Regulation and licensure in engineering

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Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public, and to define the licensure process through which an engineer becomes authorized to practice engineering and/or provide engineering professional services to the public.

As with many other professions, the professional status and the actual practice of professional engineering is legally defined and protected by law. In some jurisdictions, only licensed engineers (sometimes called registered engineers) are permitted to "practice engineering," which requires careful definition in order to resolve potential overlap or ambiguity with respect to certain other professions which may or may not be themselves regulated (e.g. "scientists," or "architects"). Relatedly, jurisdictions that license according to particular engineering discipline need to define those boundaries carefully as well so that practitioners understand what they are permitted to do.

In many cases, only a licensed/registered engineer has the authority to take legal responsibility for engineering work or projects (typically via a seal or stamp on the relevant design documentation). Regulations may require that only a licensed or registered engineer can sign, seal, or stamp technical documentation such as reports, plans, engineering drawings, and calculations for study estimate or valuation, or carry out design, analysis, repair, servicing, maintenance, or supervision of engineering work, process or project. In cases where public safety, property or welfare is concerned, it is most likely required that an engineer be licensed or registered — though some jurisdictions have an "industrial exemption" that permits engineers to work internally for an organization without licensure so long as they are not making final decisions to release product to the public or offering engineering services directly to the public (e.g. consultant).

Expert witness or opinion in courts or before government committees or commissions can only be given by a registered or licensed engineer. Engineering colleges generally prefer their faculty or professors to be licensed engineers.

Registration and regulation

Becoming an engineer is a process that varies widely around the world. In some regions, use of the term ' engineer ' is regulated, in others it is not. Where engineering is a regulated profession, there are specific procedures and requirements for obtaining a registration, charter or license to practice engineering. These are obtained from the government or a charter-granting authority acting on its behalf, and engineers are subject to regulation by these bodies.[1]

Licensed engineers enjoy significant influence over their regulation. They are often the authors of the pertinent codes of ethics used by some of these organizations.[1] Engineers in private practice most often find themselves in traditional professional-client relationships in their practice. Engineers employed in government service and government-run industry are on the other side of that relationship. Despite the different focus, engineers in industry and private practice face similar ethical issues and reach similar conclusions.[2] One American engineering society, the National Society of Professional Engineers has sought to extend a single professional license and code of ethics for all engineers, regardless of practice area or employment sector.[3]

United States

In the United States, registration or licensure of professional engineers and engineering practice is governed by the individual states. Each registration or license is valid only in the state where it is granted. Therefore, many professional engineers maintain licenses in more than one state. Comity, also known as reciprocity, between states allows engineers who are licensed or registered in one state to obtain a license in another state without meeting the ordinary rigorous proof of qualification by testing. This is accomplished by the second state recognizing the validity of the first state's licensing or registration process.[4]

Requirements for licensing vary, but generally are as follows:[5]

  1. Graduate from an Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)-accredited four-year college or university program with a degree in engineering (e.g., bachelor of engineering, bachelor of science in engineering, master of science in engineering, master of engineering) or, in some states, graduate from an ABET-accredited four-year college or university program with a degree in engineering technology.
  2. Complete a standard Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) written examination, which tests applicants on breadth of understanding of basic engineering principles and, optionally, some elements of an engineering speciality. Completion of the first two steps typically qualifies applicants for certification in the U.S. as an engineer in training (EIT), sometimes also called an engineer intern (EI).[6]
  3. Accumulate a certain amount of engineering experience: in most states the requirement is four years, but it is lower in some. For engineering technology graduates, the required number of years may be higher.
  4. Complete a written Principles and Practice in Engineering (PE) examination, which tests the applicant's knowledge and skills in their chosen engineering discipline (civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical, etc.), as well as engineering ethics.

For standardization, FE and PE exams are written and graded by a central organization, the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES). However, each state's board of professional engineers individually sets the requirements to take the exams, as well as the passing score. For example, applicants in some states must provide professional references from several PEs before they can take the PE exam. There is a fairly large range in exam pass rates for FE and PE exams, but the pass rate for repeat test takers is significantly lower.[7]

All 50 states and the District of Columbia have engineering boards that are represented on the NCEES, which administers both the FE and PE examinations.[8]

Degree requirements in the United States are evolving. Effective Jan. 1, 2020, the NCEES model will require additional credits beyond a bachelor of science in engineering degree. NCEES is developing the types of creditable activities that will satisfy the additional educational requirement. This has received some support from civil engineers.[9][10]

As of 2013, it is still possible for an individual to bypass Steps No. 2 and 4. In Texas, for example, both FE and PE exam waivers are still available to individuals with several years of creditable experience.[11][12]

In a few states, it is still possible for an individual to bypass Step No. 1 and apply to take the registration examinations—as long as a PE sponsors the applicant—because work experience can be substituted for academic experience. The requirement for years of experience may also vary. For example, in California it is possible to take a PE examination with only two years of experience after a bachelor of science in engineering degree, or one year of experience after a master of engineering. Some states also have state-specific examinations, most notably California where there is a state-specific structural engineering exam and two additional exams in land surveying and earthquake engineering for civil engineering candidates.

Some states issue generic professional engineering licenses. Others, known as "discipline states", issue licenses for specific disciplines of engineering, such as civil engineering, mechanical engineering, nuclear engineering, electrical engineering, and chemical engineering. However, in all cases engineers are ethically required to limit their practice to their area of competency, which is usually a small portion of a discipline. While licensing boards do not often enforce this limitation, it can be a factor in negligence lawsuits. In a few states, licensed civil engineers may also perform land surveys.

