royal army invaded the deceased lord's province which soon disintegrated because most of his former castellans yielded without resistance. Charles perosnally led the siege of Csák's former seat, Trencsén (now Trenčín in Slovakia), which fell on 8 August. About three months later, Charles's new Voivode, Thomas Szécsényi, seized Csicsó (present-day Ciceu-Corabia in Romania) which was the last fortress of Ladislaus Kán's sons.
In January 1322, two Dalmatian towns, Šibenik and Trogir, rebelled against Mladen II Šubić, who was a son of Charles's one-time leading partisan, Paul Šubić. The two towns also accepted the suzerainty of the Republic of Venice, although Charles had urged Venice not to intervene in the conflict between his subjects. Many Croatian lords (including his own brother, Paul II Šubić) also turned against Mladen and their coalition defeated him at Klis. In September, Charles marched to Croatia where all the Croatian lords who were opposed to Mladen Šubić yielded to him in Knin. Mladen Šubić also visited Charles, but the king had the powerful lord imprisoned. Although Mladen Šubić's fate put an end to his family's hegemony in Croatia and Dalmatia, Charles's rule in those two provinces remained nominal during his reign.
Consolidation and reforms (1323–1338)
Charles carried out numerous important political and economical reforms. In the beginning of 1323, he renounced the royal prerogative of undermining the currency and introduced a new tax (lucrum camaræ) in order to ensure the permanency of the royal revenues. In the same year, Charles transferred his seat to Visegrád from Temesvár.
Charles established the so-called "honor system": instead of large donations, faithful servants of the king were given an office (in Latin honor), thus they became the keeper of royal property (including castles) in the counties and the representative of the king. However, these offices were not given for eternity, because the king could deprive his people of their office any time. Most powerful "honors" often rotated among the members of aristocracy.
Charles abolished the domestic private customs systems of the barons and oligarchs, which were created by them in the era of interregnum. The old original customs system was restored at the borders of the kingdom. The customs became a royal prerogative again.
Charles successfully curbed inflation, introducing new coins with a constantly high purity of gold. Florins minted, from 1325, in a newly established mint in Körmöcbánya became soon the popular international means of payment throughout Europe. The reform of the currency and of the whole fiscal system greatly contributed to enrich the treasury.
The gold production of mines reached the figure of 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg) of gold annually. This was one third of the known worlds total production and five times as much as that of any other European state. Through various means between 30 and 40 percent of the revenue derived from gold production found its way into the royal coffers allowing Charles to reform the tax system and still maintain a sumptuous court.
Charles introduced new economic policy and tax systems, which were based on regales or royalties:
- Urbura (=bányabér) was the tax of mines (1/10 of gold and 1/8 of silver) — The landowners – to avoid taxation – kept their mines in secret in 1327 Charles Robert, in order to inspire the landowners open new mines, ordered to gave back the 1/3 of the tax to them.
- Minting money — Only the king was allowed to mint money, who wanted to make an acceptable currency, which wouldn’t devaluate (no income from exchange fee, but it supported external trading)
- Tricesima (Hungarian: harmincadvám) — It was a customs system. The tariff was 1/30 of all foreign commercial affairs.
- Gate tax — Was mainly collected from the peasantry after every gate, where a cart could go through.
- Census (tax of townships and royal landholdings)
also levied tax on the church (1/3 of the papal income)
Charles's foreign policy largely stemmed from dynastic alliances and he also endeavoured to strengthen his rule over the neighbouring territories that had accepted the supremacy of the Kings of Hungary in the course of the 13th century.
His most successful achievement was the mutual defense union with Poland and Bohemia against the Habsburgs, accomplished by the convention of Trencsén in 1335, confirmed the same year at the brilliant two-month congress of Visegrád. Not only did all the princes of Central Europe compose their differences and enjoy splendid entertainment during the months of October and November: the immediate result of the congress was a combined attack by the Hungarians and Poles upon Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and his ally the Habsburg Duke Albert II of Austria, which resulted in favor of Charles in 1337.
Charles's desire to unite the kingdoms of Hungary and Naples under his eldest son Louis I was dashed by Venice and by the Pope, who both feared Hungary might become the dominant Adriatic power. Nevertheless he was more than compensated for this disappointment by his compact in 1339 with his ally and brother-in-law, Casimir III of Poland, whereby it was agreed that Louis should succeed to the Polish throne on the death of the childless Casimir. Finally his younger son, Andrew, Duke of Calabria was promised the crown of Naples.
