Checkmate

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For other uses, see Checkmate (disambiguation).
Black is checkmated—the game is over.

Checkmate (often shortened to mate) is a game position in chess (and in other board games of the chaturanga family) in which a player's king is in check (threatened with capture) and there is no way to remove the threat. Checkmating the opponent wins the game.

In chess the king is never actually captured – the game ends as soon as the king is checkmated. In master and serious amateur play, most players resign an inevitably lost game before being checkmated, and it is considered bad etiquette to continue playing in a completely hopeless position.[1][2]

If a player is not in check but has no legal move, then it is stalemate, and the game immediately ends in a draw. A checkmating move is recorded in algebraic notation using the hash symbol (#) – for example, 34.Qh8#.


Examples[edit]

A checkmate may occur in as few as two moves with all of the pieces still on the board (as in Fool's mate, in the opening phase of the game), in a middlegame position (as in the 1956 game called the Game of the Century between Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer),[3] or after many moves with as few as three pieces in an endgame position.

Fool's Mate
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
c8 black bishop
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
e5 black pawn
g4 white pawn
h4 black queen
f3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
e2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white king
f1 white bishop
g1 white knight
h1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
White has been checkmated[4]
D. Byrne vs. Fischer
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
b8 white queen
f7 black pawn
g7 black king
c6 black pawn
g6 black pawn
b5 black pawn
e5 white knight
h5 black pawn
b4 black bishop
h4 white pawn
b3 black bishop
c3 black knight
c2 black rook
g2 white pawn
c1 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
White is checkmated after 41...Rc2#[5]
Checkmate with a rook
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
f5 white king
h5 black king
h1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Black is checkmated[6]

Etymology[edit]

The term checkmate is, according to the Barnhart Etymological Dictionary, an alteration of the Persian phrase "shāh māt" (شاه مات) which means, literally, "the King is helpless".[7] Others maintain that it means "the King is dead", as chess reached Europe via the Islamic world, and Arabic māta (مَاتَ) means "died" or "is dead".[8][9] However, in the Pashto language (an Iranian language), the word māt (مات) still exists meaning "destroyed, broken".

Moghadam traced the etymology of the word mate. It comes from a Persian verb mandan (ماندن), meaning "to remain", which is cognate with the Latin word maneō and the Greek menō (μενω, which means "I remain"). It means "remained" in the sense of "abandoned" and the formal translation is "surprised", in the military sense of "ambushed".[10] "Shāh" (شاه) is the Persian word for the monarch. Players would announce "Shāh" when the king was in check. "Māt" (مات) is a Persian adjective for "at a loss", "helpless", or "defeated". So the king is in mate when he is ambushed, at a loss, helpless, defeated, or abandoned to his fate.[11]

In modern parlance, the term checkmate is a metaphor for an irrefutable and strategic victory.[12]

History[edit]

In early Sanskrit chess (c. 500–700) the king could be captured and this ended the game. The Persians (c. 700–800) introduced the idea of warning that the king was under attack (announcing check in modern terminology). This was done to avoid the early and accidental end of a game. Later the Persians added the additional rule that a king could not be moved into check or left in check. As a result, the king could not be captured,[13] and checkmate was the only decisive way of ending a game.[14]

Before about 1600 the game could also be won by capturing all of the opponent's pieces, leaving just a bare king. This style of play is now called annihilation or robado.[citation needed] In Medieval times players began to consider it nobler to win by checkmate, so annihilation became a half-win for a while, until it was abandoned.[14]

Two major pieces[edit]

Chess kll45.svg Chess qll45.svg Chess rll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg

Two major pieces (queens or rooks) can easily force checkmate on the edge of the board. The process is to put the two pieces on adjacent ranks or files and gradually force the king to the side of the board, where one piece keeps the king on the edge of the board while the other delivers checkmate.[15] In the illustration, white checkmates by forcing the black king to the edge, one row at a time. The same process can also be used to checkmate with two rooks, or with two queens.[15]

Checkmate using a queen and rook. 1. Qg5+ Ke4 2. Rf4+ Ke3 3. Qg3+ Ke2 4. Rf2+ Ke1 5. Qg1#[16]

Basic checkmates[edit]