In addition to the person's license, most states require that firms providing engineering services are authorized to do so. For instance, the state of Florida issues a certificate of authorization to firms that are owned by a professional engineer.

Civil engineers account for a large portion of licensed professional engineers. In Texas, for example, about 37 percent of licenses are for civil engineers, with civil engineering exams making up more than half of the exams taken.[13][14] Many of the remainder are mechanical, electrical, and structural engineers whose practice involves areas that states regulate, such as HVAC, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection systems for buildings or public infrastructure. However, some engineers in other fields obtain licenses for the ability to serve as professional witnesses in courts, before government committees or just for prestige—even though they may never actually sign and seal design documents.

Since regulation of the practice of engineering is performed by the individual states in the U.S., areas of engineering involved in interstate commerce are essentially unregulated. These areas include much of mechanical, aerospace, and chemical engineering—and may be specifically exempted from regulation under an "industrial exemption." An industrial exemption covers engineers who design products such as automobiles that are sold (or have the potential to be sold) outside the state where they are produced, as well as the equipment used to produce the product. Structures subject to building codes are not covered by an industrial exemption, though small residential buildings often do not require an engineer's seal. In many jurisdictions, the role of architects and structural engineers overlap.

Many private companies employ non-degree workers in technical positions with engineering titles such as "test engineer" or "field engineer." At the company's discretion, such positions may not require an engineering degree.

However, it is important to make a distinction between a "graduate engineer" and a "professional engineer" or "licensed engineer." A "graduate engineer" is anyone holding a degree in engineering from an accredited four-year university program, but is not licensed to practice or offer services to the public. Unlicensed engineers usually work as employees for a company, or as professors in engineering colleges, where they are governed under the industrial exemption clause. Some states, such as Ohio and New Jersey, prohibit the use of the term "engineer" by an unlicensed person unless it is part of the internal classification of their employer.[15] Also, engineering consulting companies are required by law that the CEO or chief engineer who oversees all works or project must be a licensed engineer.

Canada

In Canada the designation "professional engineer" can only be used by licensed engineers and the practice of engineering is protected in law and strictly enforced in all provinces. The regulation and licensing of engineers are accomplished through a self-governing body that is given the power to license and discipline professional engineers, as well as regulate the practice of the professional engineers in their province, such as Professional Engineers Ontario. A self-governing body's prime purpose is to protect the public. An engineering license and the award of the title "professional engineer" grants the right to practice as a professional engineer. Many of these associations are also responsible for regulating other related professions. The process for registration is generally as follows:

  1. Graduate with a degree from an accredited program in engineering or applied science, accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB).[citation needed]
  2. Complete an engineer-in-training (EIT) or engineering internship program under the direction of a professional engineer. With the exception of Quebec, this is a minimum four-year program.[16]
  3. Review of work experience by the association.
  4. Pass a professional practice exam,[17] the content and format of which differs by province.

Professional engineers are not licensed in a specific discipline but are bound by their respective provincial code of ethics (e.g. in Ontario: Professional Engineers Act R.R.O. 1990, Regulation 941) from practicing beyond their training and experience. Breaches of the code are often sufficient grounds for enforcement measures, which may include the suspension or loss of license, and financial penalties. It could also result in serving time jail, should negligence be shown to have played a part in any incident that causes loss of human life.

Engineers are not tested on technical knowledge during the licensing process if their education was accredited by the CEAB. Accreditation of schools and their accredited degree granting status are monitored and controlled. This accreditation process is governed by Engineers Canada through their active group CEAB.

The accreditation process is continuous and enforced through regular accreditation reviews of each school. These reviews typically include the review of the school's curriculum (including marked final exams and assignments), interviews of current students, extracurricular activities and teaching staff as well additional areas the visiting board may feel need addressing. The specific areas considered are curriculum content, program environment and general criteria. The associations are granted both an exclusive right to title and an exclusive right to practice. There are only a few exceptions specifically noted in the acts—which do not include any "industrial exemptions." Therefore, a professional engineer is legally required to be registered. The level of enforcement varies depending on the specific industry. And, in some provinces, there is no requirement of having graduated from an accredited Canadian university in order to be a professional engineer.

The professional engineer's license is only valid in the province of delivery. There are, however, agreements between the associations to ease mobility. In 2009, professional engineers Ontario led an initiative to develop a national engineering licensing framework.

The term "engineer" is often used loosely in some Canadian industry sectors to describe people working in the field of engineering technology—not professional engineering—as engineering technologists or engineering technicians, and trades names such as stationary engineer. For example, the Canadian Coast Guard and the Canadian Navy often calls its technicians "marine engineers," "power engineers" and "military engineers" internally, but not in the public domain. The term "locomotive engineer" has been an integral part of the Canadian railroad since its inception. "Stationary engineering" is a trade whose technicians operate heavy machinery and equipment that provide heat, light, climate control and power.

United Kingdom

"In general there is no restriction on the right to practice as an engineer in the UK."[18] The title "engineer" is not regulated, but certain engineering titles are. There is no system for licensing, but registers are held of qualified persons. The Engineering Council is the U.K. regulatory body for its engineering profession. It holds the national registers of 235,000 engineers registered as EngTech (engineering technicians), ICTTech (information and communications technology technicians), IEng (incorporated engineers) and CEng (chartered engineers). These titles are fully protected under law by means of the Engineering Council's Royal Charter and By-Laws. In order to protect these titles, action is taken through the courts against their unauthorized use.

To receive designation as a CEng, it is required to have approved education (typically to Master's level)and also demonstrate significant technical and commercial leadership and management competencies.[19]

A chartered engineer is entitled to register through the European Federation of National Engineering Associations as a European Engineer and use the pre-nominal designation: Eur Ing.