Deterioration of the southern frontier
The Árpád kings had succeeded in encircling their whole southern frontier with six military colonies or banates, comprising, roughly speaking, Little Wallachia (southern part of present-day Romania) and the northern parts of present-day Bulgaria, Serbia and Bosnia. Charles redistributed these territories and proselytized the residents of the region to consolidate his reign.
Although he managed to expand his kingdom, the adverse effect was converting most of the old banates into semi-independent and violently anti-Hungarian principalities. The predominant religion of the area was Greek-Orthodox, and forceful proselytization to Catholicism provoked rebellion. Natural dynastic competition with the Orthodox Serbian and Bulgarian tsars and the emergence of a new Wallachia also contributed to the uprising.
Prior to 1320, Western Wallachia (Oltenia) was regarded by the Hungarians as part of the banate of Szörény (Severin). When the Wallachian ruler, Basarab I showed signs of disobedience, Charles lead his army into Wallachia, though poor supplies caused him to return after occupying several towns. During his retreat, in November 1330, the Hungarian army was trapped by Wallachians in a mountain pass, at Posada. In the Battle of Posada, the Hungarian army was massacred, King Charles himself barely escaped by exchanging clothes with one of his knights and a plethora of the noblemen who had accompanied him were slaughtered.
Because of its large financial power, the Kingdom of Hungary quickly rebuilt its army and found itself in conflict with the Holy Roman Empire in 1337. However, the Hungarian King maintained a de jure suzerainty over Wallachia until the diplomatic disputes had been solved.
Unknown to Charles, the Ottoman Turks had already secured Asia Minor under the sultans Osman I and Orhan I and planned to invade south-eastern Europe to consolidate their realm. The south-eastern European sovereignties were keener on securing their regimes than on co-ordinating their defences. Their diversity helped the Ottomans expand their dominion into the region.
Charles I died at Visegrád, Hungary in 1342. His funeral ceremony - at city of Székesfehérvár - was attended by his lifelong allies: King Casimir III of Poland and Charles IV (later Holy Roman Emperor).
|Ancestors of Charles I of Hungary|
The Anonymi descriptio Europae orientalis ("An Anonymous' Description of Eastern Europe") wrote, in the first half of 1308, that "the daughter of the strapping Duke of Ruthenia, Leo, has been recently married to Charles, King of Hungary". Charles also stated in a charter of 1326 that he once travelled to "Ruthenia" in order to bring back his first wife to Hungary. A charter issued on 23 June 1326 referred to Charles's wife, Queen Mary. According to historian Gyula Kristó, the three documents show that Charles married a daughter of Leo II of Galicia in late 1305 or early 1306. Historian Enikő Csukovits accepts Kristó's interpretation, but she writes that Mary of Galicia most probably died before the marriage. The Polish historian, Stanisław Sroka, rejects Kristó's interpretation, stating that Leo I—who was born in 1292, according to him—could hardly father Charles's first wife. In accordance with previous academic consensus, Sroka says that Charles's first wife was Mary of Bytom from the Silesian branch of the Piast dynasty.
Charles's "first consort, Maria ... was of the Polish nation" and she was "the daughter of Duke Casimir", according to the Illuminated Chronicle. According to Sroka, she married Charles in 1306. Kristó writes that the marriage of Charles and Mary of Bytom only took place most probably in the first half of 1311. According to the Illuminated Chronicle, she died on 15 December 1317, but a royal charter, which was issued on 12 July 1318, stated that her husband made a land grant with her consent. Charles's next—second or third—wife was Beatrice of Luxembourg, who was a daughter of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor, and the sister of John, King of Bohemia. Their marriage took place before the end of February 1319. She died in childbirth in early November in the same year. Charles's last wife, Elisabeth, daughter of Władysław I, King of Poland. She was born around 1306. Their marriage took place on 6 July 1320.
Most 14th-century Hungarian chronicle write that Charles and Elisabeth of Poland had five sons. Their first son, Charles, was born in 1321 and died in the same year, according to the Illuminated Chronicle. On the other hand, a charter of June 1323 states that the child died in this month. The second son of Charles and Elisabeth, Ladislaus, was born in 1324. The marriage of Ladislaus and Anne, a daughter of King John of Bohemia, was planned by their parents, but Ladislaus died in 1329. Charles's and Elisabeth of Poland's third son, Louis, who was born in 1326, survived his father and succeeded him as King of Hungary. His younger brothers, Andrew and Stephen, who were born in 1327 and 1332, respectively, also survived Charles.