There are four fundamental checkmates when one side has only his king and the other side has only the minimum material needed to force checkmate, i.e. (1) one queen, (2) one rook, (3) two bishops on opposite-colored squares, or (4) a bishop and a knight. The king must help in accomplishing all of these checkmates. If the superior side has more material, checkmates are easier.[17]

The checkmate with the queen is the most common, and easiest to achieve. It often occurs after a pawn has queened. A checkmate with the rook is also common, but a checkmates with the two bishops and with a bishop and knight only occur infrequently. The two bishop checkmate is fairly easy to accomplish, but the bishop and knight checkmate is difficult and requires precision.[citation needed]

King and queen[edit]

Chess kll45.svg Chess qll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg

The first two diagrams show representatives of the basic checkmate positions with a queen, which can occur on any edge of the board. Naturally, the exact position can vary from the diagram. In the first of the checkmate positions, the queen is directly in front of the opposing king and the white king is protecting its queen. In the second checkmate position, the kings are in opposition and the queen mates on the rank (or file) of the king.

Support mate
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
c7 black circle
a6 black king
b6 white queen
c6 white king
c5 black circle
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
The white king can also be on c5 or c7[18]
Right triangle mate
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
h8 black circle
f6 white king
h6 black king
h4 black circle
h3 black circle
h2 black circle
h1 white queen
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
The white queen can also be on marked squares[19]
Cornered mate
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
g3 white king
a1 black circle
b1 black circle
c1 black circle
d1 black circle
e1 white queen
f1 black circle
h1 black king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
The white queen can also be on marked squares[19]
Outer row mate
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
h5 white queen
h3 black king
f2 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
e4 black king
a1 white queen
b1 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
White checkmates easily in this position.

With the side with the queen to move, checkmate can be forced in at most ten moves from any starting position, with optimal play by both sides, but usually fewer moves are required.[20][21] In positions in which a pawn has just promoted to a queen, at most nine moves are required.[22]

In the position at left, White checkmates by confining the black king to a rectangle and shrinking the rectangle to force the king to the edge of the board:

1. Qf6 Kd5 2. Qe7 Kd4 3. Kc2 Kd5 4. Kc3 Kc6 5. Kc4 Kb6 6. Qd7 Ka6 7. Qb5+ Ka7 8. Kc5 Ka8 9. Kc6 Ka7 10. Qb7#.[23]

Avoid stalemate[edit]

a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black king
c7 white queen
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Stalemate if Black is to move. The white queen blocks off all possible moves for black, regardless of where the white king is placed on the board.
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
c7 white queen
a6 black king
c5 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
This is a stalemate if Black is to move.

The superior side must be careful to not stalemate the opposing king, whereas the defender would like to get into such a position. There are two general types of stalemate positions that can occur, which the stronger side must avoid.[24]

King and rook[edit]

a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
d8 black king
g8 white rook
d6 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Checkmate with the rook (a right triangle mate)
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
f8 white rook
h8 black king
g6 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
A cornered checkmate with the rook[25]
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
e5 black king
e2 white king
e1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
White checkmates by boxing in the black king.
Chess kll45.svg Chess rll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg

The first diagram shows the basic checkmate position with a rook, which can occur on any edge of the board. The black king can be on any square on the edge of the board, the white king is in opposition to it, and the rook can check from any square on the rank or file (assuming that it can not be captured). The second diagram shows a slightly different position where the kings are not in opposition but the defending king must be in a corner.

With the side with the rook to move, checkmate can be forced in at most sixteen moves from any starting position.[24] Again, see Wikibooks – Chess/The Endgame for a demonstration of how the king and rook versus king mate is achieved.

In the third diagram position, White checkmates by confining the black king to a rectangle and shrinking the rectangle to force the king to the edge of the board:

1. Kd3+ Kd5 2. Re4 Kd6 3. Kc4! Kc6 4. Re6+ Kc7 5. Kc5 Kd7 6. Kd5 Kc7 7. Rd6 Kb7 8. Rc6 Ka7 9. Kc5 Kb7 10. Kb5 Ka7 11. Rb6 Ka8 12. Kc6 Ka7 13. Kc7 Ka8 14. Ra6# (second checkmate position, rotated).[26]

Avoid stalemate[edit]

There are two stalemate positions:[27]

a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black king
b7 white rook
c6 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
This is stalemate if Black is to move.
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black king
c8 white king
h7 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
This is stalemate if Black is to move.

