Charlotte Forten Grimké
Charlotte Louise Bridges Forten Grimké (August 17, 1837 – July 23, 1914) was an African-American anti-slavery activist, poet, and educator. She grew up in a prominent abolitionist family in Philadelphia. She taught school for years, including during the war to freedmen in South Carolina. Later in life she married Francis James Grimké, a Presbyterian minister who led a major church in Washington, DC for decades. He was a nephew of the abolitionist Grimké sisters and active in civil rights.
Her diaries written before the end of the Civil War have been published in numerous editions in the 20th century as The Journal of Charlotte Forten; the work is significant as a record of the life of a free black woman in the North in the antebellum years.
Early life and education
Forten was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Mary Woods and Robert Bridges Forten, members of the prominent black Forten-Purvis families of Philadelphia. Robert Forten and his brother-in-law Robert Purvis were abolitionists and members of the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee, an anti-slavery network that rendered assistance to escaped slaves. Forten's paternal aunt Margaretta Forten worked in the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society along with her sisters Harriet Forten Purvis and Sarah Louisa Forten Purvis. Forten's grandparents were Philadelphia abolitionists James Forten, Sr. and his wife Charlotte Vandine Forten, who were also active in the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society.
In 1854, Forten attended the Higginson Grammar School in Salem, Massachusetts, a private academy for young women. She was the only non-white student in a class of 200. Known for emphasis in critical thinking, the school had classes in history, geography, drawing and cartography, and placed an emphasis on critical thinking skills. After Higginson, Forten studied literature and teaching at the Salem Normal School, which trained teachers. Forten cited William Shakespeare, John Milton, Margaret Fuller and William Wordsworth as some of her favorite authors.Her first teaching position was at Eppes Grammar School in Salem, becoming the first African American hired to teach white students in a Salem public school.
Forten became a member of the Salem Female Anti-Slavery Society, where she was involved in coalition building and fund-raising. She proved to be influential as an activist and leader on civil rights. She occasionally spoke to public groups on abolitionist issues. In addition, she arranged for lectures by prominent speakers and writers, including Ralph Waldo Emerson and Senator Charles Sumner. Forten was acquainted with many other anti-slavery proponents, including William Lloyd Garrison, editor of The Liberator, and the orators and activists Wendell Phillips, Maria Weston Chapman and William Wells Brown.
In 1856, finances forced Forten to take a teaching position at Epes Grammar School in Salem. She was the first African American teacher hired to teach white students in a Salem public school. She was well received as a teacher but returned to Philadelphia after two years due to tuberculosis. At this point, Forten began writing poetry, much of which was activist in theme. Her poetry was published in The Liberator and Anglo African magazines.
During the American Civil War, Forten was the first black teacher to join the mission to the South Carolina Sea Islands known as the Port Royal Experiment. The Union allowed Northerners to set up schools to begin teaching freedmen who remained on the islands, which had been devoted to large plantations for cotton and rice. The Union forces divided the land, giving freedmen families plots to work independently. Forten worked with many freedmen and their children on St. Helena Island. During this time, she resided at Seaside Plantation. She chronicled this time in her essays, entitled "Life on the Sea Islands", which were published in Atlantic Monthly in the May and June issues of 1864. Forten struck up a deep friendship with Robert Gould Shaw, the Commander of the all-black 54th Massachusetts Regiment during the Sea Islands Campaign. She was present when the 54th stormed Fort Wagner on the night of July 18, 1863. Shaw was killed in the battle, and Forten volunteered as a nurse to the surviving members of the 54th.
Marriage and family
In December 1878, Forten married Presbyterian minister Francis J. Grimké, pastor of the prominent Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C., a major African-American congregation. He was a mixed-race nephew of white abolitionists Sarah and Angelina Grimké of South Carolina. Francis and his brother Archibald Grimké were the sons of Henry Grimke and Nancy Weston (a woman of color). At the time of their marriage, Forten was 41 years old and Grimke was 28.
On January 1, 1880, Charlotte and Francis' daughter Theodora Cornelia was born, but the child died less than five months later. Charlotte Forten Grimké helped her husband in his ministry, helping create important networks in the community, including providing charity and education. Many church members were leaders in the African-American community in the capital. She organized a women's missionary group, and continued her "racial uplift" efforts.
When Francis' brother Archibald Grimke was appointed as U.S. consul in the Dominican Republic (1894-1898), Francis and Charlotte cared for his daughter Angelina Weld Grimké, who lived with them in the capital. Angelina Grimké later became an author in her own right.
Charlotte Forten Grimké's last literary effort was in response to an Evangelist editorial, "Relations of Blacks and Whites: Is There a Color Line in New England?" It asserted that blacks were not discriminated against in New England society. Forten Grimké responded that black Americans achieved success over extraordinary social odds, and they simply wanted fair and respectful treatment.
Charlotte Forten Grimké was a regular journal writer until she returned north after teaching in South Carolina. After her return, her entries were less frequent, although she wrote about her daughter's death and her busy life with her husband. Her diary, The Journals of Charlote Forten: A Free Negro in the Slave Era, was published in new scholarly editions in 1981 and 1988. is one of the few extant documents detailing the life of a free black female in the antebellum North.
- Marzell, Terry Lee. Chalkboard Champions. Tucson, AZ: Wheatmark, 2012.
- Bio: "Charlotte L. Forten Grimke", Poetry Foundation
- "Seaside Plantation, Beaufort County (S.C. Sec. Rd. 77, St. Helena Island)". National Register Properties in South Carolina. South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 13, No. 79, May 1864
- National Historic Landmarks Program
- The Journal of Charlotte Forten: A Free Negro in the Slave Era, New York: Norton, 1981.
- The Journals of Charlotte Forten, New York: Oxford Press, 1988
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2013)|
- Randall, Willard Sterne and Nahra, Nancy. Forgotten Americans: Footnote Figures who Changed American History. Perseus Books Group, United States, 1998. ISBN 0-7382-0150-2.
- Shockley, Ann Allen, Afro-American Women Writers 1746-1933: An Anthology and Critical Guide, New Haven, Connecticut: Meridian Books, 1989. ISBN 0-452-00981-2
- "Journal of Charlotte Forten, Free Woman of Color", Selections from 1854-1859 (age 16 to 21), National Humanities Center
- Biography: Charlotte Forten Grimke
- Studio portrait of Charlotte L. Forten Grimke housed at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
- Profile at PBS Online: Only A Teacher: Schoolhouse Pioneers website
- Charlotte Forten Grimké at Find a Grave