India

In India, engineers with a bachelor's or master's degree in engineering or technology from a university are allowed to practice as consulting engineers—They must be licensed or registered with municipalities in order to submit public plans, designs or drawings for approval and record. The Institution of Engineers (India) was granted British Royal Charter in 1935, and admits engineers holding the above degrees as a corporate member (AMIE) or chartered engineer [India] : C.Eng. [India].

IE(India) also offers registration as a professional engineer (PE [India]) and international professional engineer (PE [Int'l]) to member-engineers having seven years of active practical engineering experience after achieving their degrees. IE(India) is a member of IPEA (International Professional Engineers Agreement) with bilateral agreements with many national, foreign and international engineering institutions. Many municipalities exempt chartered engineers (PE[India] or PE [Int'l]) from their licensure or registration, by reciprocity (comity). All such consulting engineers must be licensed, registered or chartered regardless of their discipline or area of practice.

Pakistan

In Pakistan, engineers with an engineering degree (BE/BSC/BS) from PEC accredited universities/institutes are allowed to practice as registered engineer. After 5 years of experience, they may take the Engineering Practice Examination (EPE) conducted by Pakistan Engineering Council. Those who pass the EPE are given registration.

Europe

Main article: European Engineer

The European Engineer (Eur Ing, EUR ING) is an international professional qualification for engineers used in many European countries. The title is granted after successful application to a national member of the European Federation of National Engineering Associations (FEANI), which includes representation from many European countries, including much of the European Union. It allows a person who has an engineering degree and usually an engineering professional qualification in one of the member countries to use the qualification in others, but this depends on local legislation.

The title Eur Ing is "pre-nominal," i.e., it is placed before rather than after the name as in the case of a post-nominal title such as those for academic degrees (however, in some EU countries, academic degrees are also pre-nominal). Names are also placed on the FEANI Register maintained by FEANI in additional to national member registers.

Another association in Europe is The EurEta. The professional title "Ing. EurEta" is used as a pre-nominal (similar to Dr. or Prof). An engineer registered with EurEta "European Higher Engineering and Technical Professionals Association" is called an "EurEta Registered Engineer," and has the right to use this title in Europe.[20]

Germany

In Germany academic title Dipl.-Ing. (diplom-ingenieur, diploma engineer) is awarded by the educational ministries of the federal states (the Bundesländer) after having completed an academic engineering education according to the German engineer's law (ingenieurgesetz); however, it is not a license to practice engineering, rather an academic title. The degrees Ing. grad. (graduierter ingenieur, graduate engineer) and obering (oberingenieur, supervisor engineer) are no longer awarded. The designation Dipl.-Ing. is recognized by FEANI as a precursor for registration as Eur Ing. "Dipl.-Ing." does not confer licensing by the government, and therefore is not equivalent to the steps of licensing (e.g., mandatory references, minimum work experience and a second theoretical and practical exam) conducted in other countries such as the U.K., Canada or the United States.

The state-certified engineer is a European Union qualification for a professional engineer of technology or professional engineering technologist—not to be confused with an engineering technician or Dipl.-Ing). It is granted to engineering technologists upon successful completion of a technical college and it is also granted by an international organization with headquarters in Germany, the Bundesverband höherer Berufe der Technik, Wirtschaft und Gestaltung e.V. ("Federal Association of Higher Professions for Technology, Economy and Design") or BVT.

EU Directive 2005L0036-EN 01.01.2007

ANNEX III List of regulated education and training referred to in the third subparagraph of Article 13(2)

http://www.scribd.com/doc/53286830/Directive-2005-36-EC

A member of the BVT is entitled to use the initials BVT after his name. To achieve this qualification, it is required to complete a 42-month apprenticeship program, a minimum 2,400 hour college diploma in engineering or technology, two years of relevant experience and pass the state examination. The academic requirement to be a state-certified engineer is a degree equivalent to level 6 on EQF = bachelor on the European Qualification Framework. A bachelors (honors) degree in engineering or engineering technology from an accredited university is also equated to level 6 on EQF. A state-certified engineer is not required to complete a university degree. Before Jan. 31, 2012, a state-certified engineer certificate usually qualified the holder to proceed to bachelor's level education at a university of applied science. In the past, this led to wide and controversial discussions between bachelors and masters degree engineers and state-certified engineers.

Today, this is on the same level as a bachelors degree. One can continue to study to a masters degree with the SCE qualification. The academic requirements for qualification are similar to incorporated engineer qualification/registration by EC UK. State-certified engineers now assist engineers with only a diploma or masters degree. They are also holding full engineering positions as systems engineers, integration engineers, test engineers, QA engineers, etc.

State-certified engineer, business manager and designer levels are now a level 6–Bachelor on DQF and EQF, as of Jan. 31, 2012. The following top representatives and agents institutions were involved: federal government (Federal Ministry for Education and Research, Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology), standing conference and economic ministerial meeting of countries, the Confederation of German Employers' Associations, German Chambers of Industry and Commerce, German Trade Union Federation and the Federal Institute for Vocational Application. They agreed on a common position on the implementation of the EQF, as a German qualifications framework (DQR).