King and two bishops[edit]

Chess kll45.svg Chess bll45.svg Chess bld45.svg Chess kdl45.svg
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black king
c7 white bishop
b6 white king
c6 white bishop
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Checkmate with two bishops
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
b8 black king
b7 white bishop
b6 white king
d6 white bishop
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
A second checkmate with two bishops

Here are the two basic checkmate positions with two bishops (on opposite-colored squares), which can occur in any corner. (Two or more bishops on the same color, which could occur because of pawn underpromotion, cannot checkmate.) The first is a checkmate in the corner. The second position is a checkmate in a side square next to the corner square. With the side with the bishops to move, checkmate can be forced in at most nineteen moves.[28] If the side with the bishops is to move, they can force checkmate except in some very rare positions.[29]

It is not too difficult for two bishops to force checkmate, with the aid of their king. Two principles apply:

  • The bishops are best when they are near the center of the board and on adjacent diagonals. This cuts off the opposing king.
  • The king must be used aggressively, in conjunction with the bishops.
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
d4 black king
c1 white bishop
d1 white king
f1 white bishop
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Two bishops (and king) can force checkmate (from Seirawan).

In the position from Seirawan, White wins by first forcing the black king to the side of the board, then to a corner, and then checkmates. It can be any side of the board and any corner. The process is:

1. Ke2 Ke4 (Black tries to keep his king near the center) 2. Be3 Ke5 (forcing the king back, which is done often) 3. Kd3 Kd5 4. Bd4 Ke6 5. Ke4 Kd6 (Black tries a different approach to stay near the center) 6. Bc4 (White has a fine position; the bishops are centralized and the king is active) 6... Kc6 (Black avoids going toward the side) 7. Ke5 Kd7 (Black is trying to avoid the a8-corner) 8. Bd5 (keeping the black king off c6) 8... Kc7 9. Bc5 Kd7 10. Bd6! (an important move that forces the king to the edge of the board) 10... Ke8 (Black is still avoiding the corner) 11. Ke6 (now the black king cannot get off the edge of the board) 11... Kd8 12. Bc6 (forcing the king toward the corner) 12... Kc8 (Black's king is confined to c8 and d8; the white king must cover a7 and b7) 13. Kd5 (13. Ke7? is stalemate) 13... Kd8 14. Kc5 Kc8 15. Kb6 Kd8 (now White must allow the king to move into the corner) 16. Bc5 Kc8 17. Be7! (an important move that forces the king toward the corner) 17... Kb8 18. Bd7! (the same principle as the previous move) 18... Ka8 19. Bd8 (White must make a move that gives up a tempo; this move is such a move, along with Bc5, Bf8, Be6, or Ka6) 19... Kb8 20. Bc7+ Ka8 21. Bc6# (as the first diagram in this section).[30]

Note that this is not the shortest forced checkmate from this position. Müller and Lamprecht give a fifteen-move solution, however it contains an inaccurate move by Black (according to endgame tablebases).[28]

Avoid stalemate[edit]

a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black king
c7 white bishop
b6 black cross
c6 white king
c4 white bishop
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
1. Kb6 would be stalemate (from Silman).

One example of a stalemate is this position, where 1. Kb6 (marked with the x) would be stalemate.[31]

King, bishop and knight[edit]

Chess kll45.svg Chess bll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg

Of the basic checkmates, this is the most difficult one to force, because these two pieces cannot form a linear barrier to the enemy king from a distance. Also, the checkmate can be forced only in a corner that the bishop controls.[29][32]

a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
h8 black king
f6 white bishop
g6 white king
h6 white knight
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
A checkmate with a bishop and knight
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
g8 black king
g7 white bishop
f6 white knight
g6 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
This is a second checkmate with a bishop and knight.

Two basic checkmate positions are shown with a bishop and a knight, or the bishop and knight checkmate.[33] The first position is a checkmate by the bishop, with the black king in the corner. The bishop can be on other squares along the diagonal, the white king and knight have to be on squares that attack g8 and h7. The second position is a checkmate by the knight, with the black king on a side square next to the corner. The knight can be on other squares that check the black king. The white king must be on a square to protect the bishop and cover a square not covered by the knight.

