Charles Pelham Villiers

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The Right Honourable
Charles Pelham Villiers
CharlesPelhamVilliers.jpg
Engraving by John Cochran after a portrait by C. A. Du Val.
President of the Poor Law Board
In office
9 July 1859 – 26 June 1866
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister The Viscount Palmerston
The Earl Russell
Preceded by Thomas Milner Gibson
Succeeded by Gathorne Hardy
Personal details
Born (1802-01-03)3 January 1802
Died 16 January 1898(1898-01-16) (aged 96)
Nationality British
Political party Liberal
Liberal Unionist
Spouse(s) Unmarried
Alma mater St John's College, Cambridge

Charles Pelham Villiers (3 January 1802 – 16 January 1898) was a British lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1835 to 1898, making him the longest-serving Member of Parliament (MP).

Background and education[edit]

Villiers was the son of the Hon. George Villiers and the Hon. Theresa, daughter of John Parker, 1st Baron Boringdon. He was grandson of Thomas Villiers, 1st Earl of Clarendon and brother of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon. He was educated at East India Company College and St John's College, Cambridge,[1] becoming a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in 1827. He was raised to the rank of an Earl's son in 1839 and thus entitled to be styled the Honourable Charles Pelham Villiers.

Political career[edit]

Villiers held Benthamite political views, and enjoyed a long career in public service and Parliament. In 1832, he was a Poor Law Commissioner, and from 1833 to 1852 was examiner of witnesses in the Court of Chancery.

Villiers was elected as a Liberal Member of Parliament for Wolverhampton in 1835. In 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845 he launched parliamentary debates in attempts to repeal the Corn Laws. In 1838, he spoke to over 5000 "working class men" in Manchester and told them that the presence of so large an audience gave him the proof that "the working class man was with him". Villiers was unsuccessful in his attempts, but in 1840 sat on the Committee on Import Duties that provided much of the evidence that pressured Robert Peel into his sliding scale concession in 1842. The bluebook produced by the Committee on Import Duties was published in pamphlet form and distributed across the country by the Anti Corn Law League, it was reprinted in America and quoted by all leading newspapers of the day, the Spectator published it in abridged form. In February 1842 Villiers was called by Monckton Milne MP the "solitary Robinson Crusoe standing on the barren rock of Corn Law repeal". In 1842, the majority in favour of retaining the Corn Laws had been 303, at the vote on Villiers motion in June 1845 it was down to 132. After repeal in 1846, the press said of Villiers that he was "the most persevering and undaunted supporter of those principles within the house". David Ricardo, Chairman of the Free Traders in London wished to raise money to give to Villiers in recognition of his work, Villiers declined this.

In 1847 he was also returned for Lancashire South but elected to sit for his former constituency, his election in Lancashire South was unsolicited but an honour conferred by the people there to express their gratitude for his goodwork with the repeal of the Corn Laws. Villiers was sworn of the Privy Council in 1853[2] and served under Lord Aberdeen and Lord Palmerston as Judge Advocate General from 1852 to 1858. In 1853 the Times observed that "it was Mr Charles Villiers who practically originated the Free Trade movement". He served under Palmerston and Lord Russell as President of the Poor Law Board (with a seat in the cabinet) from 1859 to 1866.

Villier was offered a peerage in June 1885, but declined.[3] His Wolverhampton constituency was divided under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 and he was then elected for Wolverhampton South, switching to the Liberal Unionist party in 1886. He was the Father of the House of Commons from 1890 until his death in 1898. However, the last time he attended Parliament was in 1895. During his time in Parliament he worked towards free trade and opposed the Corn Laws and home rule for Ireland. He is noted as being the voice in parliament of the free trade movement before the election of Richard Cobden and John Bright. Villiers was the last remaining MP to have served under King William IV.

Personal life[edit]

Villiers died unmarried in January 1898, aged 96. A statue of him stands in West Park in Wolverhampton.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Villiers, Charles Pelham (VLRS820CP)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  2. ^ The London Gazette: no. 21409. p. 330. 8 February 1853.
  3. ^ Debretts Guide to the House of Commons 1886

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
William Wolryche-Whitmore
Richard Fryer
Member of Parliament for Wolverhampton
18351885
With: Thomas Thornley, 1835–1859
Sir Richard Bethell, 1859–1861
Thomas Matthias Weguelin, 1861–1880
Henry Fowler, 1880–1885
Constituency divided
see: Wolverhampton East
Wolverhampton South
Wolverhampton West
New constituency
Member of Parliament for Wolverhampton South
18851898
Succeeded by
John Lloyd Gibbons
Preceded by
Christopher Talbot
Father of the House
1890–1898
Succeeded by
Sir John Mowbray, Bt
Preceded by
James Patrick Mahon
Oldest Member of Parliament
1885–1887
Succeeded by
James Patrick Mahon
Preceded by
James Patrick Mahon
Oldest Member of Parliament
1891–1898
Succeeded by
Sir John Mowbray, Bt
Political offices
Preceded by
George Bankes
Judge Advocate General
1852–1858
Succeeded by
John Mowbray
Preceded by
Thomas Milner Gibson
President of the Poor Law Board
1859–1866
Succeeded by
Gathorne Hardy