Charlotte Corday

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Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday.PNG
Charlotte Corday by Jean-Jacques Hauer
Born Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont
27 July 1768
Saint-Saturnin-des-Ligneries, Écorches (in present-day Orne), Normandy, France
Died 17 July 1793(1793-07-17) (aged 24)
Paris
Cause of death
Execution by guillotine
Known for Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat
Religion Roman Catholic
Parents Jacques François de Corday, seigneur d'Armont
Charlotte Marie Jacqueline Gaultier de Mesnival

Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont (27 July 1768 – 17 July 1793), known to history as Charlotte Corday (French: [kɔʁdɛ]), was a figure of the French Revolution. In 1793, she was executed under the guillotine for the assassination of Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat, who was in part responsible, through his role as a politician and journalist, for the more radical course the Revolution had taken. More specifically, he played a substantial role in the political purge of the Girondins, with whom Corday sympathized. His murder was memorialized in a celebrated painting by Jacques-Louis David which shows Marat after Corday had stabbed him to death in his bathtub. In 1847, writer Alphonse de Lamartine gave Corday the posthumous nickname l'ange de l'assassinat (the Angel of Assassination).

Biography[edit]

Corday's birth house in Normandy

Born in Saint-Saturnin-des-Ligneries, a hamlet in the commune of Écorches (Orne), in Normandy, Charlotte Corday was a member of a minor aristocratic family. She was a fifth-generation matrilineal descendant of the dramatist Pierre Corneille. Her parents were cousins.[1]

While Corday was a young girl, her older sister and their mother, Charlotte Marie Jacqueline Gaultier de Mesnival, died. Her father, Jacques François de Corday, seigneur d'Armont (1737–1798), unable to cope with his grief over their death, sent Corday and her younger sister to the Abbaye-aux-Dames convent in Caen, where she had access to the abbey's library and first encountered the writings of Plutarch, Rousseau and Voltaire.[2]:154–5 After 1791, she lived in Caen with her cousin, Madame Le Coustellier de Bretteville-Gouville. The two developed a close relationship, and Corday was the sole heir to her cousin's estate.[2]:157

Political influence[edit]

After the revolution began to radicalize and head towards terror, Charlotte Corday began sympathizing largely with the Girondins and subsequently came under their influence. She admired their speeches and grew fond of many of the Girondist groups whom she met while living in Caen. She respected and revered them and thought it necessary to align herself with their party. She had an urge to get to know the members and regarded them as a party that would ultimately save France.[3] The Gironde represented a more moderate approach to the revolution and they, like Corday, were skeptical about the direction the revolution was taking. They became opposed to the Montagnards, who advocated a more radical approach to the revolution, which included the extreme idea that the only way the revolution would survive invasion and civil war was through terrorizing and executing those opposed to it.[4] The opposition to this radical thinking, coupled with the influence of the Gironde, ultimately led Corday to carry out her plan to murder one of the most radical of them all, Jean-Paul Marat.

The influence of Girondin ideas on Corday is evident in her words at her trial: "I knew that he was perverting France. I have killed one man to save a hundred thousand." As the revolution progressed, the Girondins had become progressively more opposed to the radical, violent propositions of the Montagnards such as Marat and Robespierre. Corday's notion that she was saving a hundred thousand echoes this Girondin sentiment as they attempted to slow the revolution and reverse the violence that had escalated since the September Massacres of 1792.

Marat's assassination[edit]

Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, posthumous (1860). Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, represented in the wall map.

Jean-Paul Marat was a member of the radical Jacobin faction which had a leading role during the Reign of Terror. As a journalist, he exerted power and influence through his newspaper, L'Ami du peuple ("The Friend of the People").

Corday's decision to kill Marat was stimulated not only by her revulsion at the September Massacres, for which she held Marat responsible, but by her fear of an all-out civil war.[2]:161 She believed that Marat was threatening the Republic, and that his death would end violence throughout the nation. She also believed that King Louis XVI should not have been executed.[2]:160

On 9 July 1793, Corday left her cousin, carrying a copy of Plutarch's Parallel Lives, and went to Paris, where she took a room at the Hôtel de Providence. She bought a kitchen knife with a six-inch blade. She then wrote her Addresse aux Français amis des lois et de la paix ("Address to the French people, friends of Law and Peace") to explain her motives for assassinating Marat.