Although no contemporaneous or nearly contemporaneous sources made mention of Charles's further children, Charles may have fathered two daughters, according to historians Zsuzsa Teke and Gyula Kristó. Zsuzsa Teke writes that they were born to Mary of Bytom, but the nearly contemporaneous Peter of Zittau wrote that she died childless. According to Gyula Kristó, a miniature in the Illuminated Chronicle, which depicts Elisabeth of Poland and five children, implies that she gave birth to Charles's two daughters, because Kristó identifies two of the three children standing on her right as daughters. The elder of Charles's two possible daughters, Catherine, who was born in early 1320s, was the wife of Henry II, Duke of Świdnica. Their only daughter, Anne, grew up in the Hungarian royal court after her parents' death, implying that Charles and Elisabeth of Poland were her grandparents. Historian Kazimierz Jasiński say that Elisabeth, the wife of Boleslaus II of Troppau, was also Charles's daughter. If she was actually Charles's daughter, she must have been born in about 1330, according to Kristó.
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- Fine, John V. A (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
- Kelly, Samantha (2003). The New Solomon: Robert of Naples (1309-1343) and Fourteenth-Century Kingship. Brill. ISBN 90-04-12945-6.
- Knoll, Paul W. (1972). The Rise of the Polish Monarchy: Piast Poland in East Central Europe, 1320-1370. The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-44826-6.
- Kontler, László (1999). Millennium in Central Europe: A History of Hungary. Atlantisz Publishing House. ISBN 963-9165-37-9.
- Kristó, Gyula; Makk, Ferenc (1996). Az Árpád-ház uralkodói [Rulers of the House of Árpád] (in Hungarian). I.P.C. Könyvek. ISBN 963-7930-97-3.
- Kristó, Gyula (2002). "I. Károly". In Kristó, Gyula. Magyarország vegyes házi királyai [The Kings of Various Dynasties of Hungary] (in Hungarian). Szukits Könyvkiadó. pp. 23–44. ISBN 963-9441-58-9.
- Kristó, Gyula (2005). "Károly Róbert családja [Charles Robert's family]". Aetas (in Hungarian) 20 (4): 14–28. ISSN 0237-7934.
- Magaš, Branka (2007). Croatia Through History. SAQI. ISBN 978-0-86356-775-9.
- Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2005). "Transylvania in the 14th century and the first half of the 15th century (1300-1456)". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas. The History of Transylvania, Vol. I. (Until 1541). Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 247–298. ISBN 973-7784-00-6.
- Solymosi, László; Körmendi, Adrienne (1981). "A középkori magyar állam virágzása és bukása, 1301–1506 [The Heyday and Fall of the Medieval Hungarian State, 1301–1526]". In Solymosi, László. Magyarország történeti kronológiája, I: a kezdetektől 1526-ig [Historical Chronology of Hungary, Volume I: From the Beginning to 1526] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 188–228. ISBN 963-05-2661-1.
- Sroka, Stanisław (1992). "A Hungarian-Galician Marriage at the Beginning of the Fourteenth Century?". Harvard Ukrainian Studies 16 (3-4): 261–268.
- Szovák, Kornél (1994). "Kálmán 3. [Coloman 3.]". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc. Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9-14. század) [Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th-14th centuries)] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 316–317. ISBN 963-05-6722-9.
- Teke, Zsuzsa (1994). "Anjouk [The Angevins]". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc. Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9-14. század) [Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th-14th centuries)] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 46–49. ISBN 963-05-6722-9.
- Zsoldos, Attila (2013). "Kings and Oligarchs in Hungary at the Turn of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries". Hungarian Historical Review 2 (2): 211–242.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bain, Robert Nesbit (1911). "Charles I. (King of Hungary)". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 922, 923.
- His picture on the Hungarian 200 forint banknote
- (French) Armorial of the House Anjou-Sicily
- (French) House of Anjou-Sicily
- His profile in "Medieval Lands" by Charles Cawley
Charles I of Hungary
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynastyBorn: 1288 Died: 16 July 1342
|King of Croatia
|King of Hungary
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