As a student of Cornell University, Moore won the NCAA titles in 440 yard flat race in 1949 and 220 yard hurdles in 1951. He also won four straight AAU titles in 400 metre hurdles from 1949 to 1952. Moore was also a member of the Quill and Dagger society at Cornell. He graduated in 1952 with a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering. Moore was inducted into the Cornell University Athletics Hall of Fame in 1978. The Outstanding Senior Varsity Athlete Award at Cornell is named for him.
From 1994 to 1999, he was Director of Athletics at Cornell University. Prior to that, Charles was president and CEO of several multinational manufacturing companies, including Ransburg Corporation, Clevepak Corporation, Allied Thermal (a subsidiary of Interpace Corporation), Lapp Insulator (a division of Interpace Corporation), and Lenape Forge (a division of Gulf+Western). He also served as managing director of Peers & Co. (investment banking), CEO of Peers Management Resources, Inc. (management consulting), and vice chairman of Advisory Capital Partners, Inc. (investment advising).
Charles is currently Governor of the National Art Museum of Sport, a former member of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, and a National Board alumni member of the Smithsonian Institution. In 1984, he received the Herbert Adams Memorial Award for Advancement of American Sculpture. From 1992-2000, he was Public Sector Director of the United States Olympic Committee(USOC) and chairman of that organization's audit committee. He has also served as chairman of the USOC’s 2012 Bid City Evaluation Task Force. He is married to Judith M. Moore, director of the Music Library at Saint Thomas Church Fifth Avenue in New York City. They have nine children and fourteen grandchildren.