Designations

Letters after or before a person's name (post-nominal or pre-nominal letters) are commonly used to denote the holder of an engineering license in various jurisdictions:

Africa

  • Ing. in Ghana (for engineers holding a B.Sc. or higher with relevant engineering experience) and a registered member of the Ghana Institute of Engineers (GhIE)
  • Pr.Eng. or Pr.Ing is used as a post-nominal in South Africa (for engineers holding a B.Eng., B.Sc. or B.Sc.Eng. with relevant experience). Pr.Tech.Eng. is used as a post-nominal in South Africa (for engineers holding a B.Tech. with relevant experience and three years of practising in the engineering field) "Pr.Tech.Eng" standing for professional engineering technologist; see Engineering Council of South Africa "Pr.Cert.Eng" standing for professional certificated engineer is used as a post-nominal for engineers who have registered with Engineering Council South Africa after passing the Engineers Certificate of Competence Examinations.
  • R.Eng standing for registered engineer in Kenya (Holders of five years of post-secondary engineering education and four years of work experience).
  • Eng. is used for engineers holding bachelor of science, bachelor of engineering (or higher) with relevant engineering experience in Egypt and must be a member in the Egyptian Syndicate of Engineers.
  • Engr is used as a pre-nominal in Nigeria (for holders of bachelor or higher degree in engineering with relevant experience and having successfully passed the Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE) Professional Exams and fulfill other NSE and Council for Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN) requirements)" [21]
  • R.Eng or CEng is used as post-nominal for registered engineers in Nigeria after fulfilling both NSE and COREN requirements.
  • Eng is used as a pre-nominal in Uganda for registered engineers. In Uganda, a registered engineer must as a prerequisite be a member of the Uganda Institution of professional engineers (UIPE) and must have a Bachelor of Science (or higher) in engineering together with relevant engineering experience that must be documented, supported by two registered engineers, and defended by the applicant in an interview with the Engineers' Registration Board (ERB), which has the power to confirm designation as a registered engineer. Annual fees must be paid to the ERB by all registered engineers.[22]

Australia and New Zealand

  • NPER is used as a post-nominal in Australia for engineers registered on the National Professional Engineers Register (NPER) and is subject to CPD requirements to maintain status. Registration is performed by the National Engineering Registration Board.[23]
  • RPEQ is used as a post-nominal in Queensland for registered professional engineers of Queensland and is subject to CPD requirements to maintain status. Registration and monitoring is performed by the Board of Professional Engineers of Queensland.[24] The BPEQ is said to be about to randomly check for compliance with the Queensland Professional Engineers Act 2002.[citation needed]
  • MIEAust is used as a post-nominal to designate a member of Engineers Australia. This indicates at least three years' experience beyond graduation, but does not imply chartered membership by itself.
  • CPEng is used as a post-nominal in Australia and New Zealand for chartered professional engineers, and subject to a rigorous competence based assessment and ongoing CPD requirements to maintain status.
  • FIEAust is used to designate a fellow (highest membership category) of Engineers Australia.

Asia

  • Mohandess Payeh 1 and Mohandess Payeh 2 are titles used respectively for professional engineer and engineer-in-training in Iran.
  • Ir is used as a pre-nominal in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Indonesia.
  • Er is used as a pre-nominal in Singapore and P.E. / P.Eng. ( professional engineer ) are used as post-nominal designations.
  • P.E.Jp as a pre-nominal in Japan.
  • Engr. or engineer is allowed before your name only if you have membership in IEB, in Bangladesh.
  • Engr. is used as a pre-nominal for engineers in Pakistan registered with the Pakistan Engineering Council after completing a four years bachelors of engineering/bachelors of science in engineering degree. R.E. / R.Engr. ( registered engineer ) and P.E. / P.Engr. ( professional engineer ) are used as post-nominal designations.
  • Mohandes is used as a pre-nominal in Arab countries like Iraq, Syria and Lebanon.
  • Eng. or .م as a pre-nominal in Jordan (for engineers holding a university degree in engineering after five years of studies).
  • Engr. or engineer is used as a pre-nominal in the Philippines for individuals passing the government regulated professional licensure examination, which is only given for certain fields of engineering.
  • CEng (Sri Lanka) is used in Sri Lanka as a post-nominal abbreviation by corporate members of the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka (IESL).
  • IEng. The term incorporated engineers is offered by the Institution of Incorporated Engineers, Sri Lanka.
  • CEng[India]used as post-nominal abbreviation in India by those who are registered as a chartered engineer [India] with Institution of Engineers [India].
  • Er. is used before their name by chartered engineers who hold the IE [India] designation, in India.
  • אינג' is used in Israel mostly by Master degree civil engineers.

