Cheiracanthium

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Yellow sac spider
Cheiracanthium mildei male.jpg
C. mildei
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Family: Miturgidae
Genus: Cheiracanthium
C. L. Koch, 1839
Species

C. inclusum
C. japonicum
C. lawrencei
C. mildei
C. mordax
C. punctorium
C. socotrense
C. virescens
many more

Diversity
194 species

Cheiracanthium is a genus of spiders in the Miturgidae family. Certain species are commonly known as the "yellow sac spider".

Description[edit]

Cheiracanthium are usually pale in colour, and have an abdomen that can range from yellow to beige. Both sexes range in size from 5 to 10 mm. Some yellow sac spiders are attracted to the smell of volatiles in gasoline.[1] They are the only species of all "common house spiders" whose tarsae do not point either outward (like Tegenaria) or inward (like Araneus), and are therefore easy to identify on first sight.

Distribution[edit]

Cheiracanthium is primarily an Old World genus, with many species found from northern Europe to Japan, from Southern Africa to India and Australia. The only known species in the New World are C. inclusum and C. mildei. While the former also occurs in Africa and Réunion, the latter is found in the Holarctic region and Argentina. They can also be found in the lower mainland of British Columbia, Canada [2]

Venom[edit]

Cheiracanthium venom is purportedly necrotic, and it could cause a small lesion in humans. However, the necrotic nature and severity of the spider's bite has been disputed.[3] Because of the possibly necrotic nature of the wound, MRSA infection is a danger and victims are advised to seek medical treatment. Painful bites may be incurred from such species as C. punctorium in Europe, C. mildei in Europe and North America, C. inclusum in the Americas, C. lawrencei in South Africa and C. japonicum in Japan.[4]

Attraction to vehicle engines[edit]

An unspecified Cheiracanthium species is attracted to the smell of petroleum and has caused problems by weaving webs inside the canister vent of particular models of Mazda vehicles, resulting in blockages and build-up of pressure that could potentially cause fuel leakage from the fuel tank and an increased risk of fire. Mazda issued a voluntary recall of Mazda 6 models built between 2010-2012, to fit them with software which would alert drivers if problems were developing.[5]

Schematic male of Cheiracanthium
a) claws
b) tarsus
c) metatarsus
d) tibia
e) patella
f) femur
g) trochanter
h) coxa
i) palp
k) dorns
m) prosoma (cephalothorax)
n) opisthosoma (abdomen)
o) spinnerets

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gas-loving spider prompts Mazda recall in U.S.". Reuters. March 4, 2011. 
  2. ^ Platnick 2007
  3. ^ Vetter RS, Isbister GK, Bush SP, Boutin LJ. (2006) Verified bites by yellow sac spiders (genus Cheiracanthium) in the United States and Australia: where is the necrosis? Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 74(6), pp. 1043-1048
  4. ^ Natural History Museum: Exotic sac spider, Cheiracanthium
  5. ^ "Spider invasion prompts Mazda software fix". BBC. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.