Chauvinism, in its original and primary meaning, is an exaggerated, bellicose patriotism and a belligerent belief in national superiority and glory. It is an eponym of a French soldier Nicolas Chauvin who was credited with many superhuman feats in the Napoleonic wars.
By extension, it has come to include an extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of any group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards rival groups. Jingoism is the British parallel form of this French word, when referring to nation.
Chauvinism as nationalism 
In "Imperialism, Nationalism, Chauvinism", in The Review of Politics 7.4, (October 1945), p. 457, Hannah Arendt, the political theorist, describes the concept:
Chauvinism is an almost natural product of the national concept in so far as it springs directly from the old idea of the "national mission." ... [A] nation's mission might be interpreted precisely as bringing its light to other, less fortunate peoples that, for whatever reason, have miraculously been left by history without a national mission. As long as this concept did not develop into the ideology of chauvinism and remained in the rather vague realm of national or even nationalistic pride, it frequently resulted in a high sense of responsibility for the welfare of backward people.
Technical Chauvinism has been used for those examples where inventors of a particular nationality have been idolised, one case being that of the ship's propeller. It had no sole inventor, but claims have been made for the Swede John Ericsson and the Czech Josef Ressel. The latter even has a national monument to him.
Male chauvinism 
As sexism 
Male chauvinism is the belief that men are superior to women. This is closely associated with sexism and misogyny, and other forms of believing that women are inferior to men, especially intellectually.
Male chauvinism has been defined as a "blind allegiance and simple minded devotion to one's maleness that is mixed with open or disguised belligerence toward women. It is also usually associated with an unconscious ritual to ward off anxiety engendered by these same women." 
Male chauvinism in the workplace 
The balance of the workforce changed during World War II through the dramatic rise of women’s participation as men left their positions to enlist in the military and fight in the war. After the war ended and men returned home to find jobs in the workplace, male chauvinism was on the rise. Previously, men had been the main source of labour, and they expected to come back to their previous employment, but women had stepped into many of their positions to fill the void.
As they integrated back into the workforce, men returned to predominantly holding positions of power, and women worked as their secretaries, usually typing dictations and answering telephone calls. This division of labor was understood and expected, and women typically felt unable to challenge their position or male superiors. There is less chauvinism seen in the general modern workplace, though it is still found in more personal relationships within businesses.
Male chauvinism in the home 
Michael Korda, author of Male Chauvinism! How It Works, compared chauvinistic husbands to the hedgehog from a well-known Russian fable, The Hedgehog and the Fox; they have one way of thinking, and it is so engrained that they cannot change it. Chauvinistic men see marriage as a particular type of relationship, with defined responsibilities for each spouse. These expectations often match culturally endorsed Gender Roles with women expected stay home to cook, clean, and raise children, and men to work outside of the home, and are permitted to have whatever job they choose.
Religio-cultural and geographic spread 
Male chauvinism is seen in different cultures. It is a classical concept of the Jewish religious tradition, and the Christian faith has long been criticized for the general superiority complex of males.Although Hindu religion and Indian cultural practice does not strictly dictate the status of women, many conservative leaders and gurus continue to hold and espouse deeply misogynistic views publicly, leading to clashes with more liberal Indians, both verbal and otherwise.
Role of women in perpetuating male chauvinism 
Some women are comfortable with being subjugated and/or relieved from positions of responsibility by men, and do not feel comfortable when they or other women are in power or authority. Such attitudes may be passed on to children, including female children, and lead to self-perpetuation. These attitudes may have resulted from centuries of historical or religious conditioning into the subservient role, or may be a backlash to the feminist movement of the past century, but creditable research on this topic is rare to non-existent.
Causes of male chauvinism 
Ann Turkel believes that chauvinistic attitudes of men stem from the early mother-child relationship, and that the concept of breast envy in men is crucial to understanding the connection between envy and devaluation, and thus the root of chauvinistic attitudes in men. Devaluation is a defense mechanism for envy.
Chauvinism is also seen as an influential factor in some psychological personality tests, such as the TAT. Through cross-examinations, the TAT exhibits a tendency toward chauvinistic stimuli for its questions and has the “potential for unfavorable clinical evaluation” for women.
An often cited study done in 1976 by Sherwyn Woods, Some Dynamics of Male Chauvinism, attempts to find the underlying causes of "male chauvinism."
- Male chauvinism was studied in the psychoanalytic therapy of 11 men. It refers to the maintenance of fixed beliefs and attitudes of male superiority, associated with overt or covert depreciation of women. Challenging chauvinist attitudes often results in anxiety or other symptoms. It is frequently not investigated in psychotherapy because it is ego-syntonic, parallels cultural attitudes, and because therapists often share similar bias or neurotic conflict. Male chauvinism was found to represent an attempt to ward off anxiety and shame arising from one or more of four prime sources: unresolved infantile strivings and regressive wishes, hostile envy of women, oedipal anxiety, and power and dependency conflicts related to masculine self-esteem. Mothers were more important than fathers in the development of male chauvinism, and resolution was sometimes associated with decompensation in wives.
Female chauvinism 
Female chauvinism is the symmetrical attitude that women are superior to men. The term female chauvinism has been adopted by critics of some types or aspects of feminism; second-wave feminist Betty Friedan is a notable example. Ariel Levy used the term in similar, but opposite sense in her book, Female Chauvinist Pigs, in which she argues that many young women in the United States and beyond are replicating male chauvinism and older misogynist stereotypes.
See also 
|Look up chauvinism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Oxford English Dictionary
- The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. Retrieved 4 December 2008. "Chauvinism is "fanatical, boastful, unreasoning patriotism" and by extension "prejudiced belief or unreasoning pride in any group to which you belong." Lately, though, the compounds male chauvinism and male chauvinist have gained so much popularity that some users may no longer recall the patriotic and other more generalized meanings of the words."
- Korda, Michael. Male Chauvinism! How It Works. New York: Random House, 1973. Print.
- Turkel, Ann Ruth. Reflections on the Development of Male Chauvinism. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 52.3 (1992): 263. Web. 31 Jan 2012.
- Lloyd, Cynthia B., ed. Sex, Discrimination, and the Division of Labor. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975. Print.
- Daniel, Frank Jack; Bhattacharjya, Satarupa (9 January 2013). "Asaram Bapu's view on Delhi rape raises anger, but shared by many". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
- "Activists slam Asaram Bapu for his comments on Delhi gang-rape incident". Times Of India. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
- "Post-Delhi gangrape comments, Asaram Bapu's camp vandalised, visit to Kumbh Mela opposed". Indian Express. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
- Epstein, Angela (10 January 2008). "I'm a FEMALE male chauvinist - and proud of it". Mail Online. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
- Reifenberg, Anne (May 20, 1993). "To Muslim Women, Male Dominance Holy". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
- Potkay, Charles R., Matthew R. Merrens. Sources of Male Chauvinism in the TAT. Journal of Personality Assessment, 39.5 (1975): 471-479. Web. 31 Jan 2012.
- Woods, Sherwyn M. (January 1976). "Some Dynamics of Male Chauvinism". Archives of General Psychiatry 33 (1): 63. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770010037007.
- "If I were a man, I would strenuously object to the assumption that women have any moral or spiritual superiority as a class. This is [...] female chauvinism." Friedan, Betty. 1998. It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement. Harvard University Press
- Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture, Ariel Levy, 2006, ISBN 0-7432-8428-3