Europe

  • Eur Ing, (EUR ING) (European engineer) in Europe, used as a pre-nominal (similar to Dr. or Prof.) after being suitably registered in their own country and then accepted by FEANI.
  • Ing.P.Eur (European professional engineer) in Europe, used as a pre-nominal.
  • Ing. (ingeniero) in Spain, used as a pre-nominal, for the engineers who have the equivalent to a master's degree as they studied five or six courses in an engineering superior school. There also exists an ingeniero técnico (I.T.), who is a professional that holds a degree and a minimum formation of three courses in an engineering official college. Both types of engineers have full competency in their respective professional field of engineering, being the difference that the three-year engineers have competence only in their specialty (mechanical, electrical, chemical, etc.) and the "engineering superior school" engineers have wider competences. The Bologna process changes this structure. The degree will require four courses and the superior engineering school engineers will equal the ones that hold a masters in engineering.
  • Eng. (Engenheiro) in Portugal, used as a pre-nominal. An engenheiro is a full chartered professional in engineering who was awarded a masters degree (2nd study cycle according to the Bologna process system) by an accredited engineering school. In Portugal there is also the engenheiro técnico who is a professional with a bachelor's degree (first study cycle) in engineering or engineering sciences. Accredited masters' degrees in engineering are regulated and certified by the Ordem dos Engenheiros (Order of Engineers), and every professional full chartered engineer is registered at the Ordem.
  • In Finland, regulation affects only academic degrees. In academic education, the degree of diplomi-insinööri (dipl. ins. or DI), officially translated "Master of Science (Technology)", is awarded by universities and universities of technology, and is preceded by an intermediate bachelor's degree (tekniikan kandidaatti) or equivalent studies. In vocational education, the degrees insinööri (amk) and ylempi insinööri (amk) are awarded by polytechnics.
  • In Germany the Dipl.-Ing. (diplom-ingenieur, diploma engineer) is awarded by the educational ministries of the federal states (the Bundesländer) after having completing an academic engineering education according to the German engineer's law (Ingenieurgesetz). The degrees Ing. grad. (graduierter ingenieur, graduate engineer) and Obering. (oberingenieur, supervisor engineer) are no longer awarded. (pre-nominal letters)
  • Ing. EurEta is used as a pre-nominal (similar to Dr. or Prof). An engineer registered with EurEta "European Higher Engineering and Technical Professionals Association" is called an "EurEta Registered Engineer", and has the right to use this title in Europe.[25]
  • State-certified Engineer BVT. These titles are the respective translations, authorized by the German Federal Government, of staatlich geprüfter techniker, in Europe.[26]
  • Ir. in the Netherlands (for engineers holding a master's degree from a university) or Ing. (for engineers holding a bachelor's degree from a professional school). (pre-nominal letters)
  • Ir. in Belgium (for engineers holding a masters degree in engineering/bio-engineering sciences from a university) or Ing. (for engineers holding a masters degree in applied engineering from other institutes of higher education). (pre-nominal letters)
  • Ing. in Italy used as a pre-nominal (for engineers holding a masters degree ) or Ing.jr (for engineers holding a bachelor's degree). A state exam is required. (pre-nominal letters) Registration is with the Consiglio Nazionale degli Ingegneri.
  • Siv. Ing. (sivilingeniør, master of science) and ing. (høyskoleingeniør, bachelor of science) in Norway. The titled is used by persons holding degrees from accredited engineering colleges and universities.
  • CEng (chartered engineer) and IEng (incorporated engineer) in the UK and Ireland. UK and Irish engineers may also carry post-nominal letters specific to their specialist engineering institute, such as MIET (professional engineers and graduate professionals registered with the Institution of Engineering and Technology). In the UK these are recognized as regulated qualifications and titles.[27]
  • Civ. Ing. in Denmark and Sweden (for engineers holding a master's degree in engineering, master of engineering, master of science in engineering) and högskoleingenjör in Sweden (for engineers holding a bachelors of science degree).
  • Ing. in Romania, used as a pre-nominal (similar to Dr. or Prof.).
  • Ing. for engineers holding a master's degree in Czech Republic and Slovak republic, used as a pre-nominal (similar to Mgr. = M.Sc.).
  • inż. and mgr inż. in Poland, inż., inżynier (engineer) is the title obtained after 3,5 years of technical studies; inżynier who obtained M.Sc. degree, uses mgr inż. (magister inżynier, literally: master engineer). The mgr degree can be obtained in two years post-graduate education, or formerly (until full adaptation of the Bologna process by university) through an integrated five-year bachelors of science/masters of science program. Some (particularly in the U.S.) mistakenly believe that "mgr inż." is some kind of separate degree, while in fact these are two degrees, regardless of how they were obtained. The degree in general includes license to practice, although some regulation may require additional registration to perform specific tasks (see pre-nominal letters).
  • маг. инж. (Mag. Inzh. from magister (master) engineer) in Bulgaria (for engineers holding a master's (magister) degree) or инж. (for engineers holding a bachelor's degree). (pre-nominal letters)
  • "Inġ." in Malta (for engineers holding a university degree and at least 3 years of experience).
  • "PEng (UK) in UK (for engineers members of Society of Professional Engineers UK).
  • "BVT in Germany (for engineers holding three and a half years of certified apprenticeship, followed by a minimum of a 2,400 hours degree and a minimum of two years of approved relevant experience, members of the federal Association of Higher Professionals for Technology, Economy and Design).
  • "Müh." or ""Mühendis" in Turkey. The titled is used by persons holding degree from 4 year study in accredited engineering universities.

Latin America

  • Ing. in most Spanish speaking countries (pre-nominal letters) (similar to Dr. or Prof): Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, México, Perú, Uruguay, Venezuela.
  • In Chile customary practice consists in placing the post-nominal term ingeniero civil plus the specialty area, such as ingeniero civil eléctrico, ingeniero civil en minería or ingeniero civil químico.
  • Eng. (engenheiro) customary practice in post-nominal terms such as: engenheiro civil, engenheiro mecânico, engenheiro eletricista, engenheiro florestal, engenheiro agrônomo, engenheiro de segurança do trabalho in Brazil. Registration by CONFEA/CREA in the federation states of Pará, Maranhão, Tocantins, São Paulo and others but to work in more than one state is possible only with "visto."
  • "R.Eng." registered engineer in Trinidad and Tobago, as accredited by the Board of Engineering of Trinidad and Tobago.

North America

  • PE or P.E. is used in the U.S. Individual states grant PE registration, which can sometimes be endorsed by other states.
  • P.Eng. is used in Canada, except in the province of Quebec. This is granted to specified technical educational degree holders residing in Canada, upon application and approval.
  • Eng. (French: ing.) is used in Quebec.

Title usage

In many countries, laws exist that limit the use of job titles containing the word "engineer."