With the side with the bishop and knight to move, checkmate can be forced in at most thirty-three moves from any starting position,[34] except those in which the defending king is initially forking the bishop and knight and it is not possible to defend both. However, the mating process requires accurate play, since a few errors could result in a draw either by the fifty-move rule or stalemate.

Opinions differ as to whether or not a player should learn this checkmate procedure. James Howell omits the checkmate with two bishops in his book because it rarely occurs but includes the bishop and knight checkmate. Howell says that he has had it three times (always on the defending side) and that it occurs more often than the checkmate with two bishops.[35] On the other hand, Jeremy Silman includes the checkmate with two bishops but not the bishop plus knight checkmate because he has had it only once and his friend John Watson has never had it.[36] Silman says:

... mastering it would take a significant chunk of time. Should the chess hopeful really spend many of his precious hours he's put aside for chess study learning an endgame he will achieve (at most) only once or twice in his lifetime?

Avoid stalemate[edit]

a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a3 white knight
c3 white king
b1 black king
d1 white bishop
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
After 1.Na3+, 1...Kc1 draws because of stalemate if the bishop moves.

This position is an example of a stalemate, from the end of a 1966 endgame study by A. H. Branton. White has just moved 1.Na3+. If Black moves 1...Kc1 then White must move his bishop to save it because if the bishop is captured, the position is a draw because of the insufficient material rule. But after any bishop move, the position is a stalemate.[37]

Common checkmates[edit]

Back-rank mate[edit]

Main article: Back-rank checkmate
From Burgess, p. 16
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
d8 black cross
g8 black king
d7 white rook
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
White wins with 1.Rd8#.

A back-rank checkmate is a checkmate delivered by a rook or queen along a back rank (that is, the row on which the pieces [not pawns] stand at the start of the game) in which the mated king is unable to move up the board because the king is blocked by friendly pieces (usually pawns) on the second rank.[38] An example of a back-rank checkmate is shown in one of the diagrams. It is also known as the corridor mate.

Scholar's mate[edit]

Main article: Scholar's mate
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
f7 white queen
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
c6 black knight
f6 black knight
e5 black pawn
c4 white bishop
e4 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
e1 white king
g1 white knight
h1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Scholar's Mate – Black is checkmated.
Animation demonstrating Scholar's Mate


Scholar's Mate (also known as the four-move checkmate) is the checkmate achieved by the moves:

1. e4 e5 2. Qh5 Nc6 3. Bc4 Nf6? 4. Qxf7#

The moves might be played in a different order or in slight variation, but the basic idea is the same: the queen and bishop combine in a simple mating attack on f7 (or f2 if Black is performing the mate).[39] There are also other ways to checkmate in four moves.

Fool's mate[edit]

Main article: Fool's mate
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
c8 black bishop
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
e5 black pawn
g4 white pawn
h4 black queen
f3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
e2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white king
f1 white bishop
g1 white knight
h1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Fool's Mate – White is checkmated.
Animation demonstrating Fool's Mate


Fool's Mate, also known as the "Two-Move Checkmate", is the quickest possible checkmate. A prime example consists of the moves:

1. f3 e5 2. g4 Qh4#

resulting in the position shown.[40] (The pattern can have slight variations, for example White might play f2–f4 instead of f2–f3 or move the g-pawn first, and Black might play e7–e6 instead of e7–e5.)

Smothered mate[edit]

Main article: Smothered mate
Timman vs. Short, 1990[41]
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
e8 black rook
h8 black king
c7 black pawn
d7 white rook
e7 white pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
c6 black pawn
a5 black pawn
f5 black pawn
g5 white knight
c4 white queen
g4 black knight
a3 black queen
g3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
e2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
g1 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Smothered mate after 27.Nf7+ Kg8 28.Nh6+ Kh8 29.Qg8+ Rxg8 30.Nf7#
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
g8 black rook
h8 black king
c7 black pawn
d7 white rook
e7 white pawn
f7 white knight
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
c6 black pawn
a5 black pawn
f5 black pawn
g4 black knight
a3 black queen
g3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
e2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
g1 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Final position

