Charles Long, 1st Baron Farnborough

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This article is about the first Baron Farnborough of the first creation (named after Farnborough in Bromley). For the first Baron Farnborough of the second creation (named after Farnborough in Hampshire), see Erskine May, 1st Baron Farnborough.
The Right Honourable
The Lord Farnborough
GCB, PC, PC (Ire), FRS, FSA
1stLordFarnborough.jpg
Chief Secretary for Ireland
In office
1805–1806
Monarch George III
Prime Minister Hon. William Pitt the Younger
Preceded by Nicholas Vansittart
Succeeded by William Elliot
Paymaster of the Forces
In office
1807–1826
Monarch George III
George IV
Prime Minister The Duke of Portland
Hon. Spencer Perceval
The Earl of Liverpool
Preceded by Earl Temple
and Lord John Townshend
Succeeded by Hon. William Vesey-FitzGerald
Personal details
Born 2 January 1760 (1760-01-02)
London
Died 17 January 1838 (1838-01-18)
Nationality British
Political party Tory
Spouse(s) Amelia Hume (d. 1837)
Alma mater Emmanuel College, Cambridge

Charles Long, 1st Baron Farnborough GCB PC PC (Ire) FRS FSA (2 January 1760 – 17 January 1838) was an English politician and connoisseur of the arts.

Early life[edit]

Born in London, he was the fourth son of West Indies merchant Beeston Long and his wife Sarah Cropp. A senior branch of the family of Hurts Hall in Suffolk established themselves in Jamaica after the conquest of the island in 1665 (see Edward Long). Educated at a private school in Greenwich and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, Long matriculated in 1779, but is not known to have taken a degree.[1] He was entered at the Inner Temple, later making the grand tour between 1786 and 1788, exploring Rome and laying the foundation of his art collection under the tuition of James Byres.

Political career[edit]

Long was a friend of William Pitt, whom he had met at Cambridge, and his involvement in politics began as early as 1788 when he was canvassing for Lord Hood, the ministerial candidate in the Westminster election, and he himself entered parliament in January 1789 as member for Rye,[2] a Treasury controlled seat. He afterwards sat as member for Midhurst (1796–1802)[3] and for Wendover (1802-6),[4] (boroughs whose parliamentary representatives were nominated by Pitt's friend Lord Carrington) and for Haselmere (1806–26),[5] where the sole patron was the Pittite Earl of Lonsdale. Becoming junior secretary to the Treasury in 1791, he acted as parliamentary whip and teller and in 1796 on the government's behalf, undertook much of the general election management. In 1801 when Pitt left office, Long followed, and was rewarded with a yearly pension of £1500. At Pitt's behest he was appointed Treasury advisor to the Prime Minister Henry Addington, and in 1802 was sworn of the Privy Council.

The following year his house at Bromley Hill in Kent was the location for negotiations between Pitt and Addington, in which he was the chief intermediary. When Pitt returned to power in 1804 Long was made a lord of the Treasury (1804-6) and then chief secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1805-6). He took office in the Portland ministry as paymaster-general of the forces after Pitt's death in 1806, a post he retained until 1826 when he retired from politics. He was offered the Chancellorship of the Exchequer and the Secretaryship at War by Perceval, both of which he refused, considering himself neither inclined nor fit to fill either position. Except on matters arising from his ministerial responsibilities, he rarely spoke in the House of Commons. Rather than an initiator of policy, his strengths lay in his loyal and efficient political adjucations. In 1792 with Sir James Bland Burges, Long established the Sun newspaper as an instrument of the Tories, and he was the author of pamphlets on the French Revolution (1795) and the price of bread (1800).

In 1820 King George IV made Long a Knight of the Bath, and on his retirement from political life in 1826 he was raised to the peerage as "Baron Farnborough, of Bromley-Hill-Place, in the county of Kent".[6] (Farnborough was then a village in Kent, near his country residence). Long was elected FRS in 1792, FSA in 1812, and was given an honorary LLD by his old university in 1833. The arts were Long's real passion, but due to limited resources he was unable to be a major patron or collector in his own right, however, as a minister and MP he was influential in furthering artistic causes such as the establishment of the National Gallery and the purchase of the Elgin marbles, and was a founder of the British Institution in 1805. He acted as intermediary in 1792 between Pitt and Humphry Repton over improvements to the former's grounds at Holwood, and in 1799 when the Altieri Claudes were brought to England, they were first exhibited to English connoisseurs at Long's house in Grosvenor Place. In subsequent years he maintained a high profile in connection with his public patronage of the arts. A committee of taste was appointed in 1802 to supervise the erection of monuments to the heroes of the Napoleonic wars, of which Long was chairman, and in 1809 the responsibilities were extended to the repair of Henry VII's chapel at Westminster, with money voted by parliament. Long was consulted on everything from the need for a fig-leaf on the heroic statue honouring the Duke of Wellington, that had been subscribed for by the ladies of Great Britain (1821), to the appropriate order for the facade of the privy council offices in Whitehall (1824).