Canada

In Canada it is illegal to practice engineering, or use the title "professional engineer", without a license. Engineering in Canada is regulated in the public interest by self-governing professional licensing bodies. These bodies were established by Canada's 13 provincial and territorial governments through legislation. The provincial and territorial governments have delegated their constitutional authority to regulate engineers and engineering in Canada to professional licensing bodies that are maintained and governed by the profession, creating a system of self-regulation.

The first law related to professional engineering in Ontario was created in 1922 and allowed for the creation of a voluntary association to oversee registration of engineers. The Act of 1922 was "open", meaning that membership in the association was not mandatory for practising engineers. In Ontario, regulation of engineering practice dates to 1937, when the Professional Engineers Act was amended and the engineering profession was "closed" to non-qualified individuals; that is, licensure was made mandatory for anyone practising professional engineering. The provincial government determined that it would be in the public interest to restrict the practice of engineering to those who were qualified, and the right to practice was "closed" to non-engineers as a result of the failures of bridges and buildings, which had been designed by unskilled individuals.

Self-regulation recognizes that the engineering profession itself, at the provincial and territorial level, is best positioned to regulate the practice of engineering in a manner that protects both the public and the environment. The licensing bodies fulfil this mandate by ensuring high standards of engineering practice and education in Canada, by setting high standards for admission into the profession, by disciplining engineers who fail to uphold the profession's practice and ethical standards, and by preventing the misuse of the title professional engineer by individuals who are not licensed members of the profession. They also take appropriate action to prevent the illegal practice of engineering by unlicensed individuals. Each licensing body's mandate and obligation to undertake this role is laid out in the act that created it. Although each act is slightly different, most also define a scope of practice for engineers and specifically restrict the use of the title professional engineer to individuals who have been licensed by the engineering licensing body in the province or territory where the act applies.

The use of the term engineer was an issue between professional bodies, the IT industry, and the security industry, where companies or associations may issue certifications or titles with the word engineer as part of that title (such as security engineer or Microsoft certified systems engineer). Microsoft has since changed the title to "Microsoft Certified IT Professional". Several licensing bodies for professional engineering contend that only licensed professional engineers are legally allowed to use the title engineer. The IT industry, on the other hand, counters that:

  1. These title holders never presented themselves as professional engineers
  2. Provincial laws, other than in Quebec and Ontario, regulate only the use of term professional engineer, and not any title with the word engineer; in Quebec and Ontario, the term engineer is protected by both the Engineers Act[28] and by Section 32 of the Professional Code[29]
  3. The IT industry has used the term engineer since the dawn of the computing industry in the 60s.[30]

Court rulings regarding the usage of the term engineer have been mixed. For example, after complaints were lodged by the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers, a court in Quebec fined Microsoft Canada $1,000 for misusing the "engineer" title by referring to MCSE graduates as engineers.[31] Conversely, an Alberta court dismissed the lawsuit filed by The Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists, and Geophysicists of Alberta (APEGGA) against Raymond Merhej for using the title "system engineer," claiming that, 'The respondent's situation is such that it cannot be contended that the public is likely to be deceived, confused or jeopardized by his use of the term...'"[32] APEGGA also lost the appeal to this decision.[33]

The Canadian Information Processing Society,[34] and in particular CIPS Ontario,[35] have attempted to strike a balance between the professional engineering licensing bodies and the IT industry over the use of the term engineer in the software industry, but so far no major agreements or decisions have been announced.

Additional confusion has taken place over similarly-named occupations. One such example is power engineers or stationary engineers. Graduates of a two-year college level power engineering technology program in Nova Scotia may use the title power engineer or stationary engineer. This conflicts with the title often used in the electrical industry for professional engineers who design related equipment and can cause confusion.

United States

In the United States, most states prohibit unlicensed persons from calling themselves an "engineer" or indicating branches or specialities not covered by the licensing acts.[citation needed]

The title "engineer" is legally protected in many states, meaning that it is unlawful to use it to offer engineering services to the public unless permission, certification, or other official endorsement is specifically granted by that state, through a professional engineering license, an "industrial exemption", or certain other non-engineering titles such as "operating engineer".[citation needed] Employees of state or federal agencies may also call themselves engineers if that term appears in their official job title. The IEEE's formal position on this is as follows: "The title, engineer, and its derivatives should be reserved for those individuals whose education and experience qualify them to practice in a manner that protects public safety. Strict use of the title serves the interest of both the IEEE-USA and the public by providing a recognized designation by which those qualified to practice engineering may be identified."[citation needed] It is generally a requirement in the United States to have at least a Bachelor of Science degree in an engineering discipline or related applied science to be considered an engineer and practice as such.[citation needed]

A business generally cannot offer engineering services to the public or have a name that implies that it does so unless it employs at least one professional engineer.

Due to industrial exemption many non-professional engineers are titled as engineers. Examples are production engineer, test engineer, integration engineer, network engineer, project engineer, systems engineer and sales engineer.

This is seen in engineering job advertisements on line and in news papers, most of the advertisements and employers don't require licensing due to the industrial exemption.[citation needed]

In the United States, use of the title professional engineer is restricted to those holding a professional engineer's license. These people have the right to add the letters PE after their names on resumes, business cards and other communication. However, each state has its own licensing procedure, and the license is valid only in the state that granted it.[citation needed]

Other uses of the term engineer are legally controlled and protected to varying degrees, dependent on the state and the enforcement of its engineering certification board. The term is frequently applied to fields where practitioners may have no engineering background, or the work has no basis in the physical engineering disciplines; for example sanitation engineer. However, in many jurisdictions, the usage of this term is limited to internal use by a company, rather than in a professional or marketing aspect, if said company is not licensed to perform engineering work. This is because what is legally recognized as engineering work (and thus requiring licensure to be practiced) is held to strict criminal liability.[36]

With regard to the term "software engineer", many states, such as Texas and Florida, have license requirements for such a title that are in line with the requirements for more traditional engineering fields.