A smothered mate is a checkmate delivered by a knight in which the mated king is unable to move because he is surrounded (or smothered) by his own pieces.[42]

The mate is usually seen in a corner of the board, since fewer pieces are needed to surround the king there. The most common form of smothered mate is seen in the diagram to the right. The knight on f7 delivers mate to the king on h8 which is prevented from escaping the check by the rook on g8 and the pawns on g7 and h7. Similarly, White can be mated with the white king on h1 and the knight on f2. Analogous mates on a1 and a8 are rarer, because kingside castling is the more common as it safely places the king closer to the corner than it would had the castling occurred on the queenside.

Rare checkmates[edit]

Chess kll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg Chess pdl45.svg

In some rare positions it is possible to force checkmate with a king and knight versus a king and pawn.

Stamma's mate[edit]

a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a3 black pawn
d3 white knight
a2 black king
c2 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
White wins by Stamma's mate, with either side to move.

In the diagram showing Stamma's mate (named for Philipp Stamma), White to move wins:[43]

1. Nb4+ Ka1 2. Kc1 a2 3. Nc2#

White also wins if Black is to move first:

1 ... Ka1 2. Nc1 a2 3. Nb3#
Nogueiras vs. Gongora
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
d7 white knight
a3 black pawn
a2 black king
d2 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
White to move wins.

This checkmate has occurred in actual games, see the game between Jesus Nogueiras and Maikel Gongora[44] from the 2001 Cuban Championship, (see diagram) which proceeded:

81. Kc2 Ka1 82. Nc5 Ka2
If 82... a2 then 83. Nb3#
83. Nd3
Reaching the position in the first diagram, with Black to move.
83... Ka1 84. Nc1
Black resigned here, but play would continue:
84... a2 85. Nb3#[45]
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a3 black pawn
a2 black king
c2 white king
d2 white knight
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
White wins.

A similar position with the Knight on d2 is more than 500 years old, identified as "Partito n. 23" by Luca Pacioli, in his MS De ludo scachorum (Latin for The game of chess), dated 1498 and recently reprinted (Gli scacchi) by Aboca Museum Edizioni.

1. Nf3 Ka1 2. Nd4 Ka2 3. Ne2 Ka1 4. Nc1 a2 5. Nb3#

Unusual mates[edit]

There are also positions in which a king and a knight can checkmate a king and a bishop, knight, or rook; or a king and a bishop can checkmate a king with a bishop on the other color of squares or with a knight, but the checkmate cannot be forced if there is no other material on the board (see the diagrams for some examples).[46] Nevertheless, it keeps these material combinations from being ruled a draw because of "insufficient mating material" or "impossibility of checkmate" under the FIDE rules of chess. The U.S. Chess Federation rules are different. In a typical position with a minor piece versus a minor piece, a player would be able to claim a draw if he has a limited amount of time left.[47]

Pandolfini
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
g8 black bishop
h8 black king
g6 white king
e5 white bishop
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Checkmate, but cannot be forced
Pandolfini
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
h8 black king
f7 white king
g7 white bishop
h7 black knight
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Checkmate, but cannot be forced
Pandolfini
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a3 white king
b3 white knight
a1 black king
b1 black bishop
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Checkmate, but cannot be forced
Pandolfini
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
g3 white knight
f2 white king
h2 black knight
h1 black king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Checkmate, but cannot be forced
 
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
b3 white knight
a2 black rook
a1 black king
c1 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Checkmate, but cannot be forced
 
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
h8 black king
f7 white king
f6 white knight
g6 white knight
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Checkmate, but cannot be forced


Two and three knights[edit]

Chess kll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg
Two knights
Main article: Two knights endgame
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
h8 black king
f7 white king
f6 white knight
g6 white knight
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Checkmate positions are possible to construct, but they cannot be forced.
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
b8 black king
a6 white knight
b6 white king
b5 white knight
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Checkmate cannot be forced. Here, ...Ka8? allows checkmate (Nbc7#), but ...Kc8! avoids it.
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
b3 white king
e2 white knight
b1 black king
d1 white knight
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
White cannot force checkmate because of stalemate


