Charles Stark Draper Laboratory
||This article appears to be written like an advertisement. (July 2012)|
|Type||Independent, not-for-profit corporation|
1970 The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory
|Headquarters||555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139-3563|
|Number of locations||6|
|Key people||James D. Shields, President and CEO (2006-) |
|Revenue||$493 million (Fiscal Year 2010) |
Draper Laboratory is an American not-for-profit research and development organization in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Draper focuses on the design, development, and deployment of advanced technology solutions to problems in national security, space exploration, health care and energy.
The lab was created in the early 1930s by Charles Stark Draper at MIT as the Instrumentation Lab. It was renamed for its founder in 1970 and separated from MIT in 1973 to become an independent, non-profit organization.
Draper's expertise includes the areas of guidance, navigation, and control technologies and systems; fault-tolerant computing; advanced algorithms and software solutions; modeling and simulation; and MEMS and multichip module technology.
Business areas 
Draper applies its expertise to autonomous air, land, sea and space systems; information integration; distributed sensors and networks; precision-guided munitions; biomedical engineering; chemical/biological defense; and energy system modeling and management. When appropriate, Draper works with partners to transition their technology to commercial production.
Draper is organized into seven areas of business:
- Strategic Systems
- Space Systems
- Tactical Systems
- Special Programs
- Biomedical Systems
- Air Warfare & ISR (intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance)
- Energy Solutions
Draper has locations in six U.S. cities: headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts; NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas; Draper Bioengineering Center at University of South Florida in Tampa; Draper Multichip Module Facility in St. Petersburg, Florida; Washington, DC; and Huntsville, Alabama.
Draper’s roots date to the 1930s when Dr. Charles Stark Draper created a teaching laboratory at MIT to develop the instrumentation needed to make precise measurements of angular and linear motion. During World War II, Draper’s lab was known as the “Confidential Instrument Development Laboratory” (CID). Later, the name was changed to the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. The Laboratory was renamed for its founder in 1970 and remained a part of MIT until 1973 when it became an independent, not-for-profit research and development corporation.
A primary focus of Draper’s efforts throughout its history has been the development and early application of advanced guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) technologies to meet the U.S. Department of Defense’s and NASA’s needs. The Laboratory’s achievements includes the design and development of the world’s most accurate and reliable guidance systems for undersea-launched ballistic missiles as well as the highly precise, ultra-reliable GN&C systems needed to guide the Apollo astronauts to the Moon and back safely to Earth. Draper’s work has contributed substantially to the development of today’s complement of precise inertial sensors, software, and ultra-reliable systems critical for precision GN&C of commercial and military aircraft, submarines, strategic and tactical missiles, spacecraft, and unmanned vehicles.
Notable innovations 
- Mark 14 Gunsight - improved gunsight accuracy of anti-aircraft guns used aboard naval vessels in WWII
- SPIRE - forerunner of autopilot systems now used in commercial aviation; advanced the accuracy and safety of airplane navigation
- GEORGE — World’s first algebraic compiler
- Q-guidance equation
- Apollo Guidance Computer - first deployed computer to exploit integrated circuit technology of on-board, autonomous navigation in space
- Digital Fly-by-wire - control system that allowed a pilot to control the aircraft without being connected mechanically to the aircraft’s control surfaces
- Fault-tolerant Computing – several computers work on a task simultaneously. If any one of the computers fails, the others can take over a vital capability when the safety of an aircraft or other system is at stake.
- Micro-electromechanical (MEMS) technologies
- Autonomous systems algorithms - autonomous rendezvous and docking of spacecraft; systems for underwater vehicles
- GPS coupled with inertial navigation system - allows for continuous navigation when the vehicle or system goes into a GPS-denied environment
Draper Prize 
Administered by the National Academy of Engineering, this international prize is the engineering profession's highest honor. It is given annually for engineering achievements that have significantly impacted society by improving the quality of life, providing the ability to live freely and comfortably, and/or permitting access to information. The $500,000 prize can be awarded for achievement in any engineering discipline.
Technical education 
The support of technical education is a key element of Draper's corporate mission and is manifested at all levels of learning. The research-based Draper Laboratory Fellow Program sponsors about 50 graduate students each year. Students typically go on to leadership positions in the government, military, industry, and education. Draper also supports on-campus funded research with faculty and principal investigators through the University R&D program. Undergraduate student employment and internship opportunities are available as well.
Draper Laboratory has an extensive STEM K-12 and community outreach program that was formalized in 1984 in order to invest in the local community's quality of life. Each year, more than $175,000 is distributed through Draper’s Community Relations Programs. Priority is given to advancing engineering and science education through community educational outreach programs—including internships, co-ops, participation in science festivals and the provision of tours and speakers-is an extension of this mission.
Draper in the media 
Draper is often featured in a variety of local and national news outlets. The organization’s website keeps an updated list of recent headlines.
See also 
- "Profile: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc.", Funding Universe
- [web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2006/draper.html "Draper selects new president"], MIT News, July 13, 2006
- "Profile: Draper Labs", Draper Labs website
- Levy, Mark, "The top 10 employers in Cambridge — and how to contact them", Cambridge Day, October 10, 2009
- "Founding Consortium Institution: Charles Stark Draper Laboratory". Center for Integration of Medicine and Innovative Technology (CIMIT).
- Morgan, Christopher; O’Connor, Joseph; Hoag, David, "Draper at 25", publication of Draper Labs, 1998
- "Draper Laboratory". Course Catalog. MIT.
- "The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc.". Department of Energy Contractor Attorneys' Association. United States Department of Energy.
- Draper history
- "U.S. Navy Mark 14 Gunsight, MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, 1940s." MIT Museum. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
- Gruntman, Mike. Blazing the Trail: The Early History of Spacecraft and Rocketry. AIAA, 2004. p 240
- Battin, Richard H. (1995-06-07). "On algebraic compilers and planetary fly-by orbits." Acta Astronautica 38 (12): 895-902.
- Spinardi, Graham. From Polaris to Trident: The Development of US Fleet Ballistic Missile. Cambridge University Press, 1994. p 44-45
- Hall, Eldon C. Journey to the Moon: The History of the Apollo Guidance Computer. AIAA, 1996.
- "Draper, Digital Fly-by-Wire Team Enters Space Hall of Fame." National Space Symposium. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
- Rennels, David A. (1999). "Fault-Tolerant Computing." Encyclopedia of Computer Science. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
- Sarvestani, Areza (2011-06-08). "Draper's tiny bio-MEM tech goes from a head-scratcher to a no-brainer." Mass Device.
- "Tech: Personal Navigation System Pinpoints People." Discovery Channel. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
- "Charles Stark Draper Prize." National Academy of Engineering. http://www.nae.edu/Activities/Projects/Awards/DraperPrize.aspx Retrieved 2011-08-06.
- Donnelly, Julie (2011-01-05). “Draper program prepares fellows for advanced, niche roles.” Mass High Tech.
- Draper Educational Outreach
- "2010 Tech Citizenship honoree: Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc." Mass High Tech.
- Draper Community Relations