United Kingdom

Engineering in the UK is not a licensed profession. In the UK, the term "engineer" is often applied to non-degreed vocations such as technologists, technicians, draftsmen, machinists, mechanics, plumbers, electricians, repair people, and semi-skilled occupations. Many of these occupations adopt the term "engineer", "professional engineer", "registered engineer", "gas engineer", "heating engineer", "drainage engineer", "automobile engineer", "aircraft engineer" and many hundreds of derivatives. British Gas describe their installation and maintenance mechanics as registered professional engineers. Most members of the UK public perceive the engineer and engineering as a semi-skilled trade and is often looked down upon with disdain. The work and identity of UK Chartered Engineers is often styled as science and scientists by the UK media causing public confusion. There are a few fields of practice, generally safety related, which are reserved by statute to licensed persons.[37]

The Engineering Council UK grants the titles "chartered engineer," "incorporated engineer," "engineering technician" and "information and communications technology technician." It also declares them to be "professional engineers."[38] The incorporated engineer is an engineer, as declared by the Engineering Council of the United Kingdom and the European definition of title under 2005/36/EC.[39] UK incorporated engineers are recognized internationally through the Sydney Accord academic agreement as engineering technologists.

According to the European Union's European Commission, chartered engineer is a regulated profession [40]

Competent authorities are responsible to take a decision when a professional from another member state wants to practice this regulated profession. In case of provision of service, the declaration must be sent to the U.K. Engineering Council prior to the provisioning of services.

All chartered and incorporated engineers in the U.K. are members of an engineering institution usually aligned with their undergraduate degree (mechanical, civil, chemical, electrical, aeronautical etc.). There are various levels of membership (including student, associate, member, fellow) with designation letters.

An example is Member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (MIET) (formerly Institution of Electrical Engineers). This category is open to professional engineers with suitable qualifications and involvement in areas relevant to the interests of the institution. MIET is a regulated professional title recognized in Europe by Directive 2005/36.[41] MIET is listed on the part 2 professions regulated by professional bodies incorporated by Royal Charter-Statutory Instruments 2007 No. 2781 Professional Qualifications-The European Communities (Recognition of Professional Qualifications) Regulations 2007.[42]

MIET Title: Electrical and computer (technology) engineer[43]

The U.K. has other "professional" engineering titles registered via the Engineering Council UK (ECUK): incorporated engineer (IEng) and chartered engineer (CEng).[44]

Incorporated engineer is a first-cycle qualification for bachelor of engineering or bachelor of science degree holders (Sydney Accord, equivalent to technologist). Chartered engineer is a second-cycle qualification usually reserved for holders of integrated master of engineering degrees . Both IEng and CEng require substantial professional experience (4–8 years post graduate), a professional review and an interview.

It is illegal in the U.K. to hold that one is a chartered or incorporated engineer unless so registered with the Engineering Council. The title of "engineer" by itself is not regulated in the U.K.[45]

While the Engineering Council is the primary body registering engineers in U.K., there are other professional societies that register engineers as well. Under its royal charter, Engineering Council grants licenses to engineering institutions allowing them to assess candidates for inclusion on its register of professional engineers and technicians, and to accredit academic programs and professional development schemes. There are more than 30 institutions licensed to register professional engineers with the Engineering Council.

Candidates can become a chartered engineer (CEng) or incorporated engineer (IEng) in the U.K. through programs administered by the City and Guilds London Institute. These programs lead to a City and Guilds graduate diploma in engineering and to a post-graduate diploma in engineering. They are recognized by IET for registration as CEng and IEng.

Europe and Latin America

  • Regulation and titling of engineers in Europe are handled differently by various countries. table.
  • In Germany and some other European and Latin American countries, the term diploma engineer implies that the person has completed typically one year of academic work beyond the basic bachelor of engineering degree, and completed a major academic project, similar to a master's thesis. Therefore, a diploma engineer is a university degree, and not a professional registration or license. However, in Germany and most other countries where the diploma engineer degree exist, there is no professional registration or license in engineering (with a very limited number of exceptions, such as civil engineering in Germany). For this reason, graduates holding these degrees are generally allowed to use the legally protected title of "engineer" within these countries. In Germany the usage of the term engineer (ingenieur) as such, not just the diplom-ingenieur, is protected by various länder (states of Germany) laws—because education matters are governed by the legislation of the länder, not the federal government. Although the details of the laws vary, they all properly restrict the usage of the term. Examples of such laws are listed in the endnotes.[46][47][48]
  • In France, the engineer title can be used pretty liberally, and is often attributed based on professional position rather than initial qualification. However, the title ingénieur diplomé (diploma engineer) is reserved to people having followed one of the trainings listed by the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur (Commission for Engineer Titles). It corresponds to a highly selective master degree level.
  • In Turkey title is limited by law for the people with an engineering degree from accredited engineering universities. Usage of the title by others (even those with much more work experience) is illegal and punishable by law.
  • In Chile, the ingeniero (engineer) title is regulated by law, which distinguishes at least three different kinds of professional engineering titles. First, the igeniería de ejecución, which only requires a degree in applied science and a technical degree from a university or a technical institute (usually four years total). Second, ingeniería, which requires a major degree in basic sciences plus a technical degree, both from a university (usually five years total). Third, ingeniería civil, which requires an academic major degree in basic sciences, a minor degree in applied sciences and a technical degree, all from a university (usually six or six and a half years total). In all cases, the term refers to a professional degree conceded by an educational institution, yet it can only be given by certain institutions when all legal requirements are met.
  • In Brazil, the title of engenheiro (engineer)—and in Argentina,[49] the title of ingeniero—can only be legally used by someone with a five- or six-year engineering degree. In Argentina most universities have a five or six-year engineering degree (Around 3,500–4,000 hours of classes or approx. 240–250 credits, where one credit equals 16 contact hours). Both countries concede the degree most commonly through universities, and sometimes through certain institutions.

