Charlotte Angas Scott D.Sc. (8 June 1858, Lincoln, England – 10 November 1931, Cambridge, England) was a British mathematician who made her career in the United States and was influential in the development of American mathematics, including the mathematical education of women.
Scott played an important role in Cambridge changing the rules for its famous Mathematical Tripos exam. In 1880, Scott obtained special permission to take the Tripos, as women were not normally allowed to sit for the exam. She came eighth on the Tripos of all students taking them, but due to her sex, the title of "eighth wrangler," a high honor, went officially to a male student.
At the ceremony, however, after the seventh wrangler had been announced, all the students in the audience shouted her name. After this incident women were allowed to formally take the exam and their exam scores listed, although separately from the men's and thus not included in the rankings. Women obtaining the necessary score also received a special certificate instead of the BA degree with honors.
Moving to the United States, she was Associate Professor of Mathematics at Bryn Mawr College from 1885, the year of the school's founding, to 1888 and Professor from 1888 to 1917. She was the first mathematician at Bryn Mawr College. During this period she directed the Ph.D. theses of many pioneering women mathematicians. In 1891 she became the first woman to join the New York Mathematical Society, which later became the American Mathematical Society. She served as the first woman on the first Council of the American Mathematical Society in 1894, and received an acclaimed review from the Society in 1896. She is also credited with being the author of the first mathematical research paper written in the US to be widely recognized in Europe, "A Proof of Noether's Fundamental Theorem". In 1906 Scott served as Vice-President of the American Mathematical Society. On retirement she returned to and settled in Cambridge.
She presented the silver challenge cup for Girton and Newnham Lawn Tennis Doubles in 1883.
She is buried at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge; According to L.J. Slater in "A Walk Around The Ascension Parish Burial Ground", (quote) "Now walk to the door of the chapel and look at grave 4C52 which is a curb in the second row in the second row on your right. There is a scroll on this grave of ELIZA NEVIN to CHARLOTTE ANGUS SCOTT, who entered Girton College in 1876 and became a Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos in 1880." Charlotte Scott is buried in Eliza Nevin's grave. 
- Scott, Charlotte A. (1894). Modern Analytical Geometry. Macmillan.
- Chaplin, Stephanie (1997). "Biographies of Women Mathematicians: Charlotte Angas Scott". Agnes Scott College. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Duren, Peter L.; Askey, Richard; Merzbach, Uta C. (1992). A Century of Mathematics in America. American Mathematical Society. p. 382. ISBN 0821801384.
- Scott, Charlotte Angas (1 December 1899). "A proof of Noether's fundamental theorem". Mathematische Annalen 52 (4): 593–597. doi:10.1007/BF01453778.
- Goldie, Dr. Mark (2009). A Guide to Churchill College, Cambridge. pp. 62–63.
- Chaplin, Stephanie (1997). "Biographies of Women Mathematicians: Charlotte Angas Scott June 8, 1858 - November 10, 1931". Agnes Scott College. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
- Green, Dr. Judy (29 June 2000). "How many women mathematicians can you name?" (pdf). Summer Undergraduate Mathematical Sciences Research Institute / Miami University. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
- Kenschaft, Patricia C. Charlotte Angas Scott, 1858-1931. The College Mathematics Journal. 18:2: March 1987. pp. 98–110.
- Girton College Register 1869-1946, University Press, Cambridge, 1948
- Eaton, Shelby L. (21 August 1997). "Women in Mathematics in the United States: 1866-1900". Shelby L. Eaton. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
- Charlotte Scott at Find a Grave
- "Charlotte Angas Scott", Biographies of Women Mathematicians, Agnes Scott College
- Charlotte Scott at the Mathematics Genealogy Project