Initially, she planned to assassinate Marat in front of the entire National Convention, intending to make an example out of him, but upon arriving in Paris she discovered that Marat no longer attended meetings because his health was deteriorating due to a skin disorder. She was then forced to change her plan. She went to Marat's home before noon on 13 July, claiming to have knowledge of a planned Girondist uprising in Caen; she was turned away by his wife, Simonne Evrard. On her return that evening, Marat admitted her. At the time, he conducted most of his affairs from a bathtub because of a debilitating skin condition. Marat wrote down the names of the Girondists that she gave to him, then she pulled out the knife and plunged it into his chest, piercing his lung, aorta and left ventricle.[citation needed] He called out, Aidez-moi, ma chère amie! ("Help me, my dear friend!") and died.

This is the moment memorialised by Jacques-Louis David's painting (illustration, right). The iconic pose of Marat dead in his bath has been reviewed from a different angle in Baudry's posthumous painting of 1860, both literally and interpretatively: Corday, rather than Marat, has been made the hero of the action.

Trial and execution[edit]

Caricature of Corday's trial by James Gillray, 1793.

At her trial, when Corday testified that she had carried out the assassination alone, saying "I killed one man to save 100,000," she was likely alluding to Maximilien Robespierre's words before the execution of King Louis XVI. On 17 July 1793, four days after Marat was killed, Corday was executed under the guillotine and her corpse was disposed of in the Madeleine Cemetery.

After her decapitation, a man named Legros lifted her head from the basket and slapped it on the cheek. Charles-Henri Sanson, the executioner, indignantly rejected published reports that Legros was one of his assistants. However, Sanson stated in his diary that Legros was in fact a carpenter who had been hired to make repairs to the guillotine.[5] Witnesses report an expression of "unequivocal indignation" on her face when her cheek was slapped. This slap was considered unacceptable and Legros was imprisoned for three months because of his outburst.[6]

Charlotte Corday being conducted to her execution. By Arturo Michelena, 1889

Jacobin leaders had her body autopsied immediately after her death to see if she was a virgin. They believed there was a man sharing her bed and the assassination plans. To their dismay, she was found to be virgo intacta (a virgin), a condition that focused more attention on women throughout France – laundresses, housewives, domestic servants – who were also rising up against authority after having been controlled by men for so long.[7]

The assassination did not stop the Jacobins or the Terror: Marat became a martyr, and busts of him replaced crucifixes and religious statues that had been banished under the new regime.[citation needed]

Hair and controversy[edit]

Soon after her death, controversy arose surrounding the color of Corday's hair. Although her passport, filled out and signed by a Caen official, described her hair as chestnut brown, the painting "The Murder of Marat" by Jean-Jacques Hauer portrays Corday with powdered blonde hair. Following Corday's execution and the popularity of Hauer's painting, stories quickly spread about how Corday had hired a local coiffeur to straighten and lighten her hair.[8] Although this story rapidly became popular in Paris at the time,[citation needed] there is no historical evidence to support it. Part of the reason for the discrepancy in descriptions of Corday can be attributed to the stigma attached to powdered hair. At the time, only nobility and royalty ever powdered their hair, and in that time of violent anti-royalist revolt, such an association could be powerful in influencing popular opinion.[9]

Cultural references[edit]

