Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond

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Field Marshal His Grace
The Duke of Richmond
KG PC FRS
3rd Duke of Richmond.jpg
Portrait by George Romney, circa 1777
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
In office
23 May 1766 – 29 July 1766
Monarch George III
Prime Minister The Marquess of Rockingham
Preceded by Henry Conway
Succeeded by The Earl of Shelburne
Personal details
Born (1735-02-22)22 February 1735
Westminster, London
Died 29 December 1806(1806-12-29) (aged 71)
Goodwood, Sussex
Spouse(s) Mary Bruce
Military service
Allegiance  Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branch  British Army
Years of service 1752–1806
Rank Field Marshal
Commands 33rd Regiment of Foot
72nd Regiment of Foot
Battles/wars Seven Years' War
Awards Knight of the Garter

Field Marshal Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 3rd Duke of Lennox, 3rd Duke of Aubigny, KG, PC, FRS (22 February 1735 – 29 December 1806), styled Earl of March until 1750, was a British politician and British Army officer. He associated with the Rockingham Whigs and rose to hold the post of Southern Secretary for a brief period. He was noteworthy for his support for the colonists during the American Revolutionary War, his support for a policy of concession in Ireland and his advanced views on the issue of parliamentary reform. He went on to be a reforming Master-General of the Ordnance first in the Rockingham ministry and then in the ministry of William Pitt.

Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 1758, by Sir Joshua Reynolds
Mary, Duchess of Richmond, by William Wynne Ryland after Angelica Kauffman

Career[edit]

Born the son of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond and Sarah Lennox, daughter of William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan, Lennox was educated at Westminster School and Leiden University and succeeded his father as Duke of Richmond in August 1750.[1] He was commissioned as an ensign in the 2nd Foot Guards in March 1752,[2] promoted to captain in the 20th Regiment of Foot on 18 June 1753[3] and was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 11 December 1755.[4]

Lennox became lieutenant-colonel of the 33rd Regiment of Foot on 7 June 1756.[5] A second battalion (2nd/33rd) of this regiment was raised and in 1757 and the following year this battalion became an independent regiment, the 72nd Regiment of Foot; Lennox was appointed lieutenant colonel of this new regiment and his younger brother George took command of the 33rd Regiment (1st/33rd).[6] Then in May 1758 Lennox became colonel of the 72nd Regiment.[7]

Lennox took part in the Raid on Cherbourg in August 1758 and served as aide-de-camp to Prince Frederick of Brunswick at the Battle of Minden in August 1759.[1] Promoted to major-general on 9 March 1761, Lennox saw the 72nd Regiment disbanded in 1763 at the end of the Seven Years' War.[8] He was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Sussex on 18 October 1763.[9]

Lennox was appointed British ambassador extraordinary in Paris and made a Privy Counsellor in 1765, and in the following year he briefly served as Southern Secretary in the Rockingham Whig administration, resigning office on the accession to power of Pitt the Elder in July 1766.[1] He was promoted to lieutenant general on 30 April 1770[10] and was briefly leader of the parliamentary Whig party in opposition in 1771 when Rockingham's wife was ill.[1]

In the debates on the policy that led to the American Revolutionary War Lennox was a firm supporter of the colonists, and he initiated the debate in 1778 calling for the removal of British troops from America, during which Chatham was seized by his fatal illness.[1] He also advocated a policy of concession in Ireland, with reference to which he originated the phrase "a union of hearts" which long afterwards became famous when his use of it had been forgotten.[11] In 1779 Lennox brought forward a motion for retrenchment of the civil list, and in 1780 he embodied in a bill his proposals for parliamentary reform, which included manhood suffrage, annual parliaments and equal electoral areas.[1]

Lennox joined the Second Rockingham Ministry as Master-General of the Ordnance in March 1782: he was appointed a Knight of the Order of the Garter on 17 April 1782[12] and promoted to full general on 20 November 1782.[13] He resigned as Master-General when the Duke of Portland came to power in April 1783.[1]

In January 1784 he joined the First Pitt the Younger Ministry as Master-General of the Ordnance: in this role he reformed the Department, introducing salaries for office holders, starting a survey of the South Coast (which led to the formation of the Ordnance Survey) and introducing new artillery (leading to the formation of the Royal Horse Artillery).[1] He now developed strongly Tory opinions, and his alleged desertion of the cause of reform led to accusations of apostasy.[1] In November 1795 when Thomas Hardy and John Horne Tooke where charged with treason and cited Lennox's publications on reform in their defence, Lennox became a liability to the Government and he was dismissed in February 1795.[1] He became colonel of the Royal Horse Guards on 18 July 1795[14] and was promoted to field marshal on 30 July 1796.[15]

In retirement Lennox built the famous racecourse at the family seat of Goodwood.[1] He was also a patron of artists such as George Stubbs, Pompeo Batoni, Anton Raphael Mengs, Joshua Reynolds and George Romney.[16]

Lennox died at Goodwood on 29 December 1806 and was buried in Chichester Cathedral; leaving no legitimate children, he was succeeded in the peerage by his nephew Charles.[10]

Family[edit]

On 1 April 1757 Lennox married Lady Mary Bruce, daughter of Charles Bruce, 3rd Earl of Ailesbury; they had no children although Lennox did have three illegitimate children by his housekeeper.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  2. ^ The London Gazette: no. 9147. p. 3. 7 March 1752. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 9279. p. 2. 23 June 1753. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  4. ^ "Lists of Royal Society Fellows". Royal Society. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 9590. p. 2. 8 June 1756. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  6. ^ Heathcote, p. 199
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 9789. p. 2. 6 May 1758. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  8. ^ Brereton & Savoury, p. 41
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 10357. p. 1. 15 October 1763. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  10. ^ a b Heathcote, p. 200
  11. ^ "Duke of Richmond". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  12. ^ The London Gazette: no. 12288. p. 1. 16 January 1782. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  13. ^ The London Gazette: no. 12391. p. 1. 23 September 1782. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  14. ^ The London Gazette: no. 13796. p. 741. 14 July 1795. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  15. ^ The London Gazette: no. 13918. p. 743. 2 August 1796. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  16. ^ "Goodwood House painting collection". Goodwood. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Brereton, J.M.; Savoury, A.C.S. (1993). History of the Duke of Wellington's Regiment. Duke of Wellington's Regiment. ISBN 978-0952155201. 
  • Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals, 1736–1997: A Biographical Dictionary. Barnsley: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-696-5. 
Military offices
New regiment Colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot
1758–1763
Regiment disbanded
Preceded by
The Viscount Townshend
Master-General of the Ordnance
1782–1783
Succeeded by
The Viscount Townshend
Preceded by
The Viscount Townshend
Master-General of the Ordnance
1784–1795
Succeeded by
The Marquess Cornwallis
Preceded by
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway
Colonel of the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards
1795–1806
Succeeded by
The Duke of Northumberland
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
The Earl of Hertford
British Ambassador to France
1765–1766
Succeeded by
The Earl of Rochford
Political offices
Preceded by
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
1766
Succeeded by
The Earl of Shelburne
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Egremont
Lord Lieutenant of Sussex
1763–1806
Succeeded by
The Duke of Norfolk
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Richmond
3rd creation
1750–1806
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Lennox
2nd creation
1750–1806
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox
French nobility
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Aubigny
1777–1806
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox