Charles J. Biddle (aviator)
|Charles John Biddle|
Charles J. Biddle, 1918
13 May 1890|
|Died||22 March 1972
|Service/branch||Aéronautique Militaire (France)
Air Service, United States Army
|Years of service||1917 - 1919|
|Commands held||13th Aero Squadron|
|Battles/wars||World War I|
|Awards||Legion of Honor, Croix de Guerre, Distinguished Service Cross, Order of Leopold II|
|Other work||Influential litigator and attorney|
Major Charles John Biddle (13 May 1890 – 22 March 1972) was an American aviator, attorney, and author. He was a flying ace during World War I. Postwar, he launched a career in law and wrote his memoirs.
Family and early life
Charles John Biddle was born on 13 May 1890 at Andalusia, the Biddle family estate near Philadelphia. His father was Charles Biddle (1857–1923) and mother was Letitia Glenn. His grandfather Charles John Biddle (1819–1873) was a soldier in the Union Army and subsequently a member of of the United States House of Representatives. Andalusia was the estate of his great-grandfather, banker Nicholas Biddle (1786–1844).
World War I service
Biddle joined the Lafayette Flying Corps in France on 8 April 1917. He was assigned to Escadrille 73 on 28 July 1917, under the command and mentorship of Albert Deullin. On 7 November 1917, he was transferred to U. S. aviation and commissioned as a captain; however, he remained assigned to Escadrille 73. Biddle initially fought several indecisive combats with a Spad VII, but success evaded him until 5 December 1917. Flying a SPAD XIII, he downed the Albatros two-seater of Leutnants Fritz Pauly and Ernst Sauter of FFA 45 despite a malfunction by both his Spad's machine guns. He then transferred to the 103rd Aero Squadron on 10 January 1918 and reverted to the Spad VII for his 12 April win over a Halberstadt CL.II over Corbeny. He moved on to the 13th Aero Squadron (nicknamed "The Devil's Own Grim Reapers"). On 1 August, he shared his first two victories with William H. Stovall, John Seerly, and H. B. Freeman. He shot down three more enemy planes afterwards, and rose to the rank of major. as well as the command of the 4th Pursuit Group. He was at one point entrusted with the only SPAD XII issued to Americans. The French awarded him both the Legion of Honor and the Croix de Guerre, and he received the American Distinguished Service Cross and the Belgian Order of Leopold II.
After the war, Biddle wrote a book entitled The Way of the Eagle.
Biddle initially practiced law in the Drexel Building with his father's firm. Following his father's death, he joined the law firm of Drinker Biddle & Reath (not using that name at the time) in 1924. He was the firm's first lateral partner and brought clients that included the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (founded by Benjamin Franklin) and the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society. Biddle became a partner in 1925 and was a major force at the firm for decades. In the 1950s, he led the defense of Merck Sharp & Dohme in a major case concerning price-fixing. At a trial in Trenton, New Jersey, he argued successfully for Merck's acquittal with Thomas E. Dewey who represented Eli Lilly.
Biddle also sued the U. S. government on behalf of three widows who lost their husbands in a B-29 Superfortress crash in 1948. This case was the first in which the government claimed national security privileges for its documents, as the B-29 was carrying out experiments with radar control of airborne drones. The case was settled without the government production of documents. In 2003, partner Wilson M. Brown III used a Charles Biddle precedent to reopen the case on behalf of the survivors of the scientists killed in a 1948 B-29 crash. The US government still claimed national security for its defense. The U. S. Supreme Court took the unprecedented step of examining its own prior decision of the case; the government claim was exposed as a fraudulent one used to cover up neglect in maintenance and poor air crew training as cause of the accident.
He died in 1972.
Honors and awards
Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) citation
The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Charles John Biddle, Captain (Air Service), U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action in the region of Damvillers, France, September 26, 1918. During an engagement between 11 Spads and 12 enemy Fokkers, Captain Biddle, perceiving a comrade in distress from the attack of two planes, dived upon them and by his fire forced them to withdraw. His prompt action saved the life of his comrade, who was in imminent danger of being shot to the ground. (General Orders No. 60, W.D., 1920)
Ordre de Léopold citation
For extraordinary heroism in action on 12 April 1918 near Corbeny, France, and on 15 May 1918, near Ypres, Belgium. Captain Biddle has daily shown himself an excellent and remarkable example of courage, energy and skill, leading his pilots to the attack at every opportunity and making his flight a most efficient one. On 12 April, he attacked and destroyed an enemy two-seater which crashed between the trenches at Corbeny. On 15 May, while leading his patrol, he attacked, at very low altitude and far within the enemy lines, an enemy two-seater, killing the observer and forcing him down. A few minutes later he engaged a second enemy plane at very close range. Wounded in his leg, his plane and motor riddled, Captain Biddle was forced to land in 'No Man's Land' less than 70 yards from the German trenches in the region of Ypres. With remarkable courage and presence of mind and despite his wound, he detached himself from his smashed machine and made his way from shell hole under intense artillery, machine gun and rifle fire, to an advanced British Observation post.
French Croix de Guerre citation, 4 June 1918
Pilot of marvelous spirit. Attacked two enemy two-seaters successfully behind their lines, probably shooting down the first. Wounded and disabled in the course of the second combat, by sheer strength he succeeded in landing in no man's land and after passing the day in a shell hole, by night he got back to the Allied trenches.
- John Thomson Faris (1917). Old roads out of Philadelphia. J.B. Lippincott. pp. 301–302.
- "Andalusia History". museum web site. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Norman Franks (2001). American Aces of World War I. Illustrated by Harry Dempsey. Osprey Publishing. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-1-84176-375-0.
- Jon Guttman (2002). SPAD XII/XIII aces of World War I. Osprey Publishing. pp. 12, 14–15. ISBN 978-1-84176-316-3.
- "Charles Biddle". The Aerodrome web site. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Major Charles J. Biddle (1919). The way of the eagle. C. Scribner's sons.
- "About Drinker Biddle: Firm History". company web site. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Barry Siegel (2008). Claim of Privilege. HarperCollins. pp. 81–182. ISBN 978-0-06-077702-9.
- Brown's firm bio from Drinker Biddle & Reath
- Barry Siegel (2008). Claim of Privilege. HarperCollins. pp. 232–305. ISBN 978-0-06-077702-9.