"Chateleine bag: a bag suspended from a waistband by cord or chain, very popular from the 1860s until the end of the century."
Chatelaines were worn by many housekeepers in the 19th century and in the 16th century Dutch Republic, where they were typically used as watch chains for the most wealthy. Similar jewellery was also worn by Anglo Saxon women, as seen from the burial record, but its function is uncertain. The name chatelaine derives from the French term châtelaine and was originally used disparagingly, as it referred to a device designed to have all the tools necessary for the woman of the household to sort out any problem she may encounter in her day, like a fraying curtain.
Ancient Roman women wore chatelaines with ear scoops, nail cleaners, and tweezers. Women in Roman Britain wore 'chatelaine brooches' from which toilet sets were suspended.
The chatelaine was also used as a woman's keychain in the 19th century to show the status of women in a household. The woman with the keys to all the many desks, chest of drawers, food hampers, pantries, storage containers, and many other locked cabinets was "the woman of the household." As such, she was the one who would direct the servants, housemaids, cooks and delivery servicemen and would open or lock the access to the valuables of the house. On the chatelaine would hang the keys which gave her the authority over who could access what within the household. Frequently this hostess was the senior woman of the house. When a woman married a son and moved into his father's house, the son's mother would usually hold on to the keys. However, if the mother became a widow, the keys and their responsibilities and status were often passed to the oldest son's wife. Younger women and daughters in the house often wanted the appearance of this responsibility, and would often wear a pretty chatelaine without the keys, but with a variety of other objects instead. Especially bright and glittering objects that could be used to start a conversation were attached instead of the keys. Absent a woman of the house, the controller of the keys was often a hired housekeeper.
^Victoria and Albert Museum, Natalie Rothstein, Madeleine Ginsburg, Avril Hart, Valerie D. Mendes, and Philip Barnard. 1984. Four hundred years of fashion. London: Victoria and Albert Museum in association with W. Collins. Page 174.