Charlotte Corday by François-Séraphin Delpech (fr)
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote about her in his Posthumous Fragments of Margaret Nicholson (1810).
  • American dramatist Sarah Pogson Smith (1774–1870) also memorialised Corday in her verse drama The Female Enthusiast: A Tragedy in Five Acts (1807).
  • Alphonse de Lamartine devoted to her a book of his Histoire des Girondins (1847), in which he gave her this now famous nickname: "l'ange de l'assassinat" (the angel of assassination).
  • French dramatist François Ponsard (1814–67) wrote a play, Charlotte Corday, which was premièred at the Théâtre-Français in March, 1850.
  • Harper's Weekly mentioned Corday in their April 29, 1865 edition, in a series of articles analyzing the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, as the "one assassin whom history mentions with toleration and even applause," but goes on to conclude that her assassination of Marat was a mistake in which she became Marat's victim rather than saving or helping one of his victims. Her case is pointed to as a pattern that matches all other assassinations in harming rather than helping the cause for which the act was carried out.
  • At the end of Act III, before departing to kill the Czar, the eponymous heroine of Oscar Wilde's play Vera; or, The Nihilists exclaims "the spirit of Charlotte Corday has entered my soul now."
  • Charlotte appears briefly but significantly, in Caen, in A Far Better Rest, by Susanne Alleyn, a reimagining of A Tale of Two Cities.
  • Drieu La Rochelle wrote a play in three acts called Charlotte Corday in 1939. In was performed in southern France during World War II. Corday is depicted as a fervent republican who hopes eliminating Marat will save the revolution and prevent it from degenerating into tyranny.
  • A minor character in P.G. Wodehouse's Jeeves series is named after Charlotte Corday.
  • Italian composer Lorenzo Ferrero (1951– ) composed an opera in three acts, Charlotte Corday, for the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution which was commemorated in 1989.
  • In Peter Weiss's Marat/Sade, the assassination of Marat is presented as a play, written by the Marquis de Sade, to be performed by inmates of the asylum at Charenton, for the public. The patient performing the role of Corday in the play-within-a-play (Glenda Jackson in the stage production and subsequent film adaptation) is, somewhat ironically, a narcoleptic.
  • The historical-fiction "My Bonny Light Horseman", part of the Bloody Jack series by L.A. Meyer, references a Jean-Paul de Valdon, who claims to be the cousin of Charlotte Corday
  • British singer-songwriter Al Stewart included a song co-written by Tori Amos about Corday on his album Famous Last Words (1993).
  • In Katherine Neville's novel The Eight, Charlotte Corday changes place with the heroine Mireille, who kills Jean-Paul Marat for revenge.
  • Appears briefly in Madame Tussaud, a historical fiction by Michelle Moran. Corday is seen by Madame Tussaud directly after Marat's murder, when the guards have arrested her. Madame Tussaud is also present at Corday's execution. Her bravery and youth is strongly noted.
  • Rock band mewithoutYou reference Corday in their 2012 song 'Nine Stories.'
  • In the Buffy the Vampire Slayer episode Out of My Mind (Buffy the Vampire Slayer), Corday's assassination of Marat is discussed by Buffy and Willow as they emerge from a lecture on the French Revolution.
  • The graphic novel series "L'Ordre Du Chaos" has a whole book dedicated to Charlotte Corday and Marat.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Charlotte Corday", Encyclopedie (in French), FR: Larousse [dead link]
  2. ^ a b c d Whitham, John Mills (1968), Men and Women of the French Revolution, Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press 
  3. ^ Cher, Marie (1929). Charlotte Corday and Certain Men Of The Revolutionary Torment. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 70. ISBN 1-4366-8354-8. 
  4. ^ Andress, David (2005). The Terror. Great Britain: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-53073-0. 
  5. ^ La Révolution française vue par son bourreau : Journal de Charles-Henri Sanson, Documents (in French), Monique Lebailly, preface, Le Cherche Midi, 2007, p. 65, ISBN 978-2-7491-0930-5 ; idem, Griffures, Paris: Éditions de l'Instant, 1988, ISBN 978-2-86929-128-7 
  6. ^ Mignet, François (1824), History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814 
  7. ^ Corazzo, Nina; Montfort, Catherine R (1994), "Charlotte Corday: femme-homme", in Montfort, Catherine R, Literate Women and the French Revolution of 1789 (47), Birmingham, AL: Summa Publications, p. 45 
  8. ^ Loomis, Stanley (1964), Paris in the Terror, p. 125 
  9. ^ Rattner Gelbart, Nina (2004), "The Blonding of Charlotte Corday", Eighteenth Century Studies, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press 

Further reading[edit]

  • Mazeau, Guillaume (2009), Le bain de l'histoire. Charlotte Corday et l'attentat contre Marat (1793–2009), Champ Vallon: Seyssel .
  • ———— (2009), Corday contre Marat. Deux siècles d'images, Versailles: Artlys .
  • ———— (2006), Charlotte Corday en 30 Questions, La Crèche, Geste éditions .
  • Corday, Charlotte, L’Addresse aux Français amis des lois et de la paix [Address to French friends of the Law and Peace] .
  • Loomis, Stanley (1964), Paris in the Terror, JB Lippincott .
  • Franklin, Charles (1967), Woman in the Case, New York: Taplinger .
  • Goldsmith, Margaret (1935), Seven Women Against the World, London: Methuen .
  • Sokolnikova, Halina (1932), Nine Women Drawn from the Epoch of the French Revolution, trans. H C Stevens, Cape, NY .
  • Corazzo, Nina, and Catherine R. Montfort (1994), "Charlotte Corday: femme-homme", in Montfort, Catherine R, Literate Women and the French Revolution of 1789, Birmingham, AL: Umma Publications .
  • Gutwirth, Madelyn (1992), The Twilight of the Goddesses; Women and Representation in the French Revolutionary Era, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press .
  • Kindleberger, Elizabeth R (1994), "Charlotte Corday in Text and Image: A Case Study in the French Revolution and Women's History", French Historical Studies 18 (4), pp. 969–99 .
  • Outram, Dorinda (1989), The Body and the French Revolution: Sex, Class and Political Culture, New Haven: Yale University Press .
  • Whitham, John Mills (1968), Men and Women of the French Revolution, Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press .
  • Alstine, RK van (2008), Charlotte Corday, Kellock Robertson Press, ISBN 978-1-4097-9658-9 .

External links[edit]