Asia

  • In Pakistan, use of the titles "registered engineer" or "professional engineer" is reserved for those holding a license from the Pakistan Engineering Council. These people are given the rights to use the prefix Engr. or engineer as prefix and the postfix RE or PE, depending on their status of registration with the council.

International professional bodies

The AACE, a professional body for cost engineers, explains why a technical engineering background is not required for their profession with the following statement:[50]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Layton, Edwin (1986). The Revolt of the Engineers: Social Responsibility and the American Engineering Profession. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3287-X.  (pp. 6–7)
  2. ^ NSPE. "NSPE Ethics in Employment Task Force Report". Archived from the original on 2006-09-27. Retrieved 2006-10-20. 
  3. ^ Layton (1986). pp. 238–239.
  4. ^ "Licensure by Comity". National Society of Professional Engineers. 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  5. ^ "Model Law" (php). National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-05. 
  6. ^ 59 Okla. Stat. Sec. 475.12. Retrieved 16 August 2006 from Oklahoma state board of licensure for professional engineers and land surveyors.
  7. ^ NCEES. "Exam Pass Rates". Retrieved 2010-07-10. 
  8. ^ "PE exam". 
  9. ^ American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) (2001) Academic Prerequisites for Licensure and Professional Practice. Policy Statement 465.
  10. ^ American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC) (2007) White Paper on Implementation of Additional Engineering Education Requirements as a Prerequisite for Licensure, [1]
  11. ^ "Exam Waiver Requirements". Texas Board of Professional Engineers. 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-21. 
  12. ^ http://sections.asme.org/nwhss/TBPE/May04-Licensing.pdf
  13. ^ "Texas PE License Information Roster". Texas Board of Professional Engineers. 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-21. 
  14. ^ "Examination Pass/Fail Rates". Texas Board of Professional Engineers. 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-21. 
  15. ^ "Lawriter - ORC - 4733.021 - Restricting use of title engineer by itself or with other terms.". 
  16. ^ "A Cheminement permis". 
  17. ^ http://www.peo.on.ca/registration/ppe.html
  18. ^ Engineering Council Access to practice in the UK.
  19. ^ http://www.engc.org.uk/professional-registration/standards/uk-spec
  20. ^ "What-is-Eureta". 
  21. ^ "corenng.org". 
  22. ^ [2]
  23. ^ "National Engineering Registration Board". 
  24. ^ Board of Professional Engineers of Queensland
  25. ^ "Eureta". 
  26. ^ "Bundesverband höherer Berufe der Technik, Wirtschaft und Gestaltung e.V.". 
  27. ^ Regulated Professions in the UK. (UK) Department for children, schools and families. Accessed 2 November 2007.
  28. ^ http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/regs/english/elaws_regs_900941_e.htm
  29. ^ "Code of ethics of engineers". 
  30. ^ Andronache, Tatiana, The Importance of "Being Engineer".
  31. ^ "Engineers Canada". 
  32. ^ APEGGA website
  33. ^ ASET Technology Alberta, p. 2
  34. ^ "CIPS National - Canada's Association of Information Technology Professionals". 
  35. ^ "CIPS Ontario - Home". 
  36. ^ "What Do You Mean I Can’t Call Myself a Software Engineer?". 
  37. ^ ECUK – About the International Registers
  38. ^ Gas fitters are also declared as registered "professional engineers" by the British Gas utility.C&IEWeb06
  39. ^ "Engineer". Regulated professions database. European Commission. Retrieved 25 January 2010. 
  40. ^ "The EU single market". 
  41. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/qualifications/regprof/index.cfm?fuseaction=regprof.show&RPId=12286 qualifications
  42. ^ "The European Communities (Recognition of Professional Qualifications) Regulations 2007". 
  43. ^ "Member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (United Kingdom)". 
  44. ^ "The European Communities (Recognition of Professional Qualifications) (First General System) Regulations 2005". UK Office of Public Sector Information. 2005. Retrieved 2006-07-19. 
  45. ^ "Engineering Council UK website, FAQ page". Engineering Council UK. 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-17. 
  46. ^ Niedersächsisches Ingenieurgesetz (NIngG) in der Neufassung vom 12.7.2007 (Nds.GVBl. 21/2007 S.324; ber. Nds.GVBl. 26/2007 S.434), geändert durch Art. 2 des Gesetzes v. 10.12.2008 (Nds.GVBl. Nr.25/2008 S.370)
  47. ^ Gesetz zum Schutze der Berufsbezeichnung "Ingenieur" und "Ingenieurin" – Ingenieurgesetz – IngG – (BayRS 702-2-W), zuletzt geändert durch § 1 des Gesetzes vom 24. März 2010 (GVBl S. 138)
  48. ^ Brandenburg.de, Brandenburgisches Ingenieurgesetz (BbgIngG) Vom 29. Juni 2004 (GVBl.I/04, [Nr. 15], S.326), zuletzt geändert durch Artikel 2 des Gesetzes vom 11. März 2010 (GVBl.I/10, [Nr. 15])
  49. ^ "Centro Argentino de Ingenieros". 
  50. ^ "what is cost engineering?". Archived from the original on 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 

External links