Charlie-class submarine

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Project 670

Project 670M INS Chakra leased to the Indian Navy

Class overview
Builders: Gorky
Operators:  Soviet Navy
 Indian Navy
Preceded by: Echo class submarine
Succeeded by: Papa class submarine
General characteristics
Displacement:

Charlie I class: Surfaced:4000tons Submerged:4900tons

Charlie II class: Surfaced: 4300tons

Submerged:5100tons
Length:

Charlie I class: 95 m (312 ft)

Charlie II class: 103 m (338 ft)
Beam: Charlie I+II class:10 m (32 ft 10 in)
Draught: Charlie I+II class: 8 m (26 ft 3 in)
Propulsion: Charlie I+II class: one pressurized water-cooled reactor powering two steam turbines delivering 11,185kW (15,000shp) to one shaft.
Speed:

Surfaced: 20knots

Submerged: 24knots
Range: Unlimited except by food supplies
Complement:

Charlie I class: 100

Charlie II class: 98
Armament: Charlie I+II class: Six 533 mm (21in) tubes all bow for a max load of 12 torpedoes. Usually a mix of 2 kt anti-ship nuclear torpedoes, 2 Tsakra (SS-N-15 Starfish) 15 kt anti-submarine torpedoes, Charlie I's with 4 anti-ship/submarine HE torpedoes, Charlie II's with 8 anti-ship/submarine torpedoes or a total of 24 AMD-1000 ground mines.

The Charlie class submarine was a nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine built for the Soviet Navy and later operated by the Russian Navy. All Charlie I/II class submarines are decommissioned. One Charlie was used for testing an Oniks missile.[1][2] Charlie I and its successor Charlie II classes submarines are designed by Lazurit Central Design Bureau ("Lazurit" is the Russian word for lazurite).

Background[edit]

The Charlie I class submarine (Project 670 Skat) SSGN was first launched at the Krasnoye Sormovo inland shipyard at Gorkiy in 1967 with another 10 following over a period of five years. The Charlie Is had two banks of four missile tubes angled upwards on each side of the bow outside the pressure hull. The tubes were covered by large outer doors and the design was to incorporate the P-120 Malakhit (SS-N-9 Siren) medium range anti ship missile. Due to delays in the missile development, the missile was substituted with the short range P-70 Ametist (SS-N-7 Starbright) submerged launch missile which itself was a development of the P-15 Termit (SS-N-2 Styx) surface-launched missile.[citation needed] The missiles were designed for pop up surprise attacks on high value surface targets such as aircraft carriers.

In 1972 to 1979, six improved units called the Project 670M SKAT-M (Charlie II class) were built. The improved Charlie IIs were built at Gorkiy with an 8 m (26 ft 3 in) insert in the hull forward of the fin. The insert incorporated electronics and launch systems for targeting and firing of the long range P-120 Malakhit anti-ship missile.

The Charlie Is and IIs returned to port for reload once they had expended their missile payloads. However, the Charlie class's secondary armament of torpedoes and sonar systems provided useful anti-ship and anti-submarine warfare capabilities in addition to their missile launch capabilities.

The last Charlie was retired in 1994. While still operational, one unit of the class was leased to the Indian Navy between 1988 and 1991, mainly for India to gain experience in the operations of a nuclear submarine. India's Arihant class submarine is believed to resemble a Charlie II boat.[3]

Ships[edit]

  • 11 Project 670 (Charlie I) submarines were built between 1968 and 1973. K-43 was leased to the Indian Navy as the Chakra from 1988 to 1992. K-429 sank near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in 1983 with 16 fatalities, but was raised and used as a harbour training hulk.
  • 6 Project 670M (Charlie II) submarines were built between 1973 and 1980.

All ships were scrapped between 1990 and 1994.

Charlie I class — significant dates
# Shipyard Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
K-43 leased to India as Chakra Sormovo, Gorkiy May 9, 1964 August 2, 1966 November 5, 1967[4] to Pacific (1980) Decommissioned July 30, 1992 for scrapping
K-87 from January 15, 1978 K-212 Sormovo, Gorkiy February 6, 1965 March 20, 1968 December 28, 1968[4] to Pacific (1978) Decommissioned April 19, 1990 for scrapping
K-25 Sormovo, Gorkiy December 2, 1965 July 31, 1968 December 30, 1968[4] Northern Decommissioned June 24, 1991 for scrapping
K-121 Sormovo, Gorkiy November 25, 1966 April 29, 1969 October 31, 1969[4] to Pacific (1983) Decommissioned June 30, 1992 for scrapping
K-313 Sormovo, Gorkiy July 14, 1966 July 16, 1969 December 16, 1969[4] to Pacific (1986) Decommissioned April 19, 1990 for scrapping
K-308 Sormovo, Gorkiy December 29, 1967 February 19, 1970 September 20, 1970[4] to Pacific (1985) Decommissioned July 30, 1992 for scrapping
K-320 Sormovo, Gorkiy April 30, 1968 March 27, 1971 September 15, 1971[4] to Pacific (1979) Decommissioned April 19, 1990 for scrapping
K-302 Sormovo, Gorkiy January 17, 1969 July 11, 1970 December 1, 1970[4] to Pacific (1988) Decommissioned June 30, 1992 for scrapping
K-325 Sormovo, Gorkiy September 6, 1969 June 4, 1971 November 5, 1971[4] to Pacific (1978) Decommissioned June 24, 1991 for scrapping
K-429 Sormovo, Gorkiy January 26, 1971 April 22, 1972 September 15, 1972[4] to Pacific (1977) Decommissioned for scrapping
K-201 Sormovo, Gorkiy November 16, 1971 September 1972 December 26, 1972[4] to Pacific (1974) Decommissioned April 19, 1990 for scrapping
Charlie II class — significant dates
# Shipyard Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
K-458 . Sormovo, Gorkiy February 12, 1974 June 30, 1975 December 29, 1975[4] Northern Decommissioned June 24, 1991 for scrapping
K-452 Sormovo, Gorkiy December 30, 1972 June 1973 December 30, 1973[4] Northern Decommissioned May 30, 1998 for scrapping
K-479 Sormovo, Gorkiy December 20, 1975 May 6, 1977 September 30, 1977[4] Northern Decommissioned July 5, 1992 for scrapping
K-503 Sormovo Gorkiy February 7, 1977 September 22, 1978 December 31, 1978[4] Northern Decommissioned June 30, 1993 for scrapping
K-508 Sormovo Gorkiy December 10, 1977 October 3, 1979 December 30, 1979[4] Northern Decommissioned August 4, 1995 for scrapping
K-209 Sormovo, Gorkiy December 20, 1979 September 16, 1980 December 30, 1980[4] Northern Decommissioned 1996 for scrapping

References[edit]

  1. ^ Проект 670М
  2. ^ Проект 670
  3. ^ Von Kospoth, Nicolas (2009-07-28). "India's INS Arihant Makes First Contact with Water". Defense Professionals Daily. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Podvodnye Lodki, Yu.V. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2002, ISBN 5-8172-0069-4

Sources[edit]