Retirement from politics[edit]

Long's political ambitions were modest, though his retirement was nevertheless, a reluctant one. His reputation as an arbiter of taste led in 1834, to the opening of a campaign for the establishment of an Institution of British Architects, by way of an open letter to Lord Farnborough. He was an active trustee both of the British Museum and of the National Gallery, and as deputy director he was for many years a leading figure in the affairs of the British Institution. Long's advice on artistic matters was valued at the highest level. George IV, both as prince regent and as king, consulted him frequently over the commissioning of architecture, sculpture and painting. The prince's secretary once said that in matters of art, "The Prince Regent saw through Mr. Long's spectacles". Long negotiated royal commissions with artists such as Canova, Westmacott, and Lawrence, and when the king decided to reconstruct Windsor Castle, Long drew up a brief which detailed every important feature of the castle as subsequently remodelled by Jeffry Wyattville, from the formation of the Grand Corridor to the heightening of the keep, and he also made a sketch-plan in 1823 for the sunken garden below the east terrace.

Only a few miles from Pitt's at Holwood, Long's own country villa at Bromley Hill in Kent was an elegant enlargement of an earlier house which he bought in 1801. He and his wife were amateur artists and architects, and provided their own designs for the improvement to the house. The extensive grounds were progressively improved to create a much-admired garden which by 1809 offered two picturesque walks, each a mile long, and a distant view of the dome of St Paul's Cathedral. It was here that Long entertained George IV, William IV, and Queen Adelaide. He died here on 17 January 1838, leaving to the National Gallery fifteen artworks by Rubens, Vandyck, Canaletto, Teniers, Mola, Cuyp, and others.

Lady Farnborough[edit]

Long married in 1793 Amelia Hume, eldest daughter of the prominent art collector Sir Abraham Hume, 2nd Baronet, by Amelia, daughter of John Egerton, Bishop of Durham. A watercolourist and garden designer, she completed her formal classical education with a visit to Italy, prior to her marriage. She designed the celebrated Italianate grounds at their country residence Bromley Hill, which subsequently became the main source for her sketches. Reputed to be the favourite pupil of Thomas Girtin, her early work is distinguished by a broad topographical style, and later work was influenced by Henry Edridge and Dr Thomas Monro. She died 15 January 1837, and a London newspaper[7] reported that her husband Lord Farnborough was "dangerously ill in consequence of a shock occasioned by the death of his lady". He never properly recovered his health, and died a year later. There were no children from the marriage.[8]

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

Dictionary of National Biography Long, Charles, Baron Farnborough, by Howard Colvin

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
William Dickinson
Charles Wolfran Cornwall
Member of Parliament for Rye
1789–1796
With: William Dickinson 1789–1790
Lord Hawkesbury 1790–1796
Succeeded by
Lord Hawkesbury
Robert Dundas
Preceded by
Hon. Percy Charles Wyndham
Peter Thellusson
Member of Parliament for Midhurst
1796–1801
With: Sylvester Douglas 1796–1800
George Smith 1800–1801
Succeeded by
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Parliament of Great Britain
Member of Parliament for Midhurst
1801–1802
With: George Smith
Succeeded by
George Smith
Samuel Smith
Preceded by
John Hiley Addington
George Canning
Member of Parliament for Wendover
1802–1806
With: John Smith
Succeeded by
Viscount Mahon
George Smith
Preceded by
George Wood
Richard Penn
Member of Parliament for Haslemere
1806–1826
With: Lord Garlies 1806–1807
Robert Plumer Ward 1807–1823
George Lowther Thompson 1823–1826
Succeeded by
George Lowther Thompson
Sir John Beckett, Bt
Political offices
Preceded by
Nicholas Vansittart
Chief Secretary for Ireland
1805–1806
Succeeded by
William Elliot
Preceded by
Earl Temple
Lord John Townshend
Paymaster of the Forces
with Lord Charles Somerset 1807–1813
Hon. F. J. Robinson 1813–1817

1807–1826
Succeeded by
Hon. William Vesey-FitzGerald
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Farnborough
1826–1838
Extinct