Cheddi Jagan

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Cheddi Jagan
President Cheddi Jagan.png
4th President of Guyana
In office
9 October 1992 – 6 March 1997
Prime Minister Sam Hinds
Preceded by Desmond Hoyte
Succeeded by Sam Hinds
Personal details
Born Cheddi Berret Jagan
(1918-03-22)22 March 1918
Port Mourant, Guyana
Died 6 March 1997(1997-03-06) (aged 78)
Washington, D.C., United States
Political party People's Progressive Party
Spouse(s) Janet Rosenberg (1943-1997; his death); 2 children
Alma mater Howard University
Religion Hinduism
Signature
Cheddi Jagan meeting with Levi Eshkol during a visit to Israel in 1961

Cheddi Berret Jagan (22 March 1918 – 6 March 1997) was a Guyanese politician who was first elected Chief Minister in 1953 and later Premier of British Guiana from 1961 to 1964, prior to independence. He later served as President of Guyana from 1992 to 1997. He is widely regarded in Guyana as the "Father of the Nation".[1]

Early life[edit]

Cheddi Berret Jagan was born on 22 March 1918 in Port Mourant, a rural village in the county of Berbice (now part of modern-day Guyana), the eldest of 11 children born to parents who came from India to British Guiana as indentured labourers. His mother Bachaoni, and his father Jagan, along with two grandmothers and an uncle, were brought from Uttar Pradesh, India, in 1901. His family grew up in rural poverty and worked in the cane fields to support themselves. By the age of 15, Jagan's father wanted to make sure his son attended school and sent him to Queen's College in the capital city of Georgetown, about 100 miles away, for the next three years. In Georgetown Jagan saw life differently, coming as he did from a poor background. After he graduated from high school, finding a job was almost impossible. Finally his father decided to send him to the United States to study dentistry at Howard University in Washington, D.C.[citation needed]

Stay in the USA[edit]

Jagan left for the United States in September 1936 with two friends and did not return to British Guiana until October 1943. He lived in Washington D.C. for two years and attended Howard University, taking a pre-dental course, worked two summers in New York, and spent the last five years in Chicago at Northwestern University. At school, he was a dedicated student, and his hard work earned him a free tuition scholarship for his second year at Howard and in 1938 entry into Northwestern for a four-year dental program.

Political career[edit]

He was elected to the colonial legislative body, the Legislative Council, in November 1947 as an independent candidate from Central Demerara constituency. On 1 January 1950, the People's Progressive Party (PPP) was founded, with Jagan as its Leader, Forbes Burnham as its Chairman and Jagan's wife Janet as Secretary.[2]

Jagan won in a colonially administered election in 1953. However, Winston Churchill was alarmed by Jagan's unabashed Marxism-Leninism, and was convinced Jagan could allow the Soviet Union a foothold in Latin America. There was strong behind-the-scenes pressure from the United States, and the CIA asserted that he had ties to the Soviet Union. This prompted a British military intervention only days after his victory.[3] Jagan resigned as British Guiana prime minister after 133 days. Britain suspended the constitution and chose an interim government. Jagan's movements were restricted to Georgetown from 1954 to 1957. After a PPP victory in the August 1961 election, Jagan became Chief Minister for a second time, serving for three years. In the December 1964 election, the PPP won a plurality of votes, but Burnham's party, the People's National Congress, and the conservative United Force were nevertheless invited to form the government.[2]

Having broken off links with Burnham, Jagan was active in the government as a labor activist and leader of the opposition. After 28 years in opposition, the PPP won the 5 October 1992 election with about 54% of the vote, and Jagan became President. By this time, he had long since abandoned Marxism-Leninism and recast himself as a democratic socialist.[4]

Jagan suffered a heart attack on 15 February 1997 and was taken to Georgetown Hospital before being flown by U.S. military aircraft[5] to Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D.C., later that day.[1][5] He underwent heart surgery there and died in Washington on 6 March 1997. Prime Minister Sam Hinds succeeded him as President and declared six days of mourning, describing Jagan as the "greatest son and patriot that has ever walked this land".[1]

Family[edit]

He married Janet (née Rosenberg) in 1943, and the couple had two children, Nadira and Cheddi Jr. (who in turn produced five grandchildren).

Janet Jagan followed her husband's footsteps and held the positions of prime minister and president in 1997 (succeeded as president by Bharrat Jagdeo in 1999).

Legacy[edit]

The Cheddi Jagan Research Centre in Georgetown celebrates his life and work, complete with a replication of his office.

Cheddi Jagan Presidential Standard

Selected publications[edit]

Jagan was also an important political author and speechwriter, and his publications include:

  • Forbidden Freedom: The Story of British Guiana (Hansib, 1954)
  • The West On Trial: My Fight for Guyana's Freedom (Harpy, 1966)
  • The Caribbean Revolution (1979)
  • The Caribbean: Whose Backyard? (1984)
  • Selected Speeches 1992-1994 (Hansib, 1995)
  • The USA in South America (Hansib, 1998)
  • A New Global Human Order (Harpy, 1999)
  • Selected Correspondences 1953-1965 (Dido Press, 2004)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Larry Rohter, "Cheddi Jagan, Guyana's Founder, Dies at 78", The New York Times, 7 March 1997.
  2. ^ a b History of the PPP, PPP website.
  3. ^ The Suspension of the British Guiana Constitution - 1953 (Declassified British documents)
  4. ^ "Cheddi Jagan Elected As Guyana's President", The New York Times, 8 October 1992.
  5. ^ a b "In the Americas", The Miami Herald (nl.newsbank.com), 16 February 1997.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Office established
Chief Minister of Guyana
1953
Succeeded by
Office abolished
Preceded by
Office established
Premier of Guyana
1961-1964
Succeeded by
Forbes Burnham