|- City -|
Location of the Chuvash Republic in Russia
|City Day||Third Sunday of August|
|Administrative status (as of December 2011)|
|Federal subject||Chuvash Republic|
|Administratively subordinated to||city of republic significance of Cheboksary|
|Capital of||Chuvash Republic|
|Administrative center of||city of republic significance of Cheboksary|
|Municipal status (as of November 2011)|
|Urban okrug||Cheboksary Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Cheboksary Urban Okrug|
|Head||Nikolay Yemelyanov|
|Representative body||City Assembly of Deputies|
|Population (2010 Census)||453,721 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||39th|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|First mentioned||1469|
|Postal code(s)||428xxx|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 8352|
Cheboksary (Russian: Чебоксары; IPA: [tɕɪbɐˈksarɨ]; Chuvash: Шупашкар, Šupaškar) is the capital city of the Chuvash Republic, Russia and a port on the Volga River. Population: 453,721 (2010 Census); 440,621 (2002 Census); 419,592 (1989 Census).
Cheboksary was first mentioned in written sources in 1469, when Russian soldiers passed here on their way to the Khanate of Kazan. According to archaeological excavations, however, the area had been populated considerably earlier. The site hosted a Bulgarian city of Veda Suvar, which appeared after Mongols defeated major Volga Bulgarian cities in 13th century. During Khanate period the town is believed by some[who?] to have had a Turkic (probably, Tatar) name Çabaqsar and that the current Russian and English names originate from it. However, in maps by European travelers it was marked as Cibocar (Pizzigano, 1367), Veda-Suar (Fra Mauro, 1459). Shupashkar, the Chuvash name literally means the "fortress" of the Chuvash.
In 1555, the Russians built a fortress and established a settlement here. In 1625, there were 458 soldiers quartered in Cheboksary, and in 1646 there were 661 males living in the settlement. At the end of the 17th century, Cheboksary was regarded as a major commercial city of the Volga region, and in 1781 it received the status of a city of the Kazan province. In the beginning of the 19th century the population was about 5500, the town had a sawmill and several small manufactures.
Cheboksary also was noted for its twenty-five churches and four monasteries, and Cheboksary bells were known in London and Paris.
In the 16th and the first half of the 17th century the Vvedensky cathedral, four monasteries and eighth churches had been built, in the 18th century the stone buildings of treasury and archive, magistracy, court, and ten churches. In 1880, here were counted 783 houses (33 of them from stone), 91 stores, 3 schools, 2 hospitals, and a bank.
In the beginning of the 20th century, 5,100 people lived in Cheboksary. In 1965, the population was 163,000.
Administrative and municipal status 
Cheboksary is the capital of the republic. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two urban-type settlements and two rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Cheboksary—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Cheboksary is incorporated as Cheboksary Urban Okrug.
City divisions 
Like many Russian cities, Cheboksary possesses many cultural opportunities. There is an opera-ballet theater, a philharmonic orchestra, Chuvash State Puppet Theater and numerous theaters (showing productions in both Russian and Chuvash languages). However, a very popular gathering place for the locals is the recently completed zaliv (bay), beautifully situated in the middle of the city. There people gather to stroll, visit cafes, and socialize. Cheboksary also has beautiful boardwalks and beaches along the Volga River, where people swim in the summer. There are also a number of heated pools, health clubs, and museums (including the Chuvash National Museum and Russia's only beer museum).
Cheboksary hosted a language festival in 1996.
Cheboksary is located near a hydro-electric power station generating up to 1,404 MW, with a reservoir of 2,274 square kilometers (878 sq mi). Cheboksary is the location of the headquarters of the Concern Tractor Plants, Russia's leading machine building company and one of the largest heavy mechanical engineering companies in the world.
The Cheboksary Airport (IATA CSY, ICAO UWKS, international airport since 1995) receives both cargo and passenger aircraft of practically all types and sizes. There are regularly scheduled flights to Moscow and other destinations. Chuvashia Airlines is based at this airport. Cheboksary is located about a four-hour drive from Nizhny Novgorod, a city with international air connections through Lufthansa.
Because the Volga River runs through Chuvashia, Cheboksary is a frequent stop on the many boat tours that travel along the major cities up and down the Volga. To the south, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and Black Sea are directly reachable. To the west, the Volga River connects Cheboksary with Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Moscow, and the northern regions of Russia. By using river-sea vessels, it is possible to take cargo from Chuvash riverports all the way to Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk (on the Black Sea), Astrakhan, and ports situated on the Danube river. However, the river is frozen from December to April.
Public transportation within Cheboksary is among the best in Russia. An extensive system of trolleybuses, autobuses, and minibuses covers the city, providing quick, convenient access to all parts of the city. For those who prefer taxis, there are several taxi agencies available, but the favorite means of transportation among locals are so-called "Gypsy" cabs. In Russia, anybody who owns a car is potentially a taxi. This can be a convenient way to get around but it is also potentially dangerous. Official taxis cost less than 6 dollars for travel between most points within the city.
|Climate data for Cheboksary|
|Average high °C (°F)||−9.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−16.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||30
|Source: worldweather.org |
International relations 
Twin towns and sister cities 
Cheboksary is twinned with:
Also a partnership is shown with:
- Law #28
- Law #37
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Steven Brown and Olin Lagon (2001-06). "Economic Overview of the Republic of Chuvashia". United States Peace Corps Business Development Volunteers in Chuvashia. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- "Company Profile". Concern Tractor Plants. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
- Cheboksary will be soon twinned with Rundu
- Государственный Совет Чувашской Республики. Закон №28 от 19 декабря 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чувашской Республики», в ред. Закона №95 от 5 декабря 2011 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Чувашской Республики в связи с изменением наименования должности высшего должностного лица Чувашской Республики». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости Государственного Совета ЧР", №23, 1998. (State Council of the Chuvash Republic. Law #28 of December 19, 1997 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Chuvash Republic, as amended by the Law #95 of December 5, 2011 On Amending Several Legislative Acts of the Chuvash Republic Due to the Change of the Title of the Chief Executive Position of the Chuvash Republic. Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Государственный Совет Чувашской Республики. Закон №37 от 24 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Чувашской Республики и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения, муниципального района и городского округа», в ред. Закона №80 от 25 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Чувашской Республики "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Чувашской Республики и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения, муниципального района и городского округа"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Республика", №49-50, 30 ноября 2004 г. (State Council of the Chuvash Republic. Law #37 of November 24, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of the Chuvash Republic and on Granting Them Status of Urban, Rural Settlement, Municipal District, and Urban Okrug, as amended by the Law #80 of November 25, 2011 On Amending the Law of the Chuvash Republic "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of the Chuvash Republic and on Granting Them Status of Urban, Rural Settlement, Municipal District, and Urban Okrug". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication date.).
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