It is impossible to force checkmate with a king and two knights, although checkmate positions are possible (see the first diagram). In the second diagram, if Black plays 1... Ka8? White can checkmate with 2. Nbc7#, but Black can play 1... Kc8 and escape the threat. The defender's task is easy — he simply has to avoid moving into a position in which he can be checkmated on the next move, and he always has another move available in such situations.[48]

In the third diagram, one knight is guarding c1, leaving the other knight to try to checkmate. After 1.Nc3+ Ka1, White needs to get the knight on e2 to c2. But if White plays 2.Nd4, Black is stalemated.[49]

Under some circumstances, two knights and a king can force checkmate against a king and pawn (or rarely more pawns). The winning plan, quite difficult to execute in practice, is to blockade the enemy pawn(s) with one of the knights, maneuver the enemy king into a stalemated position, then bring the other knight over to checkmate.[49] (See two knights endgame.)

Three knights
Chess kll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess nll45.svg Chess kdl45.svg

Three knights and a king can force checkmate against a lone king within twenty moves (assuming that the lone king cannot quickly win a knight).[50] These situations are generally only seen in chess problems, since at least one of the knights must be a promoted piece, and there is very rarely a reason (e.g., avoidance of stalemate) to promote a pawn to anything other than a queen (see underpromotion).

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burgess 2009, p. 526
  2. ^ Hooper & Whyld 1992, p. 336
  3. ^ "D. Byrne vs. Fischer, 1956". Chessgames.com. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  4. ^ Kurzdorfer 2003, p. 92
  5. ^ Burgess, Nunn & Emms 2004, p. 216
  6. ^ Kurzdorfer 2003, p. 144
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas; Dan McCormack. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Archived from the original on September 29, 2005. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  8. ^ Hooper & Whyld 1992
  9. ^ Davidson 1949, p. 70
  10. ^ Davidson 1949, pp. 70–71
  11. ^ Murray 2012, p. 159
  12. ^ "Checkmate – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  13. ^ Davidson 1949, p. 22
  14. ^ a b Davidson 1949, pp. 63–64
  15. ^ a b Pandolfini 1988, pp. 18–20
  16. ^ Silman 2007, pp. 7–8
  17. ^ Silman 2007, p. 33
  18. ^ Pandolfini 2009, p. 22
  19. ^ a b Pandolfini 2009, p. 23
  20. ^ Fine & Benko 2003, pp. 1–2
  21. ^ Müller & Lamprecht 2001, p. 16
  22. ^ Levy & Newborn 1991, p. 144
  23. ^ Seirawan 2003, pp. 4–5
  24. ^ a b Fine & Benko 2003, p. 2
  25. ^ Pandolfini 2009, p. 36
  26. ^ Seirawan 2003, pp. 1–4
  27. ^ Fine & Benko 2003, pp. 2–3
  28. ^ a b Müller & Lamprecht 2001, p. 17
  29. ^ a b Speelman, Tisdall & Wade 1993, p. 7
  30. ^ Seirawan 2003, pp. 5–7
  31. ^ Silman 2007, p. 191
  32. ^ Müller & Lamprecht 2001, p. 18
  33. ^ Kurzdorfer 2003, p. 155
  34. ^ Müller & Lamprecht 2001, p. 19
  35. ^ Howell 1997, p. 138
  36. ^ Silman 2007, pp. 33,188
  37. ^ Roycroft 1972, p. 246
  38. ^ Burgess 2009, p. 16
  39. ^ Hooper & Whyld 1992, pp. 358–59
  40. ^ Hooper & Whyld 1992, p. 143
  41. ^ Timman vs. Short
  42. ^ Hooper & Whyld 1992, p. 376
  43. ^ Emms 2004, p. 122
  44. ^ "Nogueiras vs. Gongora". Chessgames.com. 2005-02-08. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  45. ^ Snape 2003, p. 55
  46. ^ Pandolfini 2009, p. 63
  47. ^ Just & Burg 2003, pp. 49,291
  48. ^ Speelman, Tisdall & Wade 1993, p. 11
  49. ^ a b Pandolfini 2009, p. 59
  50. ^ Fine 1